Next Article in Journal
Predictive Model-Based Process Start-Up in Pharmaceutical Continuous Granulation and Drying
Previous Article in Journal
Antitumor Features of Vegetal Protein-Based Nanotherapeutics
Previous Article in Special Issue
Improved Understanding of the High Shear Wet Granulation Process under the Paradigm of Quality by Design Using Salvia miltiorrhiza Granules
Open AccessArticle

Along the Process Chain to Probiotic Tablets: Evaluation of Mechanical Impacts on Microbial Viability

Institute for Particle Technology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Volkmaroder Straße 5, 38104 Braunschweig, Germany
Center of Pharmaceutical Engineering (PVZ), Technische Universität Braunschweig, Franz-Liszt-Straße 35A, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(1), 66;
Received: 20 December 2019 / Revised: 10 January 2020 / Accepted: 12 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Powder Processing in Pharmaceutical Applications)
Today, probiotics are predominantly used in liquid or semi-solid functionalized foods, showing a rapid loss of cell viability. Due to the increasing spread of antibiotic resistance, probiotics are promising in pharmaceutical development because of their antimicrobial effects. This increases the formulation requirements, e.g., the need for an enhanced shelf life that is achieved by drying, mainly by lyophilization. For oral administration, the process chain for production of tablets containing microorganisms is of high interest and, thus, was investigated in this study. Lyophilization as an initial process step showed low cell survival of only 12.8%. However, the addition of cryoprotectants enabled survival rates up to 42.9%. Subsequently, the dried cells were gently milled. This powder was tableted directly or after mixing with excipients microcrystalline cellulose, dicalcium phosphate or lactose. Survival rates during tableting varied between 1.4% and 24.1%, depending on the formulation and the applied compaction stress. More detailed analysis of the tablet properties showed advantages of excipients in respect of cell survival and tablet mechanical strength. Maximum overall survival rate along the complete manufacturing process was >5%, enabling doses of 6 × 108 colony forming units per gram (CFU gtotal-1), including cryoprotectants and excipients.
Keywords: compaction; formulation; freeze-drying; probiotics; Saccharomyces cerevisiae compaction; formulation; freeze-drying; probiotics; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Vorländer, K.; Kampen, I.; Finke, J.H.; Kwade, A. Along the Process Chain to Probiotic Tablets: Evaluation of Mechanical Impacts on Microbial Viability. Pharmaceutics 2020, 12, 66.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop