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Open AccessArticle

Photovoltaic Expansion-Limit through a Net Energy Metering Scheme for Selected Malaysian Public Hospitals

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Engineering Services Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya 62590, Malaysia
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Razak Faculty of Technology and Informatics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 54100, Malaysia
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School of Engineering, Robert Gordon University, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen, Scotland AB10 7GJ, UK
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Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Santiago de Chile 8940000, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5131; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185131
Received: 29 August 2019 / Revised: 14 September 2019 / Accepted: 16 September 2019 / Published: 19 September 2019
This paper presents an optimization approach in determining the expansion-limit of Renewable Distributed Generation (DG) capacity through a Net Energy Metering (NEM) scheme specifically for selected Malaysian public hospitals. In this study, the total line loss reduction was analyzed and set as the main objective function in the optimization process where an acceptance region for DG extensiveness was proposed via the lower total line loss outcome value. Solar photovoltaic (PV)-type DG unit (PV-DG) was identified as the type of DG used in this paper. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm was chosen to alleviate such PV-DG optimization. The distribution network uses a bus and line data setup from the three selected Malaysian public hospitals prior to three different levels, i.e., National, State, and District level hospitals. MATLAB simulation result showed the PV-DG expansion capacity towards bigger scale and location bounded by the U-trajectory shape theory which resulted in a contradiction between NEM current maximum capacity requirement and actual PV-DG expansion-limit. These limitations were also found to be different among three different level hospitals, and the expansion-limit was tailored by their own distribution network parameters. Thus, this paper provides technical justification and gives the best option to the renewable energy (RE) developer for more effective PV-DG integration through the utilization of a NEM scheme. The importance of the study is portrayed in-depth towards achieving a more sensible and accurate way of estimating the outcome. This will encourage developers, building owners, and users in participating towards achieving potential benefits both in monetary and power system reliability improvement, specifically for Malaysian public hospital applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: net energy metering (NEM); renewable energy (RE); artificial bee colony (ABC); distributed generation (DG); photovoltaic-type DG (PV-DG); maximum demand (MD) net energy metering (NEM); renewable energy (RE); artificial bee colony (ABC); distributed generation (DG); photovoltaic-type DG (PV-DG); maximum demand (MD)
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Amran, M.E.; Muhtazaruddin, M.N.; Muhammad-Sukki, F.; Bani, N.A.; Ahmad Zaidi, T.Z.; Kamaluddin, K.A.; Ardila-Rey, J.A. Photovoltaic Expansion-Limit through a Net Energy Metering Scheme for Selected Malaysian Public Hospitals. Sustainability 2019, 11, 5131.

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