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Sustainability, Volume 11, Issue 18 (September-2 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Welfare Economic Analysis of Lifting Water Subsidies for Banana Farms in Jordan
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5118; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185118 (registering DOI) - 19 Sep 2019
Abstract
Jordan is one of the four driest countries in the world. Due to rapid population growth, water demand distinctly exceeds supply. The tariff to cover operations and maintenance (OM) and depreciation costs will be JD 0.066 per cubic meter (1 JD = 1.41 [...] Read more.
Jordan is one of the four driest countries in the world. Due to rapid population growth, water demand distinctly exceeds supply. The tariff to cover operations and maintenance (OM) and depreciation costs will be JD 0.066 per cubic meter (1 JD = 1.41 US$) if billing and collection efficiencies were able to reach 100 percent. The current charges of irrigation water in the Jordan Valley are JD 0.011/M3.This study aims at evaluating the effect of lifting the irrigation water subsidy for bananas in the Jordan Valley on the producers’ income, the consumers’ expenditure, the government’s budget, and Jordanian society. The total area planted with banana trees in 2017 was 1533 ha producing about 73.9 thousand tons of bananas. Previous studies have focused on evaluating the effect of input subsidies on prices and quantities, while in this study we evaluate the monetary effect on lifting these subsidies. A partial market equilibrium model, which evaluates the consumer surplus and producer surplus, was used to analyze the welfare effect of lifting the subsidies for irrigation water for the banana farms in Jordan. All the relevant players in the irrigated banana sector in Jordan were analyzed in this study including: producers, consumers, taxpayers, and society. Welfare economic instruments such as consumer surplus, producer surplus, and economic efficiency have been applied in the analysis. The government revenue will increase during the selected years by JD 3.1 million, JD 4.5 million and JD 3.8 million respectively. The dead weight loss during the three years will be JD 23.2 thousand, JD 44.3 thousand and JD 38.6 thousand respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Drought on the Phenology, Growth, and Morphological Development of Three Urban Tree Species and Cultivars
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5117; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185117 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
: Under changing climatic conditions, drought may become a critical constraint for trees in urban areas, particularly at roadsides and highly paved squares. As healthy urban trees have proven to be an important mitigation and adaptation tool for climate change as well as [...] Read more.
: Under changing climatic conditions, drought may become a critical constraint for trees in urban areas, particularly at roadsides and highly paved squares. As healthy urban trees have proven to be an important mitigation and adaptation tool for climate change as well as a significant provider of ecosystem services, there is a need for planting species and cultivars capable of coping with the limited water supply. However, data on species’ and cultivars’ response to drought, particularly their water supplying root systems remains rare. To consider the whole plant responses to drought situations, we studied the growth and phenology of three frequently planted tree species and cultivars with a diameter of 5–6 cm during a one-year rainfall exclusion experiment conducted in a nursery field as well as the dry biomass of the compartments branch, stem, and root after excavation. Our results revealed that species’ and cultivars’ performance were linked to their within-plant carbon partitioning. A high tolerance to drought was noted for Acer campestre, with a particularly high ratio of root:shoot ratio, which made it presumably less susceptible to droughts. Tilia cordata ‘Greenspire’ was highly affected by the reduced water availability visible through prematurely leaf senescence, while Carpinus betulus ‘Fastigiata’ suffered from losing a considerable part of its root biomass, which resulted in the lowest root:shoot ratio of all species and cultivars. This study demonstrated the need for investigating the reaction patterns of species and cultivars by considering both the above-and the below-ground plant parts. We recommend that, for future tree plantings at harsh and challenging urban sites, an important selection criterion should be species’ and cultivars’ capability to develop and retain strong and dense root systems even under limited water supply, as that is believed to be an important trait for drought tolerance. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Management of Carbon Sequestration Service in Areas with High Development Pressure: Considering Land Use Changes and Carbon Costs
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5116; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185116 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
In countries and regions where development projects are frequently implemented, there is a significant change in the value of carbon sequestration services according to land use and land cover (LULC) changes. In this study, we analyzed the changes in the carbon sequestration services [...] Read more.
In countries and regions where development projects are frequently implemented, there is a significant change in the value of carbon sequestration services according to land use and land cover (LULC) changes. In this study, we analyzed the changes in the carbon sequestration services which occurred due to the LULC changes over a 20 years period (1989–2009) in Korea where local development projects have been active, since 1990s. As a result, the total carbon stocks decreased by about 0.07 billion t C. Significant changes in the carbon stocks mostly occurred in areas where development projects were frequently implemented. The loss of economic value due to the changes in carbon stocks over 20 years was 4.7 trillion won (4159 million USD) when market price of carbon is applied. Therefore, in countries and regions where there is an active development, it is necessary to monitor the land-use changes with high carbon stocks, to reconsider the value of the carbon when making policy decisions which cause LULC changes, and to internalize social costs into the market prices. Especially at a local level, it is necessary to promote management policy based on carbon sequestration services in accordance with local conditions such as size and types of the changes in carbon stocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
Open AccessArticle
The Emergence of Mobility Inequality in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia: A Socio-Spatial Analysis of Path Dependencies in Transport–Land Use Policies
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5115; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185115 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
Despite numerous studies suggesting a path-dependent relationship between transport–land use policies and urban structures, particularly on the emergence of car-oriented development, this connection has rarely been explained with spatial evidence. To address this gap, this paper investigated the historical and spatial urban transformation [...] Read more.
Despite numerous studies suggesting a path-dependent relationship between transport–land use policies and urban structures, particularly on the emergence of car-oriented development, this connection has rarely been explained with spatial evidence. To address this gap, this paper investigated the historical and spatial urban transformation of Greater Jakarta from three different time periods to understand today’s extensive use of and dependence on private vehicles. This study applied a multi-method approach of (1) historical literature review, (2) computational analysis of the street network using space syntax, and (3) visual analysis of video recordings to allow for a comprehensive insight into the socio-spatial aspects of urbanization as a path-dependent course. The findings indicate that Jakarta’s pedestrian network has been diminishing over time against the well-connected vehicular network. Furthermore, the remaining potential for walking cannot be actualized due to walking inconveniences at the street level. This suggests mobility inequality, since access to citywide urban functions is highly dependent on the access to private vehicles. It also provides spatial evidence that previous policies have had a long-term impact on socio-spatial structures. This paper contributes not only scientific reference for transport and mobility studies in the Southeast Asia region, but also a practical reference for urban planners and policy-makers on how to achieve sustainable development goals and to provide equal access for all. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Interdisciplinary Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle
A Model-Based Estimation of Resource Use Efficiencies in Maize Production in Nigeria
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5114; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185114 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
Food security is an increasingly serious problem worldwide, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. As land and resources are limited and environmental problems caused by agriculture are worsening, more efficient ways to use the resources available must be found. The objective of this study [...] Read more.
Food security is an increasingly serious problem worldwide, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. As land and resources are limited and environmental problems caused by agriculture are worsening, more efficient ways to use the resources available must be found. The objective of this study was to display the spatial variability in crop yield and resource use efficiencies across Nigeria and to give recommendations for improvement. Based on simulations from the crop model LINTUL5 we analyzed the influence of fertilizer application on the parameters Water Use Efficiency (WUE), Fertilizer Use Efficiency (FUE), and Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) in maize. High spatial variability was observed, especially between the north and the south of the country. The highest potential for yield improvement was found in the south. While WUE and RUE increased with higher rates of fertilizer application, FUE decreased with higher rates. In order to improve these resource use efficiencies, we suggest optimizing management strategies, demand-oriented fertilizer application, and breeding for efficient traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
Open AccessArticle
Reading Habits, Socioeconomic Conditions, Occupational Aspiration and Academic Achievement in Vietnamese Junior High School Students
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5113; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185113 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
Reading practices play an important role in the learning process of students. Especially in a fast-changing world where knowledge about nature and society is in a constant state of flux, book reading helps students foster skills such as thinking, valuing, adaptability and creativity [...] Read more.
Reading practices play an important role in the learning process of students. Especially in a fast-changing world where knowledge about nature and society is in a constant state of flux, book reading helps students foster skills such as thinking, valuing, adaptability and creativity for sustainable development. This research study used a dataset of 1676 observations of junior high school students from Northern Vietnam to explore students’ academic achievement and its association with their reading passion, family socio economic condition, parental education and occupational aspiration. The empirical results show that higher grades in STEM-related subjects are predicted by reading interest (βReadbook = 0.425, p < 0.0001), with students who love reading books achieve higher score than those who take no interest in books. Remarkably, the education level of the mother strongly enhances academic performance, with β = 0.721 (p < 0.0001) in cases of mother having a university diploma or higher. Students coming from wealthy families are more likely to buy books whereas borrowing from the library is the main source of books for students who grow up in not-rich families. However, even among wealthy families, investment into buying books still rely more on personal interest, despite the aforementioned educational benefits of book reading, as evidenced by an over 7 percentage point disparity between the likelihood of purchasing books among wealthy-family students who took an interest in reading (45%) versus students of the same background who did not like to read (38.7%). The results present implications for education policy making with a vision towards United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal 4: Quality Education. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Demand Function for Industrial Electricity: Evidence from South Korean Manufacturing Sector
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5112; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185112 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
Electricity is a crucial input to the industrial production of South Korea. Estimating the demand function for electricity in the manufacturing sector is an important task because electricity consumption in the manufacturing sector accounts for 56.3% of total electricity consumption in South Korea. [...] Read more.
Electricity is a crucial input to the industrial production of South Korea. Estimating the demand function for electricity in the manufacturing sector is an important task because electricity consumption in the manufacturing sector accounts for 56.3% of total electricity consumption in South Korea. Thus, this article tries to estimate the demand function for industrial electricity in the manufacturing sector of South Korea using cross-sectional data for analyzing the influence of manufacturing firms’ characteristics. To this end, 946 observations collected from a nationwide survey of manufacturing firms in 2018 are used and analyzed. As a robust approach, the least absolute deviations estimation method is applied to obtaining the demand function. The results show that the price elasticity and the sales amount elasticity of the industrial electricity demand are estimated to be −0.9206 and 0.2568, respectively, which are statistically significant at the 1% level. Furthermore, the economic benefits of industrial electricity consumption are computed to be 1.46 times as great as the price of electricity. The results of this study can be utilized in policy planning, making, and evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
Open AccessArticle
Ambidexterity in External Knowledge Search Strategies and Innovation Performance: Mediating Role of Balanced Innovation and Moderating Role of Absorptive Capacity
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5111; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185111 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
The importance of external knowledge acquisition for innovation by firms is well established. In particular, there has been an increasing focus on the two distinct modes of firms’ external search strategies, which have a differential effect on their learning and innovation: search breadth [...] Read more.
The importance of external knowledge acquisition for innovation by firms is well established. In particular, there has been an increasing focus on the two distinct modes of firms’ external search strategies, which have a differential effect on their learning and innovation: search breadth and depth. By applying organizational ambidexterity lens, we hypothesize that pursuing high levels of both external search strategies is beneficial to achieve a balance between exploitative and explorative innovation, which, in turn, has a positive impact on the firm’s innovation performance. We also hypothesize that, even among the firms that maintain high levels of both search strategies, firms with higher absorptive capacity better achieve a balance between both modes of innovation, thereby producing higher performance. The findings on a multi-industry sample of Koran manufacturing firms confirm our hypotheses and imply that it is essential for firms to develop capabilities for different modes of external search activities in conjunction with internal absorptive capacity for superior innovation performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in 2nd IT Revolution with Dynamic Open Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Financial Sustainability of China’s New Rural Pension Plan: Does the Demographic Policy Reform Matter?
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5110; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185110 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
Rural China is experiencing a rapid aging process caused by low fertility and large-scale rural-to-urban migration, which will place an increasing payment burden on the rural pension plan. To allay the negative impact of the aging transition, China has recently carried out a [...] Read more.
Rural China is experiencing a rapid aging process caused by low fertility and large-scale rural-to-urban migration, which will place an increasing payment burden on the rural pension plan. To allay the negative impact of the aging transition, China has recently carried out a demographic policy reform, replacing the famous one-child policy with the two-child policy. This paper evaluates the impacts of the demographic policy reform on the financial sustainability of China’s New Rural Pension Plan (NRPP). By applying the cohort component population projection method and building actuarial models, the solvency sustainability of the NRPP between 2019 and 2080 is estimated under six demographic policy scenarios, followed by sensitivity analysis. The simulation results show that under the one-child policy, the current and the accumulated pension fund would run deficits in 2030 and 2042, and then the pension deficits would expand rapidly. The two-child policy would relieve the pension pressure moderately before 2075, but thereafter, the pension deficits would become much worse. Sensitivity analysis of a series of demographics and pension parameters on the financial sustainability of the NRPP are displayed. On average, the long-term pension gap may not be avoided for the NRPP, regardless of raising the contribution rate, delaying the retirement age, or encouraging people to have more children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Social Policy)
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Open AccessArticle
Computational Thinking and Robotics: A Teaching Experience in Compulsory Secondary Education with Students with High Degree of Apathy and Demotivation
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5109; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185109 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
In present and future society, all individuals must be able to face the problems, risks, advantages and opportunities that will arrive with new paradigms in the labour market, social relations and technology. To reach this goal, a quality and inclusive education together with [...] Read more.
In present and future society, all individuals must be able to face the problems, risks, advantages and opportunities that will arrive with new paradigms in the labour market, social relations and technology. To reach this goal, a quality and inclusive education together with a proper and complete formation in technology (communications, robotics, programming, computational thinking (CT), etc.) must be imparted at all educational levels. Moreover, all individuals should have the same opportunities to develop their skills and knowledge, as stated in Goal 4 of the Sustainable Development Goals, Sustainable Education. Following this trend, in the present work, a practical experience about how to teach CT using robotics is developed, showing the results and evaluation of the lessons on robotics taught to students in their 4th year of compulsory secondary education, and where the students showed a high degree of apathy and demotivation. The teaching unit was based on an action research approach that includes a careful selection of pedagogical techniques and instruments to attract and keep the attention and interest of the students. In addition to the robotics lessons, a previous computational thinking training with Blockly Games was carried out, which contributed to noticeably increase the students motivation and to introduce them to the programming of robots. Moreover, gamification was used to motivate and evaluate the individual knowledge, and the students were required to present the work performed through a final project. The individual needs of the students were fulfilled with a daily monitoring. The results show that the pedagogical techniques, instruments and evaluation were adequate to increase the motivation of the students and to obtain a significant learning, showing how the teaching of CT may attract students that have lost interest and motivation, while providing them with abilities that will be essential for the learning throughout life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology & Engineering Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Transportation Efficiency Evaluation Considering the Environmental Impact for China’s Freight Sector: A Parallel Data Envelopment Analysis
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5108; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185108 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
The freight sector is an important component of China’s national economy. It is composed of multiple sub-sectors and has a complex internal structure. This internal structure can hide information on the freight sector’s operational performance. Previous studies on transportation operational performance made measurements [...] Read more.
