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Pharmaceutics, Volume 11, Issue 6 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) has been widely used for biomedical applications due to its [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Phytosomes with Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) Extract: Preparation and Preliminary Demonstration of In Vivo Tolerability
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060296
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.), a fruit rich in phenolic compounds (PCs), has been considered effective in mitigating oxidative damage induced by an excess of reactive oxygen species. Due to large molecular weight and intrinsic instability in some physiological fluids, PCs’ passage through [...] Read more.
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.), a fruit rich in phenolic compounds (PCs), has been considered effective in mitigating oxidative damage induced by an excess of reactive oxygen species. Due to large molecular weight and intrinsic instability in some physiological fluids, PCs’ passage through biological membranes is very limited. Carriers like phytosomes are promising systems to optimize oral absorption of encapsulated extracts. This work prepared and fully characterized phytosomes containing bioactive phenolic extracts from persimmon in terms of size, surface charge, encapsulation efficiency and stability over six months. These phytosomes were orally dosed to Wistar rats during a 15-day period. Afterwards, haematological and biochemical analyses were performed. Monodisperse phytosomes were successfully prepared, with size less than 300nm (PI < 0.3) and high encapsulation efficiency (97.4%) of PCs. In contrast to free extract, extract-loaded phytosomes had higher antioxidant activity after 6 months storage. Oral administration of extract-loaded phytosomes and free extract did not lead to lipidic profile changes and were within referenced normal ranges, as well as glycaemia levels and urine parameters. The results highlighted the potential of persimmon PCs as food supplements or pharmacological tools, suggesting a promising and safe phytosomal formulation containing bioactive agents of persimmon that could lead to health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Design in Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
β-Cyclodextrin as a Functional Excipient Used for Enhancing the Diminazene Aceturate Bioavailability
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060295
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 16 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract
In this study, we proposed formulations of diminazene aceturate (DA) designed to improve its bioavailability and to maximize the therapeutic index in animals by overcoming the rapid degradation under the acidic pH of the stomach. An important consequence is the fact that its [...] Read more.
In this study, we proposed formulations of diminazene aceturate (DA) designed to improve its bioavailability and to maximize the therapeutic index in animals by overcoming the rapid degradation under the acidic pH of the stomach. An important consequence is the fact that its amount in the bloodstream is close to the administered dose. This was made possible by incorporating DA into the β-cyclodextrin’s (βCD) cavity in a molar ratio of 1:1. The structure of the resulted inclusion complex was established by Raman, DSC, and Wide-Angle X ray Diffraction (WAXD) in solid state and by 1H-NMR and H-H ROESY in aqueous solutions. The stoichiometry of the DA:βCD inclusion complex was obtained by using the continuous variation method (Job’s plot), considering the chemical shifts variations of protons from both DA and βCD compounds in 1H-NMR spectra. The biological activity was estimated in vitro by antioxidant activity and in vivo by comparing the bioavailability of parent DA and its inclusion complexes after a single dose administration in Wistar rats by using the HPLC method on their blood plasma. In vitro tests showed an improved antioxidant activity. In vivo tests have shown that the DA concentration is always much higher in blood plasma of rats when DA:βCD inclusion complex of 1:1 molar ratio was administered (i.e., at 60 min, DA is around 11 and 3 times higher when DA:βCD inclusion complex of 1:1 molar ratio was administered than the parent DA one and DA:βCD lyophilized mixture of 1:2 molar ratio, respectively). Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nanoparticle- and Nanoporous-Membrane-Mediated Delivery of Therapeutics
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060294
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
Pharmaceutical particulates and membranes possess promising prospects for delivering drugs and bioactive molecules with the potential to improve drug delivery strategies like sustained and controlled release. For example, inorganic-based nanoparticles such as silica-, titanium-, zirconia-, calcium-, and carbon-based nanomaterials with dimensions smaller than [...] Read more.
Pharmaceutical particulates and membranes possess promising prospects for delivering drugs and bioactive molecules with the potential to improve drug delivery strategies like sustained and controlled release. For example, inorganic-based nanoparticles such as silica-, titanium-, zirconia-, calcium-, and carbon-based nanomaterials with dimensions smaller than 100 nm have been extensively developed for biomedical applications. Furthermore, inorganic nanoparticles possess magnetic, optical, and electrical properties, which make them suitable for various therapeutic applications including targeting, diagnosis, and drug delivery. Their properties may also be tuned by controlling different parameters, e.g., particle size, shape, surface functionalization, and interactions among them. In a similar fashion, membranes have several functions which are useful in sensing, sorting, imaging, separating, and releasing bioactive or drug molecules. Engineered membranes have been developed for their usage in controlled drug delivery devices. The latest advancement in the technology is therefore made possible to regulate the physico-chemical properties of the membrane pores, which enables the control of drug delivery. The current review aims to highlight the role of both pharmaceutical particulates and membranes over the last fifteen years based on their preparation method, size, shape, surface functionalization, and drug delivery potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Co-delivery of D-(KLAKLAK)2 Peptide and Chlorin e6 using a Liposomal Complex for Synergistic Cancer Therapy
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060293
Received: 4 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
Nanotechnology-based photo-chemo combination therapy has been extensively investigated to improve therapeutic outcomes in anticancer treatment. Specifically, with the help of a singlet oxygen generated by the photosensitizer, the endocytosed nanoparticles are allowed to escape from the endosomal compartment, which is currently an obstacle [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology-based photo-chemo combination therapy has been extensively investigated to improve therapeutic outcomes in anticancer treatment. Specifically, with the help of a singlet oxygen generated by the photosensitizer, the endocytosed nanoparticles are allowed to escape from the endosomal compartment, which is currently an obstacle in nanotechnology-based anticancer therapy. In this study, a liposomal complex system (Lipo (Pep, Ce6)), composed of a chlorin e6-conjugated di-block copolymer (PEG-PLL(-g-Ce6)) and a D-(KLAKLAK)2 peptide loading liposome (Lipo (Pep)), was developed and evaluated for its anticancer activity. Due to the membrane lytic ability of the D-(KLAKLAK)2 peptide and the membrane disruptive effect of the singlet oxygen generated from chlorin e6, Lipo (Pep, Ce6) accelerated the disruption of the endosomal compartment, and exhibited strong synergistic anticancer activity in vitro. The prepared liposomal complex system could potentially maximize the efficacy of the nanotechnology-based photo-chemo combination therapy, and can be regarded as a novel, versatile strategy in advanced tumor therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Formulation Approaches for Targeted Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessReview
Chemotherapy Based on Supramolecular Chemistry: A Promising Strategy in Cancer Therapy
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060292
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
Chemotherapeutic agents are considered one of the strategies in treating cancer. However, their use is faced by many challenges, such as poor water solubility leading to poor bioavailability and non-selective targeting of cancerous cells leading to diminished therapeutic actions and systemic adverse effects. [...] Read more.
