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World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 9, Issue 3 (October 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) This paper presents a visualization methodology, in the form of a multi-dimensional techno-economic [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Stochastic Modeling of the Charging Behavior of Electromobility
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030044
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
As electric vehicle market penetration grows steadily and charging demand along with it, the analysis of daily usage gains in significance. We propose in this paper a simple yet powerful tool based on a Markov chain that can model the stochastic nature of
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As electric vehicle market penetration grows steadily and charging demand along with it, the analysis of daily usage gains in significance. We propose in this paper a simple yet powerful tool based on a Markov chain that can model the stochastic nature of day to day usage of a charging station if adequate datasets on travel patterns are available. The model is generic and therefore can be tailored to different locations with different features. Within this work, we conducted a case study with the aim to verify the algorithm. By an additional sensitivity analysis, impacts of the made assumptions are considered. With a final analysis of two charging tariff designs the model provides valuable stochastic information about electricity consumption and annual revenues at a location of interest. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Electrical Characterization and Micro X-ray Computed Tomography Analysis of Next-Generation Silicon Alloy Lithium-Ion Cells
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030043
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
This study analyzed a prototype of a pouch cell containing silicon alloy anodes with the potential to significantly increase the energy density, resulting in improved autonomy for electric vehicles. An electrical characterization campaign was performed, resulting in three main observations. Firstly, measurements showed
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This study analyzed a prototype of a pouch cell containing silicon alloy anodes with the potential to significantly increase the energy density, resulting in improved autonomy for electric vehicles. An electrical characterization campaign was performed, resulting in three main observations. Firstly, measurements showed a high energy density, although a high lower cutoff voltage (3.0 V) was used due to the prototypical nature of the cells. Further optimization would allow a decrease of the lower cutoff voltage, resulting in an even higher energy density. Secondly, a large open-circuit voltage hysteresis was observed, increasing the complexity for equivalent circuit models. Thirdly, ballooning of the pouch cell was observed, most likely caused by gas formation. This leads to a loss of active surface area, significantly reducing the cell’s capacity. This third observation was more thoroughly investigated by 3D computed tomography, which showed mechanical deformation of the layers. An extensive literature review revealed that the addition of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the electrolyte enhances the cycling stability of silicon alloy batteries but leads to the production of CO 2 as a side reaction. Furthermore, the usage of external pressure was proposed and validated as a methodology to reduce the production of CO 2 while improving the cells’ performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Predicting the Future Manufacturing Cost of Batteries for Plug-In Vehicles for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2017–2025 Light-Duty Greenhouse Gas Standards
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030042
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 6 October 2018
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Abstract
In developing the U.S. 2017–2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) modeled lithium-ion battery packs for future electrified vehicles to estimate their direct manufacturing costs through 2025. As part of the 2016 Midterm Evaluation of the standards
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In developing the U.S. 2017–2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) modeled lithium-ion battery packs for future electrified vehicles to estimate their direct manufacturing costs through 2025. As part of the 2016 Midterm Evaluation of the standards for model years (MY) 2022 to 2025, the analysis was revised to account for developments in battery design since the 2012 rulemaking. This paper describes the methodology that was used for estimating battery capacity, power, and cost, and compares the projected cost estimates to other sources. An empirical equation is derived for specifying motor power as a function of target acceleration time, and suggested factors for converting cell-level costs to pack-level costs are developed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Comparison between Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Using a Multi-Dimensional Techno-Economic Assessment Diagram: Concept and Application
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030041
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents a visualization methodology, in the form of a multi-dimensional techno-economic assessment diagram, to comprehensively illustrate the relationship between assumptions (sets of input parameters) and results (corresponding output variables). This methodology is applied to analyze the lifecycle costs and CO2
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This paper presents a visualization methodology, in the form of a multi-dimensional techno-economic assessment diagram, to comprehensively illustrate the relationship between assumptions (sets of input parameters) and results (corresponding output variables). This methodology is applied to analyze the lifecycle costs and CO2 emissions of hybrid vehicles (HVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). This paper then develops an eight-dimensional interactive diagram showing the relative advantages of HVs or EVs in the input space consisting of the following parameters: HV fuel efficiency; EV energy efficiency, total mileage travelled gasoline price, electricity price, battery price, gasoline CO2 intensity, and electricity CO2 intensity. This methodology provides a map illustrating the comprehensive relationship between the inputs and outputs in the model used, where specific scenarios (specific sets of inputs and their outputs) are represented by points plotted on the map. This methodology can be used in systematic comparisons of electric vehicles and related uncertainty analyses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design and Analysis of Partitioned-Stator Switched-Flux Dual-Excitation Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030040
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 26 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, an advanced partitioned-stator switched-flux dual-excitation (PS-SFDE) machine, which is highly suitable for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), is proposed. By artfully implementing two excitation sources, namely the high-power-density permanent-magnet (PM) source and the DC-field excitation source, the proposed machine can take
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In this paper, an advanced partitioned-stator switched-flux dual-excitation (PS-SFDE) machine, which is highly suitable for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), is proposed. By artfully implementing two excitation sources, namely the high-power-density permanent-magnet (PM) source and the DC-field excitation source, the proposed machine can take benefits from both sides. Unlike the existing PS-SFDE machines that sacrifice the PM materials for DC-field winding accommodation, the proposed machine instead shares the space of the armature winding with the DC-field winding. Hence, comparable power and torque levels can be potentially achieved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Battery Health Monitoring and Degradation Prognosis in Fleet Management Systems