The freight sector is an important component of China’s national economy. It is composed of multiple sub-sectors and has a complex internal structure. This internal structure can hide information on the freight sector’s operational performance. Previous studies on transportation operational performance made measurements based on the whole transportation sector, and all of these studies ignored the impacts that the internal structure of the sub-sectors have on performance, which leaves a gap in the research. To illustrate this structure, this study proposes a parallel slacks-based measure model to measure transportation efficiency, which can represent the freight sector’s operational performance. The efficiencies of transportation operations for the whole freight sector and its three sub-sectors are further measured, by treating the sub-sectors as parallel subunits. Then, the inefficiency sources from the sub-sectors can be identified by the proposed model. To detect the environmental impact on transportation operations, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are also considered in the evaluation. On the basis of the proposed approach, an application of the Chinese freight sector from 2013 to 2017 is provided. The impacts of influential factors on transportation efficiency are also explored. The empirical findings can be illustrated as follows: (1) there exist significant disparities in regional transportation efficiencies in the freight sector and its sub-sectors; (2) the inefficient transportation performance of the Chinese freight sector mainly derives from the poor performance of the waterway sub-sector; and (3) freight volume and population density have positive impacts on the transportation efficiencies of the railway and highway sub-sectors. Finally, some policies for improving transportation efficiency are also provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Technical Efficiency of French Regional Airports and Low-Cost Carrier Terminals
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5107; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185107 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
In France, the regional airport’s demand for services is facing challenges due to the continuous expansion of the high-speed train, high-speed line, and highway networks. This study focuses on the viability of regional airports in France through technical efficiency using data envelopment, principle [...] Read more.
In France, the regional airport’s demand for services is facing challenges due to the continuous expansion of the high-speed train, high-speed line, and highway networks. This study focuses on the viability of regional airports in France through technical efficiency using data envelopment, principle component analysis, Malmquist productivity index, and regression analysis using bootstrapping. To face the current competitive environment, the regional airports in France adopted strategies, such as the construction of low-cost carrier (LCC)-dedicated terminals (LCCTs) with lower expenses to attract more LCCs, increasing non-aeronautical revenue, and hosting regional hubs of LCCs. This is the first study that analyzes all of the French regional airports. The findings indicate that the existence of LCCTs positively affects technical efficiency on the airport’s performance, and share of LCCs at a regional airport leads to neither the efficiency nor the profit level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainability: Airport Risk Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Evaluation Model Framework for Cost-Optimal Evaluation of Prefabricated Lightweight System Envelopes in the Early Design Phase
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5106; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185106 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
This paper proposes an extended comparative evaluation model framework (ECEMF) that highlights two objectives: (1) a specific economic evaluation method for the cost-optimisation of prefabricated lightweight system envelopes to achieve a greater value of the building, and (2) a comparative evaluation model framework [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an extended comparative evaluation model framework (ECEMF) that highlights two objectives: (1) a specific economic evaluation method for the cost-optimisation of prefabricated lightweight system envelopes to achieve a greater value of the building, and (2) a comparative evaluation model framework usable by different profiles of stakeholders, when adopting the decision on the most optimal envelope type in the early design phase. Based on the proposed framework, the analysis was conducted for the case study building representing a small single-family house located in Slovenia. The methodology applied is based on the life cycle cost (LCC) including construction, operation, maintenance, and refurbishment costs, but excluding dismantling, disposal, and reuse, for the period of 50 years’ lifetime of the building which combines the Building Information Modelling (BIM) with Value for Money (VfM) assessment. To exploit the automated evaluation process in the computing environment, several tools were used, including Archicad for BIM in combination with Legep software for LCC. On one hand, the model confirms the assumption that the optimal value parameters of a building do not only depend on the typical costs related to high-performance buildings. On the other hand, from the stakeholders’ view, the model enables the choice of the optimal solution regarding the envelope type to be made in the early design phase. In this view, the model could function as an important decision tool, with a direct economic impact on the value. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Neuroscientific Approach to Explore Consumers’ Intentions Towards Sustainability within the Luxury Fashion Industry
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5105; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185105 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
Little is presently known about customers’ expectations and the unspoken relevant factors which lead them to prefer or not sustainable luxury products. This study aimed to deepen the understanding of luxury consumers’ implicit intentions towards sustainability by using, for the first time, a [...] Read more.
Little is presently known about customers’ expectations and the unspoken relevant factors which lead them to prefer or not sustainable luxury products. This study aimed to deepen the understanding of luxury consumers’ implicit intentions towards sustainability by using, for the first time, a neuroscientific approach applied to the luxury fashion domain. A greater cortical activity related to cognitive and emotional aspects was hypothesized for luxury sustainability-oriented consumers than for non-sustainability-oriented subjects when presented with sustainability-related cues. Sixteen luxury consumers were divided into two groups according to their sensitivity towards sustainability issues. They were asked to observe a set of 10 stimuli depicting sustainability issues and then to interact with a salesperson while their cortical activity was recorded by an electroencephalogram (EEG). Frequency band analysis revealed higher levels of beta, delta, and theta band EEG activity in temporoparietal than frontocentral areas when observing pictures related to sustainability and a specific right temporoparietal theta band activation for the Nonsustainable Group. An increased level of knowledge of sustainability themes was confirmed by the correct detection of stimuli valence and a significant presence of delta power when the salesperson explained the brand’s sustainable policy. The specific brain responses related to sensitivity towards sustainability and the different effect of knowledge on sustainability topics based on group differences are discussed here in light of emotional behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychology of Sustainability and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainability Literacy in a Time of Socio-Ecological Crisis: Using Reaccreditation as a Leverage Point for Innovation in Higher Education
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5104; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185104 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
This article presents a case study of innovation in sustainability education in higher education. It does so by explaining the to-date progress of a multi-year reaccreditation process begun in 2016 for the College of Charleston (CofC), a public liberal arts and sciences university [...] Read more.
