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Clin. Pract., Volume 14, Issue 1 (February 2024) – 28 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Tuberculosis (TB), a highly infectious airborne disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), currently ranks amongst the top three threats to global health. Therapies capitalizing on the dynamic nature of the human microbiome offer alternative TB treatment options. This review discusses the influence of the human microbiome on immunity as well as the disturbances of gut and lung bacterial compositions due to Mtb infection, resulting in dysbiosis. Because of the microbiome’s role in inflammatory pathways and production of metabolites like short-chain fatty acids, dysbiosis may compromise the host immune system. Additionally, evidence suggests antibiotic treatments and previous Mtb infection may result in increased Mtb susceptibility that can be attributed to microbial profile alterations. View this paper
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16 pages, 3679 KiB  
Review
Phimosis in Adults: Narrative Review of the New Available Devices and the Standard Treatments
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 361-376; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010028 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 400
Abstract
Background: Phimosis is the inability to completely retract the foreskin and expose the glans. The treatment of phimosis varies depending on the age of the patient and the severity of the disease; a great number of conservative or surgical treatments are currently available. [...] Read more.
Background: Phimosis is the inability to completely retract the foreskin and expose the glans. The treatment of phimosis varies depending on the age of the patient and the severity of the disease; a great number of conservative or surgical treatments are currently available. Aim: To provide the first review summarizing the available options for the treatment of adult phimosis. Methods: A PubMed, Cochrane and Embase search for peer-reviewed studies, published between January 2001 and December 2022 was performed using the search terms “phimosis AND treatment”. Results: A total of 288 publications were initially identified through database searching. Thirty manuscripts were ultimately eligible for inclusion in this review. Conservative treatment is an option. and it includes topical steroid application and the new medical silicon tubes (Phimostop™) application for gentle prepuce dilation. Concerning the surgical approach, the gold-standard treatment is represented by circumcision in which tissue synthesis after prepuce removal can be also obtained with barbed sutures, fibrin glues or staples. Laser circumcision seems to be providing superior outcomes in terms of operative time and postoperative complication rate when compared to the traditional one. Several techniques of preputioplasty and use of in situ devices (which crush the foreskin and simultaneously create haemostasis) have been also described. These in situ devices seem feasible, safe and effective in treating phimosis while they also reduce the operative time when compared to traditional circumcision. Patient satisfaction rates, complications and impact on sexual function of the main surgical treatments are presented. Conclusion: Many conservative and surgical treatments are available for the treatment of adult phimosis. The choice of the right treatment depends on the grade of phimosis, results, complications, and cost-effectiveness. Full article
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17 pages, 1761 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Atrial Fibrillation Care: Comparative Assessment of Anticoagulant Therapies and Risk Factors
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 344-360; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010027 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 526
Abstract
Background and objectives: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia associated with various risk factors and significant morbidity and mortality. Materials and methods: This article presents findings from a study involving 345 patients with permanent AF. This study examined demographics, risk factors, associated [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia associated with various risk factors and significant morbidity and mortality. Materials and methods: This article presents findings from a study involving 345 patients with permanent AF. This study examined demographics, risk factors, associated pathologies, complications, and anticoagulant therapy over the course of a year. Results: The results showed a slight predominance of AF in males (55%), with the highest incidence in individuals aged 75 and older (49%). Common risk factors included arterial hypertension (54%), dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus type 2 (19.13%), and obesity (15.65%). Comorbidities such as congestive heart failure (35.6%), mitral valve regurgitation (60%), and dilated cardiomyopathy (32%) were prevalent among the patients. Major complications included congestive heart failure (32%), stroke (17%), and myocardial infarction (5%). Thromboembolic and bleeding risk assessment using CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores demonstrated a high thromboembolic risk in all patients. The majority of patients were receiving novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) before admission (73%), while NOACs were also the most prescribed antithrombotic therapy at discharge (61%). Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of risk factor management and appropriate anticoagulant therapy in patients with AF, to reduce complications and improve outcomes. The results support the importance of tailored therapeutic schemes, for optimal care of patients with AF. Full article
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7 pages, 199 KiB  
Article
Rates of Compliance in South Indian American Communities of Southern California Regarding Cancer Screening
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 337-343; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010026 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Background: Studies have shown lower rates of cancer screening and high mortality rates among all Asian Americans than among non-Hispanic White populations. However, most of these studies often confound diverse Asian American subgroups with limited data on cancer screening for Indian Americans, with [...] Read more.
Background: Studies have shown lower rates of cancer screening and high mortality rates among all Asian Americans than among non-Hispanic White populations. However, most of these studies often confound diverse Asian American subgroups with limited data on cancer screening for Indian Americans, with this group being particularly interesting because of their counterintuitive socioeconomic status. For this reason, the objective of this study is to evaluate knowledge of the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) cancer screening guidelines and compliance among South Indian Americans residing in Southern California. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study gathering community responses through an electronic survey. The survey reports knowledge of USPSTF screening guidelines and participant compliance rates. Rates were further compared to non-Hispanic White populations from official sources. Results: South Indian Americans residing in California had lower rates of compliance for colorectal, lung, and breast cancer screening when compared to that of non-Hispanic White populations in the same region, with the exception of cervical cancer screening rates. Conclusion: Understanding the cultural characteristics of special populations, such as Indian Americans, can help communities adhere to more effective screening practices that can improve outcomes. Full article
10 pages, 1272 KiB  
Article
Full Familiarisation Is Not Required for the Self-Paced 1 km Treadmill Walk to Predict Peak Oxygen Uptake in Phase IV Cardiac Patients
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 327-336; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010025 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 208
Abstract
Exercise is a recommended part of phase IV cardiovascular rehabilitation (CR). The 1 km treadmill walk test (1-KTWT) is a submaximal continuous exercise test to predict cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with cardiovascular disease. We examined physiological, metabolic and subjective responses in patients with [...] Read more.
Exercise is a recommended part of phase IV cardiovascular rehabilitation (CR). The 1 km treadmill walk test (1-KTWT) is a submaximal continuous exercise test to predict cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with cardiovascular disease. We examined physiological, metabolic and subjective responses in patients with cardiovascular disease with self-selected, unchanging walking speed for two 1-KTWTs. Fifteen men (age: 65 ± 9 yr, height: 174 ± 5 cm, body mass: 86 ± 17 kg, BMI: 28.5 ± 5.5 kg·m−2, body fat%: 27.7 ± 7.5%, 10 on beta-blockers) were recruited from phase IV CR groups in the United Kingdom. Participants established a self-selected walking speed for the 1-KTWT and performed the 1-KTWT on separate days with recording of physiological responses to predict V˙O2peak with equations. For the two 1-KTWTs, no differences existed for walking speed, mean and maximal heart rates, oxygen uptake, predicted V˙O2peak (1st 1-KTWT (range: 41–78% V˙O2peak, 95%CI, 53–65; 2nd 1-KTWT range: 43–78% V˙O2peak, 95%CI, 52–65) and rating of perceived exertion. In phase IV cardiac patients, the 1-KTWT with self-selected, unchanging walking speed can be used for V˙O2peak prediction without the need for a full familiarisation. The self-selected constant walking speed for the first 1-KTWT can be used to support nonsupervised physical activity for phase IV CR patients. Full article
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22 pages, 1140 KiB  
Article
Reference Values of Physical Performance in Handball Players Aged 13–19 Years: Taking into Account Their Biological Maturity
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 305-326; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010024 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Biological maturity status significantly influences success in handball, impacting an athlete’s performance and overall development. This study aimed to examine the anthropometric and physical performance variables concerning age and maturity status, establishing reference values for physical performance among Tunisian players. A total of [...] Read more.
Biological maturity status significantly influences success in handball, impacting an athlete’s performance and overall development. This study aimed to examine the anthropometric and physical performance variables concerning age and maturity status, establishing reference values for physical performance among Tunisian players. A total of 560 handball players (309 males and 251 females aged 13–19 years) were categorized based on maturity status: early (n = 98), average (n = 262), and late (n = 200), determined through Mirwald and colleagues’ equations. Anthropometric, physical fitness, and physiological data were collected for reference value creation. Our findings revealed significantly higher anthropometric parameters (p = 0.003) in late-maturing athletes compared to their early-maturing counterparts. Post-pubertal athletes showed significantly superior (p = 0.002) jumping ability, change of direction, and aerobic performance compared to their pre-pubertal peers. Additionally, male athletes outperformed females in both fitness (p = 0.001) and aerobic (p = 0.001) performance. A notable age-by-maturity interaction emerged for most performance outcomes (η2 ranging from 0.011 to 0.084), highlighting increased sex-specific differences as athletes progressed in age. Percentile values are provided for males and females, offering valuable insights for coaches and sports scientists to design personalized training programs. Understanding a player’s performance relative to these percentiles allows trainers to tailor workouts, addressing specific strengths and weaknesses for enhanced development and competitiveness. Full article
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12 pages, 754 KiB  
Review
Autophagy Genes and Otitis Media Outcomes
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 293-304; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010023 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Otitis media (OM) is a common cause of hearing loss in children that requires corrective surgery. Various studies have investigated the pathomechanisms and treatment of OM. Autophagy, an essential cellular recycling and elimination mechanism implicated in various diseases, is known to play an [...] Read more.
Otitis media (OM) is a common cause of hearing loss in children that requires corrective surgery. Various studies have investigated the pathomechanisms and treatment of OM. Autophagy, an essential cellular recycling and elimination mechanism implicated in various diseases, is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of OM. Here, we conducted a literature review on autophagy in OM, highlighting the relationship between expression patterns of autophagy-related factors and pathophysiological and clinical aspects of OM. We summarized the existing research results on the expression of autophagy-related factors in acute OM (AOM), OM with effusion (OME), chronic OM (COM) with cholesteatoma, and COM without cholesteatoma (CholeOM) in animals and humans. Autophagy-related factors are expressed in the middle ear mucosa or fluid of AOM, effusion of OME, granulation tissue of COM, and cholesteatoma of CholeOM. Among ATGs and other autophagy-related factors, the most extensively studied in relation to the pathogenesis of OM are mTOR, LC3II/I, PI3K, Beclin-1, FLIP, Akt, and Rubicon. Expression of autophagy-related factors is associated with AOM, OME, COM, and CholeOM. Inadequate expression of these factors or a decrease/increase in autophagy responses can result in OM, underscoring the critical role of ATGs and related factors in the pathogenesis of OM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Outcome Research in the Head and Neck)
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13 pages, 804 KiB  
Review
Risk Factors and Environmental Preventive Actions for Aspergillosis in Patients with Hematological Malignancies
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 280-292; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010022 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 407
Abstract
(1) Background: Aspergillus spp. is a widely distributed filamentous fungus in the environment due to its high sporulation capacity. Currently, invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the most common invasive fungal infection in patients with hematologic malignancies, with high rates of mortality and morbidity. The [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Aspergillus spp. is a widely distributed filamentous fungus in the environment due to its high sporulation capacity. Currently, invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the most common invasive fungal infection in patients with hematologic malignancies, with high rates of mortality and morbidity. The multifactorial nature of the disease requires appropriate risk stratification to enable the most appropriate preventive measures to be adapted and implemented according to the characteristics of the patient. In this sense, the present research aims to identify recent risk factors and environmental control measures against invasive aspergillosis to establish preventive actions to reduce the incidence of invasive aspergillosis in hospitals. (2) Methods: We conducted a qualitative systematic review of the scientific literature on environmental risk factors and preventive measures for invasive aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies. The Medline, Cochrane, and Scopus databases were consulted, following the PRISMA and STROBE guidelines. (3) Results: Adequate implementation of environmental control measures is presented as the most efficient intervention in terms of prevention to decrease the incidence of invasive aspergillosis in hospitals. Neutropenia, fungal contamination, insufficient environmental control measures in hospital and home settings, length of hospital stay, and anemia, are identified as independent risk factors. We show that HEPA, LAF, and Plasmair® systems are suitable methods to reduce the concentration of airborne fungal spores. Antifungal prophylaxis did not significantly influence IA reduction in our study. (4) Conclusions: Proper professional training and environmental control measures in hospitals are essential for the prevention of invasive aspergillosis. We should optimize risk stratification for patients with hematologic malignancies. Antifungal prophylaxis should be complementary to environmental control measures and should never be substituted for the latter. Studies should also be undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of environmental control measures against IA at patients’ homes. Full article
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15 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Are Maternal Vitamin D (25(OH)D) Levels a Predisposing Risk Factor for Neonatal Growth? A Cross-Sectional Study
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 265-279; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010021 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Background: Neonatal bone mass may potentially be influenced by existing maternal vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. Few studies evaluated maternal vitamin D deficiency (VDD) with neonatal anthropometrics such as weight, height and head circumference (HC), especially in Greece, which is a Mediterranean country with [...] Read more.
