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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

How expensive are electric vehicles? A total cost of ownership analysis.

Vrije Universiteit Brussel, MOBI Research Group, Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussels, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(4), 996-1007;
Published: 27 December 2013
PDF [597 KB, uploaded 18 May 2018]


This paper presents a total cost of ownership (TCO) model for three different car segments. The goal is to investigate the cost efficiency of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. All costs that occur during the expected vehicle’s lifespan are included: purchase cost, registration tax, vehicle road tax, maintenance, tires and technical control cost, insurance cost, battery leasing cost, battery replacement cost and fuel or electricity cost. Results are shown per vehicle segment and illustrate the share of all cost components. We find that current electric vehicles are only cost attractive within the premium car segment.
Keywords: Total cost of ownership; electric vehicles Total cost of ownership; electric vehicles
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lebeau, K.; Lebeau, P.; Macharis, C.; Van Mierlo, J. How expensive are electric vehicles? A total cost of ownership analysis.. World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6, 996-1007.

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