This article presents a case study of innovation in sustainability education in higher education. It does so by explaining the to-date progress of a multi-year reaccreditation process begun in 2016 for the College of Charleston (CofC), a public liberal arts and sciences university in Charleston, South Carolina of approximately 10,000 undergraduates and 1300 graduate students. The question addressed is how can a higher education institute strategically embed sustainability literacy that is focused on social/environmental engagement, in a way that contributes to measurable student learning gains? We argue that the leverage point of institutional reaccreditation provides a strategic entryway into embedding such sustainability across curricular and co-curricular settings in innovative capacities. We do so by discussing how sustainability education was implemented into a co-curricular civic engagement program, alternative break, to build students’ sustainability literacy at the College of Charleston. The article concludes by reflecting on lessons learned at CofC on how to use institutional reaccreditation as a driver of sustainability education through civic engagement in an era of socio-ecological collapse. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Factors Affecting Car Sharing Use Intention in the Southeast-Asia Region: A Case Study in Java, Indonesia
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5103; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185103 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
This paper provides some insight into factors influencing the car sharing adoption and usage in Southeast-Asian developing countries like Indonesia, where car sharing is just emerging and so far, not effectively existent. This study uses an internet survey of 600 Indonesian respondents to [...] Read more.
This paper provides some insight into factors influencing the car sharing adoption and usage in Southeast-Asian developing countries like Indonesia, where car sharing is just emerging and so far, not effectively existent. This study uses an internet survey of 600 Indonesian respondents to examine how underlying factors, such as perceived benefits of car sharing related to convenience and cost-saving aspects, perceived risks and burdens of car ownership, and perceived values of car ownership as societal status can influence their intention to use car sharing. The results of the ordered logit models reveal that car sharing use intention is influenced by perceived benefits of car sharing and perceived values of car ownership as societal status. Among demographic attributes, income level has a positive effect on car sharing use intention. The implications and proper interpretations in the interplay among them can provide a useful guide to city transportation planners and business owners who attempt to promote car sharing schemes in the Southeast-Asian market like Indonesia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nonlinear Predictive Control for a Boiler–Turbine Unit Based on a Local Model Network and Immune Genetic Algorithm
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5102; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185102 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
This paper proposes a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy based on a local model network (LMN) and a heuristic optimization method to solve the control problem for a nonlinear boiler–turbine unit. First, the LMN model of the boiler–turbine unit is identified by [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy based on a local model network (LMN) and a heuristic optimization method to solve the control problem for a nonlinear boiler–turbine unit. First, the LMN model of the boiler–turbine unit is identified by using a data-driven modeling method and converted into a time-varying global predictor. Then, the nonlinear constrained optimization problem for the predictive control is solved online by a specially designed immune genetic algorithm (IGA), which calculates the optimal control law at each sampling instant. By introducing an adaptive terminal cost in the objective function and utilizing local fictitious controllers to improve the initial population of IGA, the proposed NMPC can guarantee the system stability while the computational complexity is reduced since a shorter prediction horizon can be adopted. The effectiveness of the proposed NMPC is validated by simulations on a 500 MW coal-fired boiler–turbine unit. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Making Food Rescue Your Business: Case Studies in Germany
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5101; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185101 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
Initiatives of the European Union in the context of food waste running governmental and nonprofit campaigns strive to reach waste reduction goals. The study investigated entrepreneurial business models in the arena of food waste in Germany with a multiple case study research approach. [...] Read more.
Initiatives of the European Union in the context of food waste running governmental and nonprofit campaigns strive to reach waste reduction goals. The study investigated entrepreneurial business models in the arena of food waste in Germany with a multiple case study research approach. Business entrepreneurs seek to reduce waste through its monetarization. After the initial identification of close to all current entrepreneurial businesses, ten entrepreneurs in retail, processing, and food service were interviewed to determine barriers and challenges to the models’ success and analyze their motivation to start these businesses. The most important barriers constituted logistical problems regarding supply as well as marketing; and the need for close collaboration with suppliers constituted another important challenge. Their motivations combine sustainability-oriented goals with a profit goal. To scale up, an increase in collaboration and data exchange is needed across the supply chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marketing of Sustainable Food and Drink)
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Open AccessArticle
Applying an Extended Theory of Planned Behavior for Sustaining a Landscape Restaurant
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5100; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185100 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
This paper extended the theory of planning behavior (ETPB) to examine the antecedents of consumer behavioral intention in order to explore the sustainable factors of a landscape restaurant. Following theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the related literature for landscape perception and preference, [...] Read more.