Background: Neonatal bone mass may potentially be influenced by existing maternal vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. Few studies evaluated maternal vitamin D deficiency (VDD) with neonatal anthropometrics such as weight, height and head circumference (HC), especially in Greece, which is a Mediterranean country with plenty of sunshine and consequently benefits the synthesis of 25(OH)D. We investigated this potential association in Greece, taking into account the administration or not of prenatal vitamin D supplements. The purpose of our study is to ascertain if there is a possible association between maternal VDD and neonatal specific anthropometric characteristics (weight, height and HC) at birth. If this is confirmed by future clinical studies, it would be of interest to develop a prenatal pregnancy selection program that would detect VDD early or during pregnancy in order to improve fetal–neonatal development in a Mediterranean country like ours. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study on 248 early early term infants (after 37 + 0 to 38 + 6 weeks of gestation) but also on full-term infants (after 39 to 40 weeks of gestation) and their Greek mothers from September 2019 to January 2022. Blood samples of 25(OH)D were taken from the mother at the beginning of labor and cord blood was taken from the newborn. Pregnant women were divided into two groups: those who received or did not receive a normal dose of calcium (500 mg/day) and vitamin D supplements (400–800 IU/day) as instructed by their treating physicians. Results: Our findings revealed a positive association between maternal VDD and low neonate birth weight (LBW) in women receiving vitamin D during pregnancy and no association between maternal VDD and neonatal height or head circumference (HC) at birth. Conclusions: Overall, this study highlighted the association between maternal VDD at the end of gestation and LBW neonates born to mothers who received vitamin D supplementation. We did not find any correlation in two of the three somatometric characteristics studied, height and HC. In any case, more clinical studies are needed to further corroborate any potential association of maternal VDD with other neonatal somatometric characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2023 Feature Papers in Clinics and Practice)
15 pages, 1007 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Mental Disorders, Smoking or Alcoholism and Benign Prostate Disease
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 250-264; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010020 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Introduction: Mental disorders, smoking, or alcoholism and benign prostate disease are highly prevalent in men. Aims: To identify the relationship between mental disorders, smoking, or alcoholism and benign prostate disease. Methodology: A prospective multicenter study that evaluated prostate health status in 558 men [...] Read more.
Introduction: Mental disorders, smoking, or alcoholism and benign prostate disease are highly prevalent in men. Aims: To identify the relationship between mental disorders, smoking, or alcoholism and benign prostate disease. Methodology: A prospective multicenter study that evaluated prostate health status in 558 men from the community. Groups: GP—men who request a prostate health examination and whose medical history includes a mental disorder, smoking, or alcoholism prior to a diagnosis of benign prostate disease; GU—men who request a prostate health examination and whose medical history includes a benign prostate disease prior to a diagnosis of mental disorder, smoking, or alcoholism. Variables: age, body mass index (BMI), prostate specific antigen (PSA), follow-up of the mental disorder, smoking or alcoholism, time elapsed between urological diagnosis and the mental disorder, smoking or alcoholism diagnosis, status of the urological disease (cured or not cured), concomitant diseases, surgical history, and concomitant treatments. Descriptive statistics, Student’s t-test, Chi2, multivariate analysis. Results: There were no mental disorders, smoking, or alcoholism in 51.97% of men. Anxiety, smoking, major depressive disorder, pathological insomnia, psychosis, and alcoholism were identified in 19.71%, 13.26%, 5.73%, 4.30%, 2.87%, and 2.15% of individuals, respectively. Nonbacterial prostatitis (31.54%), urinary tract infection (other than prostatitis, 24.37%), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (13.98%), and prostatodynia (1.43%) were prostate diseases. Unresolved symptomatic benign prostate disease was associated with anxiety, depression, and psychosis (p = 0.002). Smoking was the disorder that men managed to eliminate most frequently. The dominant disorder in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic disease was alcoholism (p = 0.006). Conclusions: Unresolved symptomatic benign prostatic disease is associated with anxiety, depression, and psychosis. Alcoholism is associated with a worse prognosis in the follow-up of symptomatic benign prostatic disease. Full article
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8 pages, 7214 KiB  
Case Report
Efficacy of Touch Imprint Cytology in Intraoperative Diagnosis of Invasive Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Lung: A Case Report and Literature Review
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 242-249; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010019 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 531
Abstract
A preoperative diagnosis of the peripheral small lung nodule is often difficult, and an intraoperative frozen section diagnosis (FSD) is performed to guide treatment strategy. However, invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) is prone to be overlooked because of the low sample quality and weak [...] Read more.