Chemotherapeutic agents are considered one of the strategies in treating cancer. However, their use is faced by many challenges, such as poor water solubility leading to poor bioavailability and non-selective targeting of cancerous cells leading to diminished therapeutic actions and systemic adverse effects. Many approaches were adopted to overcome these drawbacks and to achieve the targeted delivery of the chemotherapeutic agents to the cancerous cells while minimizing adverse effects. Recently, supramolecular systems such as macrocycles have gained attention in the field of cancer therapy for being able to encapsulate different anticancer drugs via either host-guest complexation or self-assembly leading to a myriad of advantages. This review highlights the most recent studies concerned with the design of such novel systems for cancer therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Terahertz Spectroscopy: An Investigation of the Structural Dynamics of Freeze-Dried Poly Lactic-co-glycolic Acid Microspheres
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060291
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
Biodegradable poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres can be used to encapsulate peptide and offer a promising drug-delivery vehicle. In this work we investigate the dynamics of PLGA microspheres prepared by freeze-drying and the molecular mobility at lower temperatures leading to the glass transition [...] Read more.
Biodegradable poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres can be used to encapsulate peptide and offer a promising drug-delivery vehicle. In this work we investigate the dynamics of PLGA microspheres prepared by freeze-drying and the molecular mobility at lower temperatures leading to the glass transition temperature, using temperature-variable terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) experiments. The microspheres were prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double-emulsion technique and subsequent freeze-drying of the samples. Physical characterization was performed by morphology measurements, scanning electron microscopy, and helium pycnometry. The THz-TDS data show two distinct transition processes, T g , β in the range of 167–219 K, associated with local motions, and T g , α in the range of 313–330 K, associated with large-scale motions, for the microspheres examined. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements in the mid-infrared, we were able to characterize the interactions between a model polypeptide, exendin-4, and the PLGA copolymer. We observe a relationship between the experimentally determined T g , β and T g , α and free volume and microsphere dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PLGA Based Drug Carrier and Pharmaceutical Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Controlled Release Film Forming Systems in Drug Delivery: The Potential for Efficient Drug Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060290
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 19 May 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
Despite many available approaches for transdermal drug delivery, patient compliance and drug targeting at the desired concentration are still concerns for effective therapies. Precise and efficient film-forming systems provide great potential for controlling drug delivery through the skin with the combined advantages of [...] Read more.
Despite many available approaches for transdermal drug delivery, patient compliance and drug targeting at the desired concentration are still concerns for effective therapies. Precise and efficient film-forming systems provide great potential for controlling drug delivery through the skin with the combined advantages of films and hydrogels. The associated disadvantages of both systems (films and hydrogels) will be overcome in film-forming systems. Different strategies have been designed to control drug release through the skin, including changes to film-forming polymers, plasticizers, additives or even model drugs in formulations. In the current review, we aim to discuss the recent advances in film-forming systems to provide the principles and review the methods of these systems as applied to controlled drug release. Advances in the design of film-forming systems open a new generation of these systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Use of nPSi-βCD Composite Microparticles for the Controlled Release of Caffeic Acid and Pinocembrin, Two Main Polyphenolic Compounds Found in a Chilean Propolis
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060289
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Propolis is widely recognized for its various therapeutic properties. These are attributed to its rich composition in polyphenols, which exhibit multiple biological properties (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic). Despite its multiple benefits, oral administration of polyphenols results in low bioavailability at the action site. [...] Read more.
Propolis is widely recognized for its various therapeutic properties. These are attributed to its rich composition in polyphenols, which exhibit multiple biological properties (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic). Despite its multiple benefits, oral administration of polyphenols results in low bioavailability at the action site. An alternative to face this problem is the use of biomaterials at nano-micro scale due to its high versatility as carriers and delivery systems of various drugs and biomolecules. The aim of this work is to determine if nPSi-βCD microparticles are a suitable material for the load and controlled release of caffeic acid (CA) and pinocembrin (Pin), two of the main components of a Chilean propolis with anti-atherogenic and anti-angiogenic activity. Polyphenols and nPSi-βCD microparticles cytocompatibility studies were carried out with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results from physicochemical characterization demonstrated nPSi-βCD microparticles successfully retained and controlled release CA and Pin. Furthermore, nPSi-βCD microparticles presented cytocompatibility with HUVECs culture at concentrations of 0.25 mg/mL. These results suggest that nPSi-βCD microparticles could safely be used as an alternate oral delivery system to improve controlled release and bioavailability of CA or Pin—and eventually other polyphenols—thus enhancing its therapeutic effect for the treatment of different diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Polymers for Controlled Drug Release)
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Open AccessArticle
Polymeric Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Enhanced Delivery of 5-Fluorouracil In Vitro
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060288
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
There is a need for the improvement of conventional cancer treatment strategies by incorporation of targeted and non-invasive procedures aimed to reduce side-effects, drug resistance, and recurrent metastases. The anti-cancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), is linked to a variety of induced-systemic toxicities due to [...] Read more.