This paper extended the theory of planning behavior (ETPB) to examine the antecedents of consumer behavioral intention in order to explore the sustainable factors of a landscape restaurant. Following theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the related literature for landscape perception and preference, we initially developed a preliminary list of items, and after the expert review and pre-test, we employed a 33-item measure under a five-factor structure and collected a total of 395 valid questionnaires. The empirical results show that landscape perception and preference (LP&P), attitude (AT), subjective norm (SN), and perceived behavior control (PBC) have positive impacts, among which LP&P has the most significantly positive impact on consumer behavioral intention. Thus, ETPB helps contribute to the decision-making model of landscape restaurants. Lastly, we discuss managerial implications and future research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Calculation of the Risk of Lawsuits over Construction Flaws in Flat Roofs
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5099; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185099 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
In order to achieve sustainability objectives in the use of a building, its elements’ operating problems should be minimized. From this premise, a total of 497 cases related to construction flaws in flat roofs were analyzed in this research. A matrix was developed [...] Read more.
In order to achieve sustainability objectives in the use of a building, its elements’ operating problems should be minimized. From this premise, a total of 497 cases related to construction flaws in flat roofs were analyzed in this research. A matrix was developed indicating the risk of lawsuits by owners according to the degree of nuisance resulting from the construction flaws studied, their technical importance, and the type of pathological origin. Based on these factors, it is possible to predict a greater or lesser probability of an owner filing a lawsuit—risk factor (F). A wide range was found for this probability, with the largest value being 865 times greater than the smallest value. The value of F was divided into 5 categories to classify the diverse results obtained and determine the number of cases and interrelations ascribed to each category. Additionally, the level of presence of said cases was calculated through the analysis of 3 different demographic aspects, it being noted that a greater purchasing power and a higher concentration of urban population lead to more stringent requirements and, subsequently, to a greater number of lawsuits. With all these results, building quality can be improved while resulting in greater constructive-financial sustainability and in a reduction of the economic resources required of society (fewer lawsuits and associated human resources). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Taxonomic Assessment of Transition to the Green Economy in Polish Regions
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5098; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185098 (registering DOI) - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
In this paper, an aggregate indicator of a regional green economy (Regional Green Economy Index—RGEI) was proposed and applied to assess the level of green economy in Polish regions and its changes in the period 2004–2016. The TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference [...] Read more.
In this paper, an aggregate indicator of a regional green economy (Regional Green Economy Index—RGEI) was proposed and applied to assess the level of green economy in Polish regions and its changes in the period 2004–2016. The TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) method was applied, which is one of the multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), widely used to assess the spatial diversity of socio-economic phenomena. Common reference values (ideal and anti-ideal solution) were used for variables for the entire study period. It allowed not only for creating a ranking of regions, but to assess progress towards the green economy as well. It was found that all regions of Poland made progress in this respect. Most importantly, the regions ranked the worst before Poland’s accession to the European Union, made substantial progress. It was stated as well that none among the studied regions had high values of all variables included in the aggregate index. The maximum value of the RGEI index was about 0.5, while the index range is [0,1]. Additionally, an important finding was the fact that the weights of all diagnostic variables obtained using information entropy method were about equal, which confirms the approach of researchers and institutions who do not use weighting in aggregate indicators for well-being or sustainable development—which means implicitly using equal weights. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
The Threats of North Korea’s Missile and Visitors’ International Conference Choice Behavior
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5097; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185097 - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
The popularity of hosting international conferences has increased, as their positive economic and social effects are now widely recognized. The Korean government selected the international conference industry as one of the new industry engines in propelling the economy. This study examines the factors [...] Read more.
The popularity of hosting international conferences has increased, as their positive economic and social effects are now widely recognized. The Korean government selected the international conference industry as one of the new industry engines in propelling the economy. This study examines the factors of participation in international conferences from the value perspective. To this end, a value-based adoption model (VAM) is employed to test our research model using empirical data. A total of 192 questionnaires which were acquired from International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS) 2017 in Seoul were coded for analysis. The research findings reveal that technical support, program usefulness, and perceived threats are predictors of perceived value with significant positive influence and, moreover, the perceived threats are affected by media exposure of North Korea missile threats. Perceived value is found to exert significant effects on revisit intention. The major contribution of the paper is to discuss both the practical and theoretical implications, providing information to destination marketers, and employing VAM in international conferences research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Teacher Profiles of Psychological Capital and Their Relationship with Burnout
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5096; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185096 - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
This study adopts a person-centered approach to identify the possible existence of different teacher profiles of psychological capital, according to the way in which its four components combine (efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience). The study aimed to examine whether the identified profiles differed [...] Read more.