A preoperative diagnosis of the peripheral small lung nodule is often difficult, and an intraoperative frozen section diagnosis (FSD) is performed to guide treatment strategy. However, invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) is prone to be overlooked because of the low sample quality and weak atypia. We herein report a case of IMA, in which touch imprint cytology (TIC) revealed diagnostic efficacy. A 74-year-old male with a small, subsolid nodule in the right upper lobe underwent a thoracoscopic wedge resection. A grayish brown, 10 × 7 mm-sized nodule was observed on the cut surface. Intraoperative FSD revealed lung tissue with mild alveolar septal thickening and stromal fibrosis but without overt atypia. Meanwhile, TIC revealed mucus and a few epithelial cells with intranuclear inclusions, which pathologists evaluated as reactive. Finally, focal organizing pneumonia was tentatively diagnosed, and surgery was finished without any additional resection. However, permanent section diagnosis revealed a microinvasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. Nuclear inclusions were confirmed in tumor cells. In the intraoperative setting, TIC may be more advantageous than FSD in observing nuclear inclusions and mucus. Mucinous background and nuclear inclusion on TIC may suggest IMA even if FSD does not suggest malignancy in an intraoperative diagnosis of the peripheral small lung nodule. Full article
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28 pages, 2255 KiB  
Review
A Narrative Review of Current Knowledge on Cutaneous Melanoma
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 214-241; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010018 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Cutaneous melanoma is a public health problem. Efforts to reduce its incidence have failed, as it continues to increase. In recent years, many risk factors have been identified. Numerous diagnostic systems exist that greatly assist in early clinical diagnosis. The histopathological aspect illustrates [...] Read more.
Cutaneous melanoma is a public health problem. Efforts to reduce its incidence have failed, as it continues to increase. In recent years, many risk factors have been identified. Numerous diagnostic systems exist that greatly assist in early clinical diagnosis. The histopathological aspect illustrates the grim nature of these cancers. Currently, pathogenic pathways and the tumor microclimate are key to the development of therapeutic methods. Revolutionary therapies like targeted therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors are starting to replace traditional therapeutic methods. Targeted therapy aims at a specific molecule in the pathogenic chain to block it, stopping cell growth and dissemination. The main function of immune checkpoint inhibitors is to boost cellular immunity in order to combat cancer cells. Unfortunately, these therapies have different rates of effectiveness and side effects, and cannot be applied to all patients. These shortcomings are the basis of increased incidence and mortality rates. This study covers all stages of the evolutionary sequence of melanoma. With all these data in front of us, we see the need for new research efforts directed at therapies that will bring greater benefits in terms of patient survival and prognosis, with fewer adverse effects. Full article
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16 pages, 1396 KiB  
Review
The Interplay between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Human Microbiome
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 198-213; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010017 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB), a respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a significant cause of mortality worldwide. The lung, a breeding ground for Mtb, was once thought to be a sterile environment, but has now been found to host its own profile of [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB), a respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a significant cause of mortality worldwide. The lung, a breeding ground for Mtb, was once thought to be a sterile environment, but has now been found to host its own profile of microbes. These microbes are critical in the development of the host immune system and can produce metabolites that aid in host defense against various pathogens. Mtb infection as well as antibiotics can shift the microbial profile, causing dysbiosis and dampening the host immune response. Additionally, increasing cases of drug resistant TB have impacted the success rates of the traditional therapies of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. Recent years have produced tremendous research into the human microbiome and its role in contributing to or attenuating disease processes. Potential treatments aimed at altering the gut-lung bacterial axis may offer promising results against drug resistant TB and help mitigate the effects of TB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2023 Feature Papers in Clinics and Practice)
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10 pages, 684 KiB  
Article
Phytotherapy Might Have a Role in Reducing Unnecessary Prostate Biopsies: Results from an Exploratory, Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Different Phytotherapeutic Agents
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 188-197; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010016 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Background: We aimed to evaluate the impact of two different phytotherapeutic agents on decision making regarding prostate biopsy for patients with higher-than-normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Methods: From June 2022 to May 2023, all patients attending two urological institutions due to higher-than-normal PSA [...] Read more.
Background: We aimed to evaluate the impact of two different phytotherapeutic agents on decision making regarding prostate biopsy for patients with higher-than-normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Methods: From June 2022 to May 2023, all patients attending two urological institutions due to higher-than-normal PSA levels were randomized to receive either oral capsules of Curcuma Longa, Boswellia, Pinus pinaster and Urtica dioica (Group A) or Serenoa Repens 320 mg (Group B) for 3 months. At the follow-up visit after 3 months, all patients underwent PSA tests and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI). Results: In the per-protocol analysis, data from 66 patients in Group A and 76 in Group B were analyzed. Fifty patients in Group A (75.7%) showed a significant reduction in total PSA compared to forty-nine in Group B (64.4%) (p < 0.001). Twenty-eight patients had PI-RADS III or higher in mpMRI: twelve in Group A and fourteen in Group B. Twenty-three patients (34.8%) in Group A and fifty-nine (77.6%) in Group B (p < 0.001) underwent prostate biopsy based on the mpMRI findings and PSA values. Three patients in Group A showed a significant reduction in total PSA values while having positive mpMRI findings (6%) compared with nine in Group B (19.5%) (p < 0.001). On the contrary, 7 patients in Group A did not show significant reduction in total PSA values and had negative mpMRI findings (43%) compared to 22 in Group B (81.4%) (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In conclusion, a three-month course of a combination of Curcuma Longa, Boswellia, Pinus pinaster and Urtica dioica seems to be an interesting tool to avoid unnecessary prostate biopsies among men with higher-than-normal PSA levels. Full article
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9 pages, 2599 KiB  
Case Report
Hypercalcemic Crisis Due to a Giant Intrathyroidal Parathyroid Adenoma, with Postsurgical Severe Hypocalcemia and Hungry Bone Syndrome: A Case Report
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 179-187; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010015 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Background: Parathyroid adenoma is the most common cause of hypercalcemia and rarely leads to a hypercalcemic crisis, which is an unusual endocrine emergency that requires timely surgical excision. Case presentation: A 67-year-old male was admitted to the ER of the Euroclinic Hospital, Athens, [...] Read more.