There is a need for the improvement of conventional cancer treatment strategies by incorporation of targeted and non-invasive procedures aimed to reduce side-effects, drug resistance, and recurrent metastases. The anti-cancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), is linked to a variety of induced-systemic toxicities due to its lack of specificity and potent administration regimens, necessitating the development of delivery vehicles that can enhance its therapeutic potential, while minimizing associated side-effects. Polymeric mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have gained popularity as delivery vehicles due to their high loading capacities, biocompatibility, and good pharmacokinetics. MSNs produced in this study were functionalized with the biocompatible polymers, chitosan, and poly(ethylene)glycol to produce monodisperse NPs of 36–65 nm, with a large surface area of 710.36 m2/g, large pore volume, diameter spanning 9.8 nm, and a favorable zeta potential allowing for stability and enhanced uptake of 5-FU. Significant drug loading (0.15–0.18 mg5FU/mgmsn), controlled release profiles (15–65%) over 72 hours, and cell specific cytotoxicity in cancer cells (Caco-2, MCF-7, and HeLa) with reduced cell viability (≥50%) over the non-cancer (HEK293) cells were established. Overall, these 5FU-MSN formulations have been shown to be safe and effective delivery systems in vitro, with potential for in vivo applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quaternary Ammonium Leucine-Based Surfactants: The Effect of a Benzyl Group on Physicochemical Properties and Antimicrobial Activity
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060287
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Quaternary ammonium amphiphiles are a class of compounds with a wide range of commercial and industrial uses. In the pharmaceutical field, the most common quaternary ammonium surfactant is benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is employed as a preservative in several topical formulations for ocular, [...] Read more.
Quaternary ammonium amphiphiles are a class of compounds with a wide range of commercial and industrial uses. In the pharmaceutical field, the most common quaternary ammonium surfactant is benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is employed as a preservative in several topical formulations for ocular, skin, or nasal application. Despite the broad antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungi and small enveloped viruses, safety concerns regarding its irritant and cytotoxic effect on epithelial cells still remain. In this work, quaternary ammonium derivatives of leucine esters (C10, C12 and C14) were synthesised as BAC analogues. These cationic surfactants were characterised in terms of critical micelle concentration (CMC, by tensiometry), cytotoxicity (MTS and LDH assays on the Caco-2 and Calu-3 cell lines) and antimicrobial activity on the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis among the Gram-positives, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa among the Gram-negatives and the yeast Candida albicans. They showed satisfactory surface-active properties, and a cytotoxic effect that was dependent on the length of the hydrophobic chain. Lower minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) values were calculated for C14-derivatives, which were comparable to those calculated for BAC toward Gram-positive bacteria and slightly higher for Gram-negative bacteria and C. albicans. Thus, the synthesised leucine-based quaternary ammonium cationic surfactants can potentially find application as promising surface-active compounds with antimicrobial activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Population Pharmacokinetic Approach to Explain the Differences between Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Volunteers via Protein Binding
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060286
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
The pharmacokinetics in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has long been thought to differ considerably from that in healthy volunteers. For highly protein bound β-lactams, profound pharmacokinetic differences were observed between comparatively morbid patients with CF and healthy volunteers. These differences could be [...] Read more.
The pharmacokinetics in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has long been thought to differ considerably from that in healthy volunteers. For highly protein bound β-lactams, profound pharmacokinetic differences were observed between comparatively morbid patients with CF and healthy volunteers. These differences could be explained by body weight and body composition for β-lactams with low protein binding. This study aimed to develop a novel population modeling approach to describe the pharmacokinetic differences between both subject groups by estimating protein binding. Eight patients with CF (lean body mass [LBM]: 39.8 ± 5.4kg) and six healthy volunteers (LBM: 53.1 ± 9.5kg) received 1027.5 mg cefotiam intravenously. Plasma concentrations and amounts in urine were simultaneously modelled. Unscaled total clearance and volume of distribution were 3% smaller in patients with CF compared to those in healthy volunteers. After allometric scaling by LBM to account for body size and composition, the remaining pharmacokinetic differences were explained by estimating the unbound fraction of cefotiam in plasma. The latter was fixed to 50% in male and estimated as 54.5% in female healthy volunteers as well as 56.3% in male and 74.4% in female patients with CF. This novel approach holds promise for characterizing the pharmacokinetics in special patient populations with altered protein binding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Paclitaxel-Loaded Silk Fibroin Nanoparticles: Method Validation by UHPLC-MS/MS to Assess an Exogenous Approach to Load Cytotoxic Drugs
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060285
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this work was to load an anticancer drug, paclitaxel (PTX), on Silk Fibroin Nanoparticles (SFNs) by using an exogenous approach. SFNs were produced, freeze-dried and then loaded with PTX. An exogenous method allowed us to reduce both drug loss and [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to load an anticancer drug, paclitaxel (PTX), on Silk Fibroin Nanoparticles (SFNs) by using an exogenous approach. SFNs were produced, freeze-dried and then loaded with PTX. An exogenous method allowed us to reduce both drug loss and environmental impact. In order to quantify PTX loaded in SFNs, a simple and reliable method using reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (rp-UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed. This methodology was validated by the determination of spiked QC samples in three consecutive days. Good accuracy and precision of the method were obtained, while the intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 10.3%. For PTX, the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 5.0 ng/mL. Recovery from the matrix (SFNs-PTX pellets) was calculated (81.2% at LOQ value) as PTX was entrapped in a new matrix like the polymer silk fibroin-based. This method was successfully applied to determine the encapsulation efficiency (1.00 ± 0.19%) and the nanoparticle loading (0.12 ± 0.02% w/w). The in vitro anticancer activity of SFNs-PTX was tested against CFPAC-1 cancer cells; results demonstrated a very high cytotoxic activity of SFNs-PTX, with a dose dependent inhibition of CFPAC-1 proliferation, confirmed by the IC50 value of 3450 ± 750 ng/mL. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ucuùba (Virola surinamensis) Fat-Based Nanostructured Lipid Carriers for Nail Drug Delivery of Ketoconazole: Development and Optimization Using Box-Behnken Design
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060284
Received: 21 April 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Ucuùba fat is fat obtained from a plant found in South America, mainly in Amazonian Brazil. Due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity, Ucuùba fat was used for the production of ketoconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in view of an application for the treatment [...] Read more.
Ucuùba fat is fat obtained from a plant found in South America, mainly in Amazonian Brazil. Due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity, Ucuùba fat was used for the production of ketoconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in view of an application for the treatment of onychomycosis and other persistent fungal infections. The development and optimization of Ucuùba fat-based NLC were performed using a Box-Behnken design of experiments. The independent variables were surfactant concentration (% w/v), liquid lipids concentration (% w/v), solid lipids concentration (% w/v), while the outputs of interest were particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE). Ucuùba fat-based NLC were produced and the process was optimized by the development of a predictive mathematical model. Applying the model, two formulations with pre-determined particle size, i.e., 30 and 85 nm, were produced for further evaluation. The optimized formulations were characterized and showed particle size in agreement to the predicted value, i.e., 33.6 nm and 74.6 nm, respectively. The optimized formulations were also characterized using multiple techniques in order to investigate the solid state of drug and excipients (DSC and XRD), particle morphology (TEM), drug release and interactions between the formulation components (FTIR). Furthermore, particle size, surface charge and drug loading efficiency of the formulations were studied during a one-month stability study and did not show evidence of significant modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Solid Lipid Micro- and Nanoparticle Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Antibody-Modified Nanobubbles Using Fc-Region-Binding Polypeptides for Ultrasound Imaging
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060283
Received: 20 April 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
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Abstract
Ultrasound (US) imaging is a widely used imaging technique. The use of US contrast agents such as microbubbles, which consist of phospholipids and are filled with perfluorocarbon gases, has become an indispensable component of clinical US imaging, while molecular US imaging has recently [...] Read more.
Ultrasound (US) imaging is a widely used imaging technique. The use of US contrast agents such as microbubbles, which consist of phospholipids and are filled with perfluorocarbon gases, has become an indispensable component of clinical US imaging, while molecular US imaging has recently attracted significant attention in combination with efficient diagnostics. The avidin–biotin interaction method is frequently used to tether antibodies to microbubbles, leading to the development of a molecular targeting US imaging agent. However, avidin still has limitations such as immunogenicity. We previously reported that lipid-based nanobubbles (NBs) containing perfluorocarbon gas are suitable for US imaging and gene delivery. In this paper, we report on the development of a novel antibody modification method for NBs using Fc-region-binding polypeptides derived from protein A/G. First, we prepared anti-CD146 antibody-modified NBs using this polypeptide, resulting in high levels of attachment to human umbilical vein endothelial cells expressing CD146. To examine their targeting ability and US imaging capability, the NBs were administered to tumor-bearing mice. The contrast imaging of antibody-modified NBs was shown to be prolonged compared with that of non-labeled NBs. Thus, this antibody modification method using an Fc-binding polypeptide may be a feasible tool for developing a next-generation antibody-modified US imaging agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano-Bubbles as a New Ultrasound Imaging and Drug Delivery Tool)
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Open AccessArticle
Photodynamic Therapy of Ovarian Carcinoma Cells with Curcumin-Loaded Biodegradable Polymeric Nanoparticles
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060282
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
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Abstract
Accumulation of photosensitisers in photodynamic therapy in healthy tissues is often the cause of unwanted side effects. Using nanoparticles, improved bioavailability and site-specific drug uptake can be achieved. In this study, curcumin, a natural product with anticancer properties, albeit with poor aqueous solubility, [...] Read more.
Accumulation of photosensitisers in photodynamic therapy in healthy tissues is often the cause of unwanted side effects. Using nanoparticles, improved bioavailability and site-specific drug uptake can be achieved. In this study, curcumin, a natural product with anticancer properties, albeit with poor aqueous solubility, was encapsulated in biodegradable polymeric poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (CUR-NP). Dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler anemometry and atomic force microscopy were used to characterise the formulations. Using haemolysis, serum stability and activated partial thromboplastin time tests, the biocompatibility of CUR-NP was assessed. Particle uptake and accumulation were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Therapeutic efficacy of the formulation was tested in SK-OV-3 human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells post low level LED irradiation by determining the generation of reactive oxygen species and cytotoxicity. Pharmacologic inhibitors of cellular uptake pathways were used to identify the particle uptake mechanism. CUR-NP exhibited better physicochemical properties such as stability in the presence of light and improved serum stability compared to free curcumin. In addition, the novel nanoformulation facilitated the use of higher amounts of curcumin and showed strong apoptotic effects on tumour cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PLGA Based Drug Carrier and Pharmaceutical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Epoprostenol Delivered via High Flow Nasal Cannula for ICU Subjects with Severe Hypoxemia Comorbid with Pulmonary Hypertension or Right Heart Dysfunction
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060281
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Inhaled epoprostenol (iEPO) has been utilized to improve oxygenation in mechanically ventilated subjects with severe hypoxemia, but the evidence for iEPO via high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is rare. Following approval by the institutional review board, this retrospective cohort study evaluated subjects who received [...] Read more.
Inhaled epoprostenol (iEPO) has been utilized to improve oxygenation in mechanically ventilated subjects with severe hypoxemia, but the evidence for iEPO via high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is rare. Following approval by the institutional review board, this retrospective cohort study evaluated subjects who received iEPO via HFNC for more than 30 min to treat severe hypoxemia comorbid with pulmonary hypertension or right heart dysfunction between July 2015 and April 2018. A total of 11 subjects were enrolled in the study of whom 4 were male (36.4%), age 57.5 ± 22.1 years, and APACHE II score at ICU admission was 18.5 ± 5.7. Ten subjects had more than three chronic heart or lung comorbidities; seven of them used home oxygen. After inhaling epoprostenol, subjects’ SpO2/FIO2 ratio improved from 107.5 ± 26.3 to 125.5 ± 31.6 (p = 0.026) within 30–60 min. Five subjects (45.5%) had SpO2/FIO2 improvement >20%, which was considered as a positive response. Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were not significantly different. Seven subjects did not require intubation, and seven subjects were discharged home. This retrospective study demonstrated the feasibility of iEPO via HFNC in improving oxygenation. Careful titration of flow while evaluating subjects’ response may help identify responders and avoid delaying other interventions. This study supports the need for a larger prospective randomized control trial to further evaluate the efficacy of iEPO via HFNC in improving outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pulmonary Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessReview
Recent Progress in the Development of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-Based Nanostructures for Cancer Imaging and Therapy
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060280
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Diverse nanosystems for use in cancer imaging and therapy have been designed and their clinical applications have been assessed. Among a variety of materials available to fabricate nanosystems, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) has been widely used due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. [...] Read more.
Diverse nanosystems for use in cancer imaging and therapy have been designed and their clinical applications have been assessed. Among a variety of materials available to fabricate nanosystems, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) has been widely used due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. In order to provide tumor-targeting and diagnostic properties, PLGA or PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) can be modified with other functional materials. Hydrophobic or hydrophilic therapeutic cargos can be placed in the internal space or adsorbed onto the surface of PLGA NPs. Protocols for the fabrication of PLGA-based NPs for cancer imaging and therapy are already well established. Moreover, the biocompatibility and biodegradability of PLGA may elevate its feasibility for clinical application in injection formulations. Size-controlled NP’s properties and ligand–receptor interactions may provide passive and active tumor-targeting abilities, respectively, after intravenous administration. Additionally, the introduction of several imaging modalities to PLGA-based NPs can enable drug delivery guided by in vivo imaging. Versatile platform technology of PLGA-based NPs can be applied to the delivery of small chemicals, peptides, proteins, and nucleic acids for use in cancer therapy. This review describes recent findings and insights into the development of tumor-targeted PLGA-based NPs for use of cancer imaging and therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Formulation Approaches for Targeted Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Synchronized Optical and Acoustic Droplet Vaporization for Effective Sonoporation
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060279
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Inertial cavitation-based sonoporation has been utilized to enhance treatment delivery efficacy. In our previous study, we demonstrated that tumor therapeutic efficacy can be enhanced through vaporization-assisted sonoporation with gold nanodroplets (AuNDs). Specifically, the AuNDs were vaporized both acoustically (i.e., acoustic droplet vaporization, ADV) [...] Read more.
Inertial cavitation-based sonoporation has been utilized to enhance treatment delivery efficacy. In our previous study, we demonstrated that tumor therapeutic efficacy can be enhanced through vaporization-assisted sonoporation with gold nanodroplets (AuNDs). Specifically, the AuNDs were vaporized both acoustically (i.e., acoustic droplet vaporization, ADV) and optically (i.e., optical droplet vaporization, ODV). A continuous wave (CW) laser was used for ODV in combination with an ultrasound pulse for ADV. Although effective for vaporization, the use of a CW laser is not energy efficient and may create unwanted heating and concomitant tissue damage. In this study, we propose the use of a pulsed wave (PW) laser to replace the CW laser. In addition, the PW laser was applied at the rarefaction phase of the ultrasound pulse so that the synergistic effects of ADV and ODV can be expected. Therefore, a significantly lower laser average power can be expected to achieve the vaporization threshold. Compared to the CW laser power at 2 W/cm2 from the previous approach, the PW laser power was reduced to only 0.2404 W/cm2. Furthermore, we also demonstrate in vitro that the sonoporation rate was increased when the PW laser was applied at the rarefaction phase. Specifically, the vaporization signal, the inertial cavitation signal, and the sonoporation rate all displayed a 1-µs period, which corresponded to the period of the 1-MHz acoustic wave used for ADV, as a function of the relative laser delay. The increased sonoporation rate indicates that this technique has the potential to enhance sonoporation-directed drug delivery and tumor therapy with a lower laser power while keeping the cell death rate at the minimum. Photoacoustic imaging can also be performed at the same time since a PW laser is used for the ODV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano-Bubbles as a New Ultrasound Imaging and Drug Delivery Tool)
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Open AccessCommunication
Intracellular PD Modelling (PDi) for the Prediction of Clinical Activity of Increased Rifampicin Dosing
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060278
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
Increasing rifampicin (RIF) dosages could significantly reduce tuberculosis (TB) treatment durations. Understanding the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamics (PK–PD) of increasing RIF dosages could inform clinical regimen selection. We used intracellular PD modelling (PDi) to predict clinical outcomes, primarily time to culture conversion, of [...] Read more.
Increasing rifampicin (RIF) dosages could significantly reduce tuberculosis (TB) treatment durations. Understanding the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamics (PK–PD) of increasing RIF dosages could inform clinical regimen selection. We used intracellular PD modelling (PDi) to predict clinical outcomes, primarily time to culture conversion, of increasing RIF dosages. PDi modelling utilizes in vitro-derived measurements of intracellular (macrophage) and extracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis sterilization rates to predict the clinical outcomes of RIF at increasing doses. We evaluated PDi simulations against recent clinical data from a high dose (35 mg/kg per day) RIF phase II clinical trial. PDi-based simulations closely predicted the observed time-to-patient culture conversion status at eight weeks (hazard ratio: 2.04 (predicted) vs. 2.06 (observed)) for high dose RIF-based treatments. However, PDi modelling was less predictive of culture conversion status at 26 weeks for high-dosage RIF (99% predicted vs. 81% observed). PDi-based simulations indicate that increasing RIF beyond 35 mg/kg/day is unlikely to significantly improve culture conversion rates, however, improvements to other clinical outcomes (e.g., relapse rates) cannot be ruled out. This study supports the value of translational PDi-based modelling in predicting culture conversion rates for antitubercular therapies and highlights the potential value of this platform for the improved design of future clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacokinetics in Optimizing Dosing)
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Open AccessArticle
Fused Deposition Modeling 3D Printing: Test Platforms for Evaluating Post-Fabrication Chemical Modifications and In-Vitro Biological Properties
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060277
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
3D printing is attracting considerable interest for its capacity to produce prototypes and small production runs rapidly. Fused deposit modeling (FDM) was used to produce polyvalent test plates for investigation of the physical, chemical, and in-vitro biological properties of printed materials. The polyvalent [...] Read more.
3D printing is attracting considerable interest for its capacity to produce prototypes and small production runs rapidly. Fused deposit modeling (FDM) was used to produce polyvalent test plates for investigation of the physical, chemical, and in-vitro biological properties of printed materials. The polyvalent test plates (PVTPs) are poly-lactic acid cylinders, 14 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height. The polymer ester backbone was surface modified by a series of ramified and linear oligoamines to increase its hydrophilicity and introduce a positive charge. The chemical modification was verified by FT-IR spectroscopy, showing the introduction of amide and amine functions, and contact angle measurements confirmed increased hydrophilicity. Morphology studies (SEM, optical microscopy) indicated that the modification of PVTP possessed a planar morphology with small pits. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy demonstrated that the polymeric free volume decreased on modification. An MTT-based prolonged cytotoxicity test using Caco-2 cells showed that the PVTPs are non-toxic at the cellular level. The presence of surface oligoamines on the PVTPs reduced biofilm formation by Candida albicans SC5314 significantly. The results demonstrate that 3D printed objects may be modified at their surface by a simple amidation reaction, resulting in a reduced propensity for biofilm colonization and cellular toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Pharmaceuticals and Drug Delivery Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrostatic Precipitation of Submicron Particles in a Molten Carrier
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060276
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
Recently, submicron particles have been discussed as a means to increase the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Separation of these small particles is done with both fibre and membrane filters, as well as electrostatic precipitators. A major disadvantage of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) [...] Read more.
Recently, submicron particles have been discussed as a means to increase the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Separation of these small particles is done with both fibre and membrane filters, as well as electrostatic precipitators. A major disadvantage of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is the agglomerate formation on the precipitation electrode. These agglomerates frequently show low bioavailability, due to the decreased specific surface area and poor wettability. In this work, a new melt electrostatic precipitator was developed and tested to convert submicron particles into a solid dispersion in order to increase the bioavailability of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The submicron particles were generated by spray drying and transferred to the ESP, where the collection electrode is covered with a melt, which served as matrix after solidification. The newly developed melt electrostatic precipitator was able to collect isolated naproxen particles in a molten carrier. A solid naproxen xylitol dispersion was prepared, which showed a reduction of the dissolution time by 82%, and a release of 80% of the total drug, compared to the physical mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Freeze Drying and Spray Drying)
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Open AccessArticle
Tripling the Bioavailability of Rosuvastatin Calcium Through Development and Optimization of an In-Situ Forming Nanovesicular System
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060275
Received: 13 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
In situ forming nanovesicular systems (IFNs) were prepared and optimized to improve Rosuvastatin calcium (RC) oral bioavailability through increasing its solubility and dissolution rate. The IFN was composed of Tween® 80 (T80), cetyl alcohol (CA), in addition to mannitol or Aerosil 200. [...] Read more.