This study adopts a person-centered approach to identify the possible existence of different teacher profiles of psychological capital, according to the way in which its four components combine (efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience). The study aimed to examine whether the identified profiles differed in their levels of burnout. In total, 1379 non-university teachers participated in the study. A latent profile analysis was performed using MPlus 7.11 software. Seven teaching profiles of psychological capital were identified, differing both quantitatively and qualitatively. The differences between the profiles in burnout were estimated using SPSS 26 software. Teachers with a profile of low psychological capital (i.e., low confidence of successfully completing challenging tasks—efficacy; lack of energy for establishing personal goals and working towards achieving them —hope; little tendency to make positive causal attributions and develop expectations of success—optimism; and low capacity to recover or emerge stronger from adverse situations—resilience) exhibited significantly higher levels of burnout. The lowest levels of burnout were found in the profile of high psychological capital (i.e., higher in efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience). These results suggest that teachers who can muster the four components of psychological capital are more protected against burnout. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Local Development and Protection of Nature in Coastal Zones: A Planning Study for the Sulcis Area (Sardinia, Italy)
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5095; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185095 - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
In 2008, the Council of the European Union adopted the “Protocol on Integrated Coastal Zone Management” (ICZM Protocol), then ratified by Decision No. 2010/631/EU. The ICZM Protocol defines integrated coastal zone management as a dynamic and flexible process that accounts for the relations [...] Read more.
In 2008, the Council of the European Union adopted the “Protocol on Integrated Coastal Zone Management” (ICZM Protocol), then ratified by Decision No. 2010/631/EU. The ICZM Protocol defines integrated coastal zone management as a dynamic and flexible process that accounts for the relations between coastal ecosystems and landscape as well as the activities and the uses that characterize coastal areas. Integrated management of coastal zones is still a critical process in terms of translating theory into practice. In this theoretical framework, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) helps to improve decision-making processes related to coastal spatial planning by integrating development goals and sustainability criteria. This study proposes a methodological approach concerning ICZM-based decision-making processes at the local level. The methodology is implemented in relation to three case studies concerning three towns located in southwest Sardinia. The results show a general consistency between the analyzed plans in terms of objectives and themes. Three specific issues are particularly relevant in terms of integration of economic and social objectives and sustainability goals, that is, relations between beach services and coastal ecosystems, protection of coastal ecosystems, and accessibility to the coastal zones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecosystem Services, Green Infrastructure and Spatial Planning)
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Open AccessArticle
Research Collaboration of Austrian and Indian Teenagers in the Context of Education for Sustainable Development
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5094; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185094 - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
Today’s environmental challenges have been determined and exacerbated by human behavior. It is imperative that education develops learning-settings that enable students to make their individual lifestyles more sustainable. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of the research-education-collaboration ‘AustrIndia-4QOL’ (Teenagers [...] Read more.
Today’s environmental challenges have been determined and exacerbated by human behavior. It is imperative that education develops learning-settings that enable students to make their individual lifestyles more sustainable. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of the research-education-collaboration ‘AustrIndia-4QOL’ (Teenagers from Austria and India Perform Research on Quality of Life) on the teenagers’ awareness of the importance of environmental aspects in regards to quality of life, and on their willingness to act towards more sustainable lifestyles. Therefore, the results from a collaboration via social media and from a collaboration with additional face-to-face workshops were analyzed. The question of whether an increased awareness or willingness to act is followed by a change of real action after the project was also investigated. The results indicate that conducting education for sustainable development requires long term educational engagement, and that unintended effects cannot be excluded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Benefits of Ryegrass on Multicontaminated Soils Part 1: Effects of Fertilizers on Bioavailability and Accumulation of Metals
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5093; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185093 - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
Effects of three phosphorus fertilizers on the shoot biomass and on the accumulation of alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metals in the shoots and roots of ryegrass were studied with two contaminated garden soils. Phosphates were added in sustainable quantities in order to [...] Read more.
Effects of three phosphorus fertilizers on the shoot biomass and on the accumulation of alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metals in the shoots and roots of ryegrass were studied with two contaminated garden soils. Phosphates were added in sustainable quantities in order to reduce the environmental availability of carcinogenic metals (e.g., Cd and Pb) and to enhance the bioavailability of alkali and alkaline earth metals as well as micronutrients needed by plants. Addition of Ca(H2PO4)2 was the most convenient way to (i) limit the concentration of Cd and Pb, (ii) keep constant the transfer of macro- and micronutrient from the soil to the ryegrass shoots, (iii) decrease the availability of metals, and (iv) increase the ratio values between potential Lewis acids and Cd or Pb in order to produce biosourced catalysis. For instance, the real phytoavailability was reduced by 27%–57% and 64.2%–94.8% for Cd and Pb, respectively. Interestingly, the real phytoavailability of Zn was the highest in the least contaminated soils. Even if soils were highly contaminated, no visual toxicity symptoms were recorded in the growing ryegrasses. This indicates that ryegrass is suitable for the revegetation of contaminated gardens. To promote the sustainable ryegrass production on contaminated soils for production of new organic fragrance and drugs in green processes according to REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals) regulation, two processes should be recommended: assisted phytostabilization of the elements, and then assisted phytoextraction by using chelators. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Congestion, Road Safety, and the Effectiveness of Public Policies in Urban Areas
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5092; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185092 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 65
Abstract
Congestion and road accidents are both considered essential challenges for sustainable mobility in large cities, but their relationship is only partially explored by the literature. In this paper, we empirically examine different public policies aimed at reducing urban traffic congestion but which may [...] Read more.
Congestion and road accidents are both considered essential challenges for sustainable mobility in large cities, but their relationship is only partially explored by the literature. In this paper, we empirically examine different public policies aimed at reducing urban traffic congestion but which may also have indirect effects on road accidents and casualties. We use data from 25 large urban areas in Spain for the period 2008–2017 and apply econometric methods to investigate how a variety of public policies do affect both negative externalities. Although the relationship between congestion and road safety is complex, we find that the promotion of certain modes of public transportation and the regulation of parking spaces may contribute to making cities more sustainable, both in terms of the time spent traveling and the probability of being affected by an accident. Considering whether policies addressing congestion improve or damage road safety as an indirect result is a useful approach for local policy-makers and planners in their attempt to get sustainable transportation outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation for Sustainable Cities)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comprehensive Thermal Comfort Analysis of the Cooling Effect of the Stand Fan Using Questionnaires and a Thermal Manikin
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5091; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185091 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 152
Abstract
In this study a quantitative analysis was performed on the effect on thermal comfort of the stand fan, a personal cooling device that creates local air currents. A total of 20 environmental conditions (indoor temperatures: 22, 24, 26, 28, and 30°C; fan modes: [...] Read more.
In this study a quantitative analysis was performed on the effect on thermal comfort of the stand fan, a personal cooling device that creates local air currents. A total of 20 environmental conditions (indoor temperatures: 22, 24, 26, 28, and 30°C; fan modes: off, low (L) mode, medium (M) mode, and high (H) mode) were analyzed using questionnaires on male and female subjects in their 20s and a thermal manikin test. The contents of the questionnaire consisted of items on thermal sensation, thermal comfort, thermal acceptability, and demands on changes to the air velocity. This step was accompanied by the thermal manikin test to analyze the convective heat transfer coefficient and cooling effect quantitatively by replicating the stand fan. Given that this study provides data on the cooling effect of the stand fan in quantitative values, it allows for a comparison of energy use with other cooling systems such as the air conditioner, and may be used as a primary data set for analysis of energy conservation rates. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Land Surface Deformation in Chagan Lake Region Using TCPInSAR
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5090; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185090 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 134
Abstract
Due to earthquakes and large-scale exploitation of oil, gas, groundwater, and coal energy, large-scope surface deformation has occurred in Songyuan City, Jilin Province, China, and it is posing a serious threat to sustainable development, including urban development, energy utilization, environmental protection, and construction [...] Read more.
Due to earthquakes and large-scale exploitation of oil, gas, groundwater, and coal energy, large-scope surface deformation has occurred in Songyuan City, Jilin Province, China, and it is posing a serious threat to sustainable development, including urban development, energy utilization, environmental protection, and construction to improve saline–alkali land. In this study, we selected the Chagan Lake region, which is located in Songyuan City, as our research area. Using temporarily coherent point synthetic aperture radar interferometry (TCPInSAR), we obtained a time series of land surface deformation and the deformation rate in this area from 20 ALOS PALSAR images from 2006 to 2010. The results showed that the deformation rate in the Chagan Lake region ranged from −46.7 mm/year to 41.7 mm/year during the monitoring period. In three typical land cover areas of the Chagan Lake region, the subsidence in the wetland area was larger than that in the saline–alkali area, while the highway experienced a small uplift. In addition, surface deformation in lakeside areas with or without dykes was different; however, as this was mainly affected by soil freeze–thaw cycles and changes in groundwater level, the deformation showed a negative correlation with temperature and precipitation. By monitoring and analyzing surface deformation, we can provide a data reference and scientific basis for sustainable ecological and economic development in the Chagan Lake region and adjacent areas. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A New Trend in the Space–Time Distribution of Cultivated Land Occupation for Construction in China and the Impact of Population Urbanization
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5089; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185089 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 146
Abstract
Rapid urbanization has brought huge development dividends to China. At the same time, its negative effects have aroused people’s attention. For example, a large amount of cultivated land has been occupied for urban expansion and construction. Using exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) and [...] Read more.
Rapid urbanization has brought huge development dividends to China. At the same time, its negative effects have aroused people’s attention. For example, a large amount of cultivated land has been occupied for urban expansion and construction. Using exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) and the spatial Durbin model (SDM), we analyzed the spatial distribution of cultivated land occupation for construction (CLOC) and its driving factors in 31 provinces in China from 2005 to 2016. The results indicated that (1) the CLOC rate presented a significant spatial clustering feature, and its distribution showed a new trend of “homogenization” after the year 2012; (2) as the core driving factor, the population urbanization rate significantly promoted the growth of the CLOC rate in the local province, while showing a negative effect on that rate in the neighboring provinces; (3) in addition, behind the new trend of the CLOC rate, there was a transformation from being “investment driven” to being “population and industry driven”. Therefore, this paper suggests that the government should link each city’s construction land supply to the constantly changing trend of population migrations in China. Further, promoting the tertiary industry can be a win–win strategy for easing the tension between cultivated land and construction land. Full article
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