Background: Parathyroid adenoma is the most common cause of hypercalcemia and rarely leads to a hypercalcemic crisis, which is an unusual endocrine emergency that requires timely surgical excision. Case presentation: A 67-year-old male was admitted to the ER of the Euroclinic Hospital, Athens, Greece, because of elevated calcium levels and a palpable right-sided neck mass, which were accompanied by symptoms of nausea, drowsiness, and weakness for six months that increased prior to our evaluation. A gradual creatinine elevation and decreasing mental state were observed as well. The initial laboratory investigation identified severely elevated serum calcium (3.6 mmol/L) levels consistent with a hypercalcemic crisis (HC) and parathyroid hormone PTH (47.6 pmol/L) due to primary hyperparathyroidism. Neck ultrasonography (USG) identified a large, well-shaped cystic mass in the right thyroid lobe. With a serum calcium concentration of 19.5 mg/dL and a PTH of 225.3 pmol/L, the patient underwent partial parathyroidectomy and total thyroidectomy, which decreased serum calcium and PTH to 2.5 mmol/L and 1.93 pmol/L, respectively. Histology revealed a giant intrathyroidal cystic parathyroid adenoma, which was responsible for the hypercalcemic crisis. Postoperatively, the patient developed severe biochemical and clinical hypocalcemia, with calcium concentrations as low as 1.65 mmol/L, consistent with hungry bone syndrome (HBS), which was treated with high doses of intravenous calcium gluconate and oral alfacalcidol, and a slow recovery of serum calcium. After discharge, parathyroid function recovered, and symptomatology resolved entirely in more than one month. Discussion/conclusions: We present a case involving an exceptionally large intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma that is characterized by clinical manifestations that mimic malignancy. The identification and treatment of such tumors is challenging and requires careful preoperative evaluation and postoperative care for the risk of hungry bone syndrome. Full article
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6 pages, 201 KiB  
Case Report
Seizures in Children with Influenza during the 2022–2023 Winter Season, a Case Series
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 173-178; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010014 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 415
Abstract
Influenza is a viral infection presenting with general symptoms such as fever, headache, fatigue, and involvement of airways or the gastrointestinal tract. The nervous system may be involved, but less frequently. These neurological complications remain challenging to diagnose; moreover, no guidelines for management [...] Read more.
Influenza is a viral infection presenting with general symptoms such as fever, headache, fatigue, and involvement of airways or the gastrointestinal tract. The nervous system may be involved, but less frequently. These neurological complications remain challenging to diagnose; moreover, no guidelines for management and treatment exist. Therefore, when presenting with neurological symptoms, patients undergo invasive diagnostic procedures and empirical treatments before making the correct diagnosis. During the winter of 2022–2023, four children between nine months and nine years of age were admitted to the Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland, complaining of influenza and neurological complications. This report presents the symptoms of neurological manifestation and the treatment management of the four patients. All the legally authorized representatives gave their written informed consent before study inclusion. Full article
9 pages, 719 KiB  
Article
Association between Family History of Breast Cancer and Breast Density in Saudi Premenopausal Women Participating in Mammography Screening
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 164-172; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010013 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Background: Mammographic density and family history of breast cancer (FHBC) are well-established independent factors affecting breast cancer risk; however, the association between these two risk factors in premenopausal-screened women remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between mammographic [...] Read more.
Background: Mammographic density and family history of breast cancer (FHBC) are well-established independent factors affecting breast cancer risk; however, the association between these two risk factors in premenopausal-screened women remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between mammographic density and FHBC among Saudi premenopausal-screened women. Methods: A total of 446 eligible participants were included in the study. Mammographic density was assessed qualitatively using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS 4th edition). Logistic regression models were built to investigate the relationship between mammographic density and FHBC. Results: Women with a family history of breast cancer demonstrated an 87% greater chance of having dense tissue than women without a family history of breast cancer (95% CI: 1.14–3.08; p = 0.01). Having a positive family history for breast cancer in mothers was significantly associated with dense tissue (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 5.6; 95% CI: 1.3–24.1; p = 0.02). Conclusion: Dense breast tissue in Saudi premenopausal women undergoing screening may be linked to FHBC. If this conclusion is replicated in larger studies, then breast cancer risk prediction models must carefully consider these breast cancer risk factors. Full article
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16 pages, 1371 KiB  
Article
The Role of Estrogen Signaling and Exercise in Drug Abuse: A Review
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 148-163; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010012 - 08 Jan 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Background: Discovering how sex differences impact the efficacy of exercise regimens used for treating drug addiction is becoming increasingly important. Estrogen is a hormone believed to explain a large portion of sex differences observed during drug addiction, and why certain exercise regimens are [...] Read more.
Background: Discovering how sex differences impact the efficacy of exercise regimens used for treating drug addiction is becoming increasingly important. Estrogen is a hormone believed to explain a large portion of sex differences observed during drug addiction, and why certain exercise regimens are not equally effective between sexes in treatment. Addiction is currently a global hindrance to millions, many of whom are suffering under the influence of their brain’s intrinsic reward system coupled with external environmental factors. Substance abuse disorders in the U.S. alone cost billions of dollars annually. Review Summary: Studies involving the manipulation of estrogen levels in female rodents, primarily via ovariectomy, highlight its impact regarding drug addiction. More specifically, female rodents with higher estrogen levels during the estrus phase increase cocaine consumption, whereas those in the non-estrus phase (low estrogen levels) decrease cocaine consumption. If estrogen is reintroduced, self-administration increases once again. Exercise has been proven to decrease relapse tendency, but its effect on estrogen levels is not fully understood. Conclusions: Such findings and results discussed in this review suggest that estrogen influences the susceptibility of females to relapse. Therefore, to improve drug-abuse-related treatment, exercise regimens for females should be generated based on key sex differences with respect to males. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2023 Feature Papers in Clinics and Practice)
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16 pages, 514 KiB  
Article
Arrhythmias among Older Adults Receiving Comprehensive Geriatric Care: Prevalence and Associated Factors
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 132-147; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010011 - 04 Jan 2024
Viewed by 610
Abstract
Background: Cardiovascular diseases and arrhythmias are medical conditions that increase with age and are associated with significant morbidities and mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of arrhythmias and clinical associations in the collective of older adults receiving [...] Read more.
