Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most common vascular disease in the US, a frequently underdiagnosed and potentially fatal condition where embolic material blocks one or more pulmonary arteries impairing blood flow. In this study, we aim to describe the prevalence, outcomes, and
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Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most common vascular disease in the US, a frequently underdiagnosed and potentially fatal condition where embolic material blocks one or more pulmonary arteries impairing blood flow. In this study, we aim to describe the prevalence, outcomes, and predictors of mortality of PE patients treated with mechanical (MT) and surgical thrombectomy (ST). This is a retrospective study using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s HCUP NIS data from 2010–2018. We used the ninth and tenth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases clinical modification codes (ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM) to identify patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of PE (ICD-10-CM codes I26.02, I26.09, I26.92, I26.93, I26.94, and I26.99; ICD-9-CM codes 415.11, 415.13, and 415.19). We extracted demographics, hospital-level, and patient-level characteristics, and defined the severity of comorbid conditions using Deyo modification of the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. The primary outcomes of interest were the utilization trends of PE (treated with MT and ST); the secondary outcomes were mortality, discharge to facility, peri-procedural complications, and length of hospital (LOS) stay; the tertiary outcome was to identify the predictors of in-hospital mortality. From 2010–2018, there were 1,627,718 hospitalizations for PE, of which 6531 (0.39%) underwent MT and 3465 (0.21%) underwent ST. The utilization trend of MT increased from 336 (0.20%) in 2010 to 1655 (0.87%) in 2018; the utilization trend of ST was 260 (0.15%) in 2010 and 430 (0.23%) in 2018. The unadjusted in-hospital mortality for MT was 9.1% with the mean LOS being 7(±0.3) days; for ST, mortality was 13.9% with a mean LOS of 13(±0.4) days. The occurrences of periprocedural complications for MT and ST were as follows: invasive mechanical ventilation was 13.8% and 32%; cardiopulmonary bypass was 3.3% and 68.3%; pulmonary embolectomy surgery was 1.7%; and bleeding complications were 1.4% and 3.4%. Predictors associated with in-hospital mortality for MT were: increasing age (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0–1.3, p
< 0.026), female sex (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2–2.8, p
< 0.004), large hospitals (OR 2.2, 95% 1.4–3.5, p
< 0.001), and teaching hospitals (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.1, p
< 0.023). The predictor of in-hospital mortality for ST was increasing age (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0–1.4, p
< 0.046). The number of MT procedures performed has rapidly increased over the past decade. Further studies are warranted to determine their rise and therapeutic use.