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030039
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
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Abstract
Today, fleet management systems with battery health monitoring capabilities are in the focus more than ever. This paper addresses the development of a novel battery health monitoring algorithm with a degradation prognosis feasibility particularly adapted for usage in fleet management systems. Moreover, the
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Today, fleet management systems with battery health monitoring capabilities are in the focus more than ever. This paper addresses the development of a novel battery health monitoring algorithm with a degradation prognosis feasibility particularly adapted for usage in fleet management systems. Moreover, the chosen degradation prognosis approach adapts itself continuously on varying environmental conditions or utilization modes by identifying the impact factors which lead to a certain degradation trend. Such findings, when accessible with a fleet management system, offer various possibilities for fleet analysis techniques e.g., to identify an imminent battery failure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Policy Considerations for Zero-Emission Vehicle Infrastructure Incentives: Case Study in Canada
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030038
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract
Transportation accounts for more than 20% of the total Greenouse Gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. Switching from fossil fuels to more environmentally friendly energy sources and to Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) is a promising option for future transportation but well to wheel emission and
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Transportation accounts for more than 20% of the total Greenouse Gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. Switching from fossil fuels to more environmentally friendly energy sources and to Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) is a promising option for future transportation but well to wheel emission and charging/refuelling patterns must also be considered. This paper investigates the barriers to and opportunities for electric charging and hydrogen refueling infrastructure incentives in Ontario, Canada and estimates the number of Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs) that would be offset by infrastructure incentives. The paper also assesses the potential of electric and hybrid-electric powertrains to enable GHG reductions, explores the impact of the electricity supply mix for supporting zero-emission vehicles in different scenarios and studies the effect of the utility factor for PHEVs in Ontario. The authors compare the use of electric vehicle charging infrastructures and hydrogen refueling stations regarding overall GHG emission reductions for an infrastructure incentive funded by a 20-million-dollar government grant. The results suggest that this incentive can provide infrastructure that can offset around 9000 ICEVs vehicles using electricity charging infrastructure and 4000–8700 when using hydrogen refuelling stations. Having appropriate limitations and policy considerations for the potential 1.7 million electric-based vehicles that may be in use by 2024 in Ontario would result in 5–7 million tonne GHG avoidances in different scenarios, equivalent to the removal of 1–1.5 million ICEVs from the road. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Approach for an Easily Detachable Electric Drive Unit for Off-the-Shelf Bicycles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030037
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract
While an increasing number of electric bicycles are sold, the majority is still conventional, i.e., pedal powered.Electric bicycles could raise the share of people cycling in place of more inefficient modes of transportation. This paper investigates and proposes a new approach for an
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While an increasing number of electric bicycles are sold, the majority is still conventional, i.e., pedal powered.Electric bicycles could raise the share of people cycling in place of more inefficient modes of transportation. This paper investigates and proposes a new approach for an electric drive unit that can easily be attached and detached to a large majority of existing off-the-shelf bicycles to convert them into legal electric assisted bicycles (pedelecs). Different drive mechanisms were investigated and a design with a friction roller at the rear wheel showed the greatest potential. A good solution is achieved with a single unit that incorporates batteries, electronics, motors and sensors in a single enclosure to minimize the mounting time. With a fastening on the seat stay tube using a simple clamp mechanism it can assist the cyclist on most existing bicycles. The legally-required pedal detection is done with an integrated proximity sensor. A prototype is built to prove a simple and nonspecific installation and convenient usage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Survey on User Acceptance of Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030036
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
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Abstract
This study presents results of a survey-based analysis on user acceptance of wireless electric vehicle charging. A structural equation model is developed based on Davis’ technology acceptance model (TAM). It is expanded integrating elements of Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior (TPB). The main
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This study presents results of a survey-based analysis on user acceptance of wireless electric vehicle charging. A structural equation model is developed based on Davis’ technology acceptance model (TAM). It is expanded integrating elements of Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior (TPB). The main factors influencing acceptance of wireless electric vehicle charging are evaluated and analyzed. Empirical findings indicate that survey participants’ acceptance of wireless electric vehicle charging is mainly influenced by affective evaluations of wireless charging, subjective norms, perceived usefulness of wireless charging, and environmental awareness. The results indicate a high degree of acceptance for wireless charging. Even individuals with lower degrees of acceptance are willing to use wireless charging within car-sharing or commercial fleets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle V2G—An Economic Gamechanger in E-Mobility?
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9030035
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
The Vehicle-2-grid (V2G) technology enabling bidirectional charging between electric vehicles and the energy grid system for frequency regulation and load balancing has the potential of significantly improving the financial viability of electric mobility. This paper has identified that the introduction of V2G offers
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The Vehicle-2-grid (V2G) technology enabling bidirectional charging between electric vehicles and the energy grid system for frequency regulation and load balancing has the potential of significantly improving the financial viability of electric mobility. This paper has identified that the introduction of V2G offers a plethora of potentially beneficial business models, which primarily focus on providing stability services to the energy grid and optimizing the economic benefits of owning an EV. Within these overarching categories, it is likely that several niche business models will emerge, as the current V2G concepts include the integration of intermittent renewable energy into the grid, reduction of peak load, charging optimization, and regulation of participating capacity. Most important is the balancing of the five market factors in order to create a profitable business case, as this is what makes V2G move from a potential revenue generator to a profitable business. Full article
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