Background: Cardiovascular diseases and arrhythmias are medical conditions that increase with age and are associated with significant morbidities and mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of arrhythmias and clinical associations in the collective of older adults receiving comprehensive geriatric care (CGC). Methods: Holter ECG monitoring (HECG) of older patients hospitalized for CGC was analyzed. The prevalence of arrhythmias and the associations between the presence of arrhythmias, patients’ characteristics and the functional status regarding basic activities of daily living (assessed by the Barthel index (BI)), walking ability (assessed by the timed up and go test (TUG)), and balance and gait (assessed by the Tinetti balance and gait test (TBGT)) were examined. Results: In the presented study, 626 patients were included (mean age: 83.9 ± 6.6 years, 67.7% were female). The most common arrhythmias detected in HECG were premature ventricular contractions (87.2%), premature atrial contractions (71.7%), and atrial fibrillation (22.7%). Atrial flutter was found in 1.0%, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in 5.8%, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in 12.5%, first-degree AV block in 0.8%, second-degree AV block type Mobitz I in 0.8%, second-degree AV block type Mobitz II in 0.3%, pause > 2.5 s any cause in 3.5%, and pause > 3 s any cause in 1.6% of the cases. Premature atrial contractions were associated with the female sex (74.8% vs. 65.3%, p = 0.018), whereas in male patients, the following arrhythmias were more common: premature ventricular contractions (91.6% vs. 85.1%, p = 0.029), ventricular bigeminus (8.4% vs. 3.8%, p = 0.021), and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (17.3% vs. 10.1%, p = 0.014). Atrial fibrillation detected in HECG was more frequent in patients at high risk of falls, indicated by their TBGT score ≤ 18 (24.7% vs. 12.0%, p = 0.006), and premature ventricular contractions were more common in patients unable to walk (TUG score 5) compared to those with largely independent mobility (TUG score 1 or 2) (88.0% vs. 75.0%, p = 0.023). In a logistic regression analysis, atrial fibrillation detected in HECG was identified as a risk factor for a high risk of falls (odds ratio (OR): 2.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23–4.46). Conclusion: In our study, investigation of HECG of older adults hospitalized for CGC revealed that premature atrial contractions, premature ventricular contractions, and atrial fibrillation were the most common arrhythmias. Premature atrial contractions were found to be more frequent in female patients, while male patients were more prone to premature ventricular contractions. In the investigated population, atrial fibrillation emerged as a risk factor associated with a high risk of falls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Age-Related Heart Diseases)
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10 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
The Psychological Experience of Grandparents: Proposal of a Qualitative Clinical Assessment Tool in Pediatric Palliative Care
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 122-131; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010010 - 04 Jan 2024
Viewed by 523
Abstract
In Portugal, there are over 7800 children with life-limiting conditions. The context of pediatric palliative care represents a complex and distressing experience for families. Compared to parental caregivers and healthy siblings, grandparents are underexplored in the literature and clinical practice. The aim of [...] Read more.
In Portugal, there are over 7800 children with life-limiting conditions. The context of pediatric palliative care represents a complex and distressing experience for families. Compared to parental caregivers and healthy siblings, grandparents are underexplored in the literature and clinical practice. The aim of the present study is to propose a psychological experience assessment tool of grandparents in this context. It consists of a sociodemographic and clinical data sheet and a semi-structured interview based on sharing a testimony with other grandparents. On the basis of the latter, 10 dimensions were explored through the grandparents’ own perspective: representation of the illness; representation of the sick grandchild; changes in routine and life; family impact; grandparents’ contributions to the family system; social support and coping strategies; emotional impact; triple concern; needs identification; and post-traumatic growth. The tool can be used in person or remotely and may be combined with other instruments. Its application enables a personalized identification of needs and challenges for each family, promoting the adjustment of the clinical intervention to their wellbeing and resilience from an eco-systemic perspective. The clinical tool is presented in detail and its importance in the context of research and systemic intervention is discussed. Full article
16 pages, 5561 KiB  
Review
Radiological Insights into Sacroiliitis: A Narrative Review
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 106-121; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010009 - 03 Jan 2024
Viewed by 924
Abstract
Sacroiliitis is the inflammation of the sacroiliac joint, the largest axial joint in the human body, contributing to 25% of lower back pain cases. It can be detected using various imaging techniques like radiography, MRI, and CT scans. Treatments range from conservative methods [...] Read more.
Sacroiliitis is the inflammation of the sacroiliac joint, the largest axial joint in the human body, contributing to 25% of lower back pain cases. It can be detected using various imaging techniques like radiography, MRI, and CT scans. Treatments range from conservative methods to invasive procedures. Recent advancements in artificial intelligence offer precise detection of this condition through imaging. Treatment options range from physical therapy and medications to invasive methods like joint injections and surgery. Future management looks promising with advanced imaging, regenerative medicine, and biologic therapies, especially for conditions like ankylosing spondylitis. We conducted a review on sacroiliitis using imaging data from sources like PubMed and Scopus. Only English studies focusing on sacroiliitis’s radiological aspects were included. The findings were organized and presented narratively. Full article
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17 pages, 1351 KiB  
Review
Ethical Dilemmas in Using AI for Academic Writing and an Example Framework for Peer Review in Nephrology Academia: A Narrative Review
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 89-105; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010008 - 30 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1258
Abstract
The emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) has greatly propelled progress across various sectors including the field of nephrology academia. However, this advancement has also given rise to ethical challenges, notably in scholarly writing. AI’s capacity to automate labor-intensive tasks like literature reviews and [...] Read more.
The emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) has greatly propelled progress across various sectors including the field of nephrology academia. However, this advancement has also given rise to ethical challenges, notably in scholarly writing. AI’s capacity to automate labor-intensive tasks like literature reviews and data analysis has created opportunities for unethical practices, with scholars incorporating AI-generated text into their manuscripts, potentially undermining academic integrity. This situation gives rise to a range of ethical dilemmas that not only question the authenticity of contemporary academic endeavors but also challenge the credibility of the peer-review process and the integrity of editorial oversight. Instances of this misconduct are highlighted, spanning from lesser-known journals to reputable ones, and even infiltrating graduate theses and grant applications. This subtle AI intrusion hints at a systemic vulnerability within the academic publishing domain, exacerbated by the publish-or-perish mentality. The solutions aimed at mitigating the unethical employment of AI in academia include the adoption of sophisticated AI-driven plagiarism detection systems, a robust augmentation of the peer-review process with an “AI scrutiny” phase, comprehensive training for academics on ethical AI usage, and the promotion of a culture of transparency that acknowledges AI’s role in research. This review underscores the pressing need for collaborative efforts among academic nephrology institutions to foster an environment of ethical AI application, thus preserving the esteemed academic integrity in the face of rapid technological advancements. It also makes a plea for rigorous research to assess the extent of AI’s involvement in the academic literature, evaluate the effectiveness of AI-enhanced plagiarism detection tools, and understand the long-term consequences of AI utilization on academic integrity. An example framework has been proposed to outline a comprehensive approach to integrating AI into Nephrology academic writing and peer review. Using proactive initiatives and rigorous evaluations, a harmonious environment that harnesses AI’s capabilities while upholding stringent academic standards can be envisioned. Full article
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20 pages, 4970 KiB  
Article
Predicting Phase 1 Lymphoma Clinical Trial Durations Using Machine Learning: An In-Depth Analysis and Broad Application Insights
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 69-88; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010007 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Lymphoma diagnoses in the US are substantial, with an estimated 89,380 new cases in 2023, necessitating innovative treatment approaches. Phase 1 clinical trials play a pivotal role in this context. We developed a binary predictive model to assess trial adherence to expected average [...] Read more.
Lymphoma diagnoses in the US are substantial, with an estimated 89,380 new cases in 2023, necessitating innovative treatment approaches. Phase 1 clinical trials play a pivotal role in this context. We developed a binary predictive model to assess trial adherence to expected average durations, analyzing 1089 completed Phase 1 lymphoma trials from clinicaltrials.gov. Using machine learning, the Random Forest model demonstrated high efficacy with an accuracy of 0.7248 and an ROC-AUC of 0.7677 for lymphoma trials. The difference in the accuracy level of the Random Forest is statistically significant compared to the other alternative models, as determined by a 95% confidence interval on the testing set. Importantly, this model maintained an ROC-AUC of 0.7701 when applied to lung cancer trials, showcasing its versatility. A key insight is the correlation between higher predicted probabilities and extended trial durations, offering nuanced insights beyond binary predictions. Our research contributes to enhanced clinical research planning and potential improvements in patient outcomes in oncology. Full article
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17 pages, 1488 KiB  
Systematic Review
Factors Contributing to Surgical Site Infections: A Comprehensive Systematic Review of Etiology and Risk Factors
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 52-68; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010006 - 28 Dec 2023
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Surgical site infections persist as a substantial concern within the realm of hospital-acquired infections. This enduring issue is further compounded by the mounting challenge of antibiotic resistance, a surge in surgical interventions, and the presence of comorbidities among patients. Thus, a comprehensive exploration [...] Read more.
Surgical site infections persist as a substantial concern within the realm of hospital-acquired infections. This enduring issue is further compounded by the mounting challenge of antibiotic resistance, a surge in surgical interventions, and the presence of comorbidities among patients. Thus, a comprehensive exploration of all discernible risk factors, as well as proactive preventive and prophylactic strategies, becomes imperative. Moreover, the prevalence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms has reached alarming proportions. Consequently, there is an acute need to investigate and scrutinize all potential therapeutic interventions to counter this burgeoning threat. Consequently, the primary objective of this review is to meticulously assess the origins and risk elements intertwined with surgical site infections across a diverse spectrum of surgical procedures. As the medical landscape continues to evolve, this critical analysis seeks to provide a nuanced understanding of the multi-faceted factors contributing to surgical site infections, with the overarching aim of facilitating more effective management and mitigation strategies. By exploring these dimensions comprehensively, we endeavor to enhance patient safety and the quality of surgical care in this era of evolving healthcare challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Teaching Pathology Towards Clinics and Practice)
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20 pages, 4770 KiB  
Review
Internal Iliac Artery Ligation in Obstetrics and Gynecology: Surgical Anatomy and Surgical Considerations
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 32-51; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010005 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 580
Abstract
The internal iliac artery (IIA) is the main arterial vessel of the pelvis. It supplies the pelvic viscera, pelvic walls, perineum, and gluteal region. In cases of severe obstetrical or gynecologic hemorrhage, IIA ligation can be a lifesaving procedure. Regrettably, IIA ligation has [...] Read more.
The internal iliac artery (IIA) is the main arterial vessel of the pelvis. It supplies the pelvic viscera, pelvic walls, perineum, and gluteal region. In cases of severe obstetrical or gynecologic hemorrhage, IIA ligation can be a lifesaving procedure. Regrettably, IIA ligation has not gained widespread popularity, primarily due to limited surgical training and concerns regarding possible complications, including buttock claudication, impotence, and urinary bladder and rectum necroses. Nowadays, selective arterial embolization or temporary balloon occlusion are increasingly utilized alternatives, which can be applied preoperatively or intraoperatively for threatening severe genital or pelvic bleeding. However, IIA ligation retains its relevance, as the previously described procedures are not always available and have limitations. This article provides a step-by-step guide to the IIA ligation procedure and its possible complications. It also includes a detailed description of the anatomy of the IIA and pelvic arterial anastomoses. This review highlights the importance of a thorough understanding of pelvic anatomy as a prerequisite for safe IIA ligation and posits that training in this procedure should be an integral part of obstetrics and gynecology curricula. Full article
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1 pages, 142 KiB  
Retraction
RETRACTED: Iandolo et al. Traditional and Recent Root Canal Irrigation Methods and Their Effectiveness: A Review. Clin. Pract. 2023, 13, 1059–1072
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010004 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 383
Abstract
The Clinics and Practice Editorial Office retracts the article titled “Traditional and Recent Root Canal Irrigation Methods and Their Effectiveness: A Review” [...] Full article
7 pages, 198 KiB  
Case Report
Short-Term Outcome of Isolated Kidney Transplantation in Children with Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Case Series and Literature Review
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 24-30; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010003 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is often associated with hepatobiliary disease in the form of hepatic fibrosis and/or Caroli disease. Combined liver–kidney transplantation (CLKT) is a transplant modality of choice in children with both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and severe hepatic disease. [...] Read more.
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is often associated with hepatobiliary disease in the form of hepatic fibrosis and/or Caroli disease. Combined liver–kidney transplantation (CLKT) is a transplant modality of choice in children with both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and severe hepatic disease. However, there is no consensus on whether children with ARPKD-associated ESRD without severe hepatic disease can be treated with isolated kidney transplantation (KT) without the need for CLKT. We retrospectively studied the efficacy of isolated KT in children with ARPKD without severe hepatic disease, and followed the course of hepatic disease post KT. This is a single-center study of three children with ARPKD and ESRD who underwent isolated KT. None of them had severe hepatic disease at the time of KT. All children were clinically diagnosed with ARPKD in the immediate postnatal period. All had hepatic fibrosis of varying degrees and two had intrahepatic biliary duct (IHBD) dilatation. None had gastrointestinal (GI) bleed, portal hypertension or cholangitis. Two children had preemptive KT. Pre-transplant unilateral or bilateral native nephrectomy were performed for two children, and one underwent unilateral native nephrectomy at the time of KT. The median creatinine clearance at a median post-KT follow-up of 24 months was 60.3 mL/min/1.73 m2. The two-year graft and patient survival were both 100%. Post KT, all three patients continued to demonstrate evidence of hepatic fibrosis and IHBD on sonogram; however, none of them were either evaluated for or required liver transplantation given normal synthetic liver function and absence of portal hypertension or other severe hepatobiliary disease. There were no adverse events observed such as cholangitis, GI bleed, or multiorgan failure. Hence, an excellent short-term graft and patient survival was demonstrated in this study of children with ARPKD and mild to moderate hepatic disease who received isolated KT. Long-term follow-up and larger studies are important to assess the efficacy of isolated KT in this subset of children with ARPKD. Full article
11 pages, 525 KiB  
Article
Exploring Understanding of Peripheral Artery Disease among Patients at High-Risk in Saudi Arabia: Results from an Interview-Based Study
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 13-23; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010002 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Background: The level of awareness of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in Saudi Arabia, especially among populations at high risk, is not currently well known. Therefore, our objective was to assess the existing level of awareness among patients who are at high risk of [...] Read more.
Background: The level of awareness of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in Saudi Arabia, especially among populations at high risk, is not currently well known. Therefore, our objective was to assess the existing level of awareness among patients who are at high risk of PAD, as well as their comprehension of the disease. Method: An interview-based cross-sectional study included 1035 participants with risk factors for PAD and collected data on demographics and knowledge domains related to PAD. Results: The statistical analysis was performed using t-tests and ANOVA. Overall, participants exhibited poor knowledge, with a mean score of 5.7 out of 26. The highest scores were observed in the risk factor and preventive measure domains, with means of 1.8 out of 7 and 1.8 out of 6, respectively. The factors associated with higher knowledge scores included older age, male gender, higher education, healthcare profession, interviews in vascular settings, previous awareness of PAD, and prior cardio-cerebrovascular interventions. Conclusion: This study underscores the inadequate knowledge of PAD among high-risk individuals. Targeted educational initiatives are essential to bridge this knowledge gap, potentially reducing the burden of PAD-related complications and improving patient outcomes. Efforts should focus on raising awareness about PAD, particularly among high-risk populations. Full article
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12 pages, 822 KiB  
Article
Ovarian Stimulation for In Vitro Fertilization and Reproductive Outcome after Surgical Treatment of Endometriosis Compared with Tubal Factor Infertility
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(1), 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14010001 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Endometriosis is a common cause of infertility among reproductive-age women. A low ovarian reserve is associated with the presence of endometriotic cysts, and this is accentuated even more after surgery. Patients with a history of endometrioma are a special category of poor ovarian [...] Read more.
Endometriosis is a common cause of infertility among reproductive-age women. A low ovarian reserve is associated with the presence of endometriotic cysts, and this is accentuated even more after surgery. Patients with a history of endometrioma are a special category of poor ovarian reserve requiring in vitro fertilization (IVF). The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the characteristics and outcome of ovarian stimulation and embryo transfer in women with a history of ovarian surgery for endometrioma compared with a control group with tubal factor infertility. A total of 146 patients had previous laparoscopic cystectomy for endometrioma (group A) and their IVF results were compared with 136 patients with documented tubal obstruction (group B). In both groups, the most frequently used ovarian stimulation protocol was the short antagonist in 84.24% versus 80.88%. The number of stimulation days was between 6 and 15 days in the two groups with a mean value of 12.76 days in group A and 9.47 days in group B. The clinical pregnancy rate was 26.77% in the endometrioma group and 39.68% in the tubal obstruction group. Patients with a history of endometrioma are less likely to conceive than those with tubal obstruction despite having similar ovarian reserve and stimulation results. Full article
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