In situ forming nanovesicular systems (IFNs) were prepared and optimized to improve Rosuvastatin calcium (RC) oral bioavailability through increasing its solubility and dissolution rate. The IFN was composed of Tween® 80 (T80), cetyl alcohol (CA), in addition to mannitol or Aerosil 200. A single simple step was adopted for preparation, then the prepared formulations were investigated by analyzing their particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), Zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (EE), and flowability properties. D-optimal design was applied to choose the optimized formulations. The maximum desirability values were 0.754 and 0.478 for the optimized formulations containing 0.05 g CA, 0.18 g T80, and 0.5 g mannitol (OFM) or Aerosil (OFA), respectively. In vitro drug release from the optimized formulations showed a significantly faster dissolution rate when compared to the market product. In vivo performance of the optimized formulations in rabbits was investigated after filling them into enteric-coated capsules. Ultimately, OFA formulation achieved a 3 times increase in RC oral bioavailability in comparison with the market product, supporting the hypothesis of considering IFNs as promising nanocarriers able to boost the bioavailability of BCS class II drugs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
3D Printing of a Multi-Layered Polypill Containing Six Drugs Using a Novel Stereolithographic Method
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060274
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 2 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
Three-dimensional printing (3DP) has demonstrated great potential for multi-material fabrication because of its capability for printing bespoke and spatially separated material conformations. Such a concept could revolutionise the pharmaceutical industry, enabling the production of personalised, multi-layered drug products on demand. Here, we developed [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional printing (3DP) has demonstrated great potential for multi-material fabrication because of its capability for printing bespoke and spatially separated material conformations. Such a concept could revolutionise the pharmaceutical industry, enabling the production of personalised, multi-layered drug products on demand. Here, we developed a novel stereolithographic (SLA) 3D printing method that, for the first time, can be used to fabricate multi-layer constructs (polypills) with variable drug content and/or shape. Using this technique, six drugs, including paracetamol, caffeine, naproxen, chloramphenicol, prednisolone and aspirin, were printed with different geometries and material compositions. Drug distribution was visualised using Raman microscopy, which showed that whilst separate layers were successfully printed, several of the drugs diffused across the layers depending on their amorphous or crystalline phase. The printed constructs demonstrated excellent physical properties and the different material inclusions enabled distinct drug release profiles of the six actives within dissolution tests. For the first time, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of SLA printing as an innovative platform for multi-drug therapy production, facilitating a new era of personalised polypills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Pharmaceuticals and Drug Delivery Devices)
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Open AccessCommunication
Enhancement of Magnetic Hyperthermia by Mixing Synthetic Inorganic and Biomimetic Magnetic Nanoparticles
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060273
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
In this work we report on the synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles of two distinct origins, one inorganic (MNPs) and the other biomimetic (BMNPs), the latter based on a process of bacterial synthesis. Each of these two kinds of particles has its [...] Read more.
In this work we report on the synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles of two distinct origins, one inorganic (MNPs) and the other biomimetic (BMNPs), the latter based on a process of bacterial synthesis. Each of these two kinds of particles has its own advantages when used separately with biomedical purposes. Thus, BMNPs present an isoelectric point below neutrality (around pH 4.4), while MNPs show a zero-zeta potential at pH 7, and appear to be excellent agents for magnetic hyperthermia. This means that the biomimetic particles are better suited to be loaded with drug molecules positively charged at neutral pH (notably, doxorubicin, for instance) and releasing it at the acidic tumor environment. In turn, MNPs may provide their transport capabilities under a magnetic field. In this study it is proposed to use a mixture of both kinds of particles at two different concentrations, trying to get the best from each of them. We study which mixture performs better from different points of view, like stability and magnetic hyperthermia response, while keeping suitable drug transport capabilities. This composite system is proposed as a close to ideal drug vehicle with added enhanced hyperthermia response. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Polyarginine-Conjugated PEG Lipid Grafted Proliposome Formulation for Enhanced Cellular Association of a Protein Drug
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060272
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 7 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to develop an oral proliposomal powder of protein using poly-l-arginine-conjugated 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-poly(ethylene glycol) (DSPE-PEG) (PLD) for enhancing cellular association upon reconstitution and to compare its effects with a non-grafted and PEGylated formulation. Cationic proliposome (CATL), PLD-grafted [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to develop an oral proliposomal powder of protein using poly-l-arginine-conjugated 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-poly(ethylene glycol) (DSPE-PEG) (PLD) for enhancing cellular association upon reconstitution and to compare its effects with a non-grafted and PEGylated formulation. Cationic proliposome (CATL), PLD-grafted CATL (PLD-CATL), PEGylated CATL (PEG CATL), and PLD grafted-PEG CATL (PLD-PEG CATL) were prepared and compared. Successful conjugation between poly-l-arginine and DSPE-PEG was confirmed by 1H NMR and FT-IR. PLD was successfully grafted onto the proliposomal powder during the slurry process. Although reconstituted liposomal sizes of CATL and PLD-CATL were increased by agglomeration, PEGylation reduced the agglomeration and increased the encapsulation. The viabilities of cells treated with both CATL and PLD-CATL formulations were low but increased following PEGylation. With regard to cellular association, PLD-CATL enhanced cellular association/uptake more rapidly than did CATL. Upon PEGylation, PEG CATL showed a lower level of cellular association/uptake compared with CATL while PLD-PEG CATL did not exhibit the rapid cellular association/uptake as seen with PLD-CATL. However, PLD-PEG CATL still enhanced the higher cellular association/uptake than PEG CATL did without PLD. In conclusion, proliposomes with PLD could accelerate cellular association/uptake but also caused high cellular toxicity. PEGylation reduced cellular toxicity and also changed the cellular association pattern of the PLD formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Formulation Approaches for Targeted Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanically Robust Gastroretentive Drug-Delivery Systems Capable of Controlling Dissolution Behaviors of Coground β-Lapachone
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060271
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
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Abstract
In this study, we aimed to design a highly swellable and mechanically robust matrix tablet (SMT) as a gastroretentive drug-delivery system (GRDDS) capable of improving the dissolution behavior of β-lapachone with low aqueous solubility. For the preparation of SMTs, the cogrinding technique and [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to design a highly swellable and mechanically robust matrix tablet (SMT) as a gastroretentive drug-delivery system (GRDDS) capable of improving the dissolution behavior of β-lapachone with low aqueous solubility. For the preparation of SMTs, the cogrinding technique and freeze–thaw method were used to disperse β-lapachone in SMTs in an amorphous state and to enhance the swelling and mechanical properties of SMTs, respectively. As a result, the crystallinity of coground β-lapachone incorporated in the SMTs was found to be considerably decreased; thereby, the dissolution rates of the drug in a simulated gastric fluid could be substantially increased. The SMTs of β-lapachone also demonstrated significantly enhanced swelling and mechanical properties compared to those of a marketed product. The reason for this might be because the physically crosslinked polymeric networks with a porous structure that were formed in SMTs through the freeze–thaw method. In addition, β-lapachone was gradually released from the SMTs in 6 h. Therefore, SMTs of β-lapachone developed in this study could be used as GRDDS with appropriate swelling and mechanical properties for improving the dissolution behavior of hydrophobic drugs such as β-lapachone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Evaluation of Eudragit Matrices for Oral Delivery of BCG Vaccine to Animals
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060270
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
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Abstract
Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals. It is most commonly administered parenterally, but oral delivery is highly advantageous for the immunisation of cattle and wildlife hosts of TB in particular. Since BCG is [...] Read more.
Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals. It is most commonly administered parenterally, but oral delivery is highly advantageous for the immunisation of cattle and wildlife hosts of TB in particular. Since BCG is susceptible to inactivation in the gut, vaccine formulations were prepared from suspensions of Eudragit L100 copolymer powder and BCG in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), containing Tween® 80, with and without the addition of mannitol or trehalose. Samples were frozen at −20 °C, freeze-dried and the lyophilised powders were compressed to produce BCG–Eudragit matrices. Production of the dried powders resulted in a reduction in BCG viability. Substantial losses in viability occurred at the initial formulation stage and at the stage of powder compaction. Data indicated that the Eudragit matrix protected BCG against simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The matrices remained intact in SGF and dissolved completely in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) within three hours. The inclusion of mannitol or trehalose in the matrix provided additional protection to BCG during freeze-drying. Control needs to be exercised over BCG aggregation, freeze-drying and powder compaction conditions to minimise physical damage of the bacterial cell wall and maximise the viability of oral BCG vaccines prepared by dry powder compaction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs via Mesoporous Silica: Impact of Drug Overloading on Release and Thermal Profiles
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060269
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
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Abstract
Among the many methods available for solubility enhancement, mesoporous carriers are generating significant industrial interest. Owing to the spatial confinement of drug molecules within the mesopore network, low solubility crystalline drugs can be converted into their amorphous counterparts, which exhibit higher solubility. This [...] Read more.
Among the many methods available for solubility enhancement, mesoporous carriers are generating significant industrial interest. Owing to the spatial confinement of drug molecules within the mesopore network, low solubility crystalline drugs can be converted into their amorphous counterparts, which exhibit higher solubility. This work aims to understand the impact of drug overloading, i.e., above theoretical monolayer surface coverage, within mesoporous silica on the release behaviour and the thermal properties of loaded drugs. The study also looks at the inclusion of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) to improve amorphisation. Various techniques including DSC, TGA, SEM, assay and dissolution were employed to investigate critical formulation factors of drug-loaded mesoporous silica prepared at drug loads of 100–300% of monolayer surface coverage, i.e., monolayer, double layer and triple layer coverage. A significant improvement in the dissolution of both Felodipine and Furosemide was obtained (96.4% and 96.2%, respectively). However, incomplete drug release was also observed at low drug load in both drugs, possibly due to a reversible adsorption to mesoporous silica. The addition of a polymeric precipitation inhibitor HPMCAS to mesoporous silica did not promote amorphisation. In fact, a partial coating of HPMCAS was observed on the exterior surface of mesoporous silica particles, which resulted in slower release for both drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Solid Dispersion Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Fluoroquinolone Amorphous Polymeric Salts and Dispersions for Veterinary Uses
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060268
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 9 June 2019
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Abstract
Enrofloxacin (ENRO) is a poorly soluble drug used in veterinary medicine. It differs from the more widely used fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin (CIP) by the presence of an ethyl substituent on its piperazine amino group. While a number of recent studies have examined amorphous composite [...] Read more.
Enrofloxacin (ENRO) is a poorly soluble drug used in veterinary medicine. It differs from the more widely used fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin (CIP) by the presence of an ethyl substituent on its piperazine amino group. While a number of recent studies have examined amorphous composite formulations of CIP, little research has been conducted with ENRO in this area. Therefore, the main purpose of this work was to produce amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) of ENRO. The solid-state properties of these samples were investigated and compared to those of the equivalent CIP ASDs, and their water uptake behavior, solubility, dissolution, and antibacterial activity were assessed. Like CIP, X-ray amorphous solid dispersions were obtained when ENRO was ball milled with acidic polymers, whereas the use of neutral polymers resulted in semi-crystalline products. Proton transfer from the carboxylic acids of the polymers to the tertiary amine of ENRO’s piperazine group appears to occur in the ASDs, resulting in an ionic bond between the two components. Therefore, these ASDs can be referred to as amorphous polymeric salts (APSs). The glass transition temperatures of the APSs were significantly higher than that of ENRO, and they were also resistant to crystallization when exposed to high humidity levels. Greater concentrations were achieved with the APSs than the pure drug during solubility and dissolution studies, and this enhancement was sustained for the duration of the experiments. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of ENRO was not affected by APS formation, while the minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations obtained with the APS containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate grade MG (HPMCAS-MG) were significantly lower than those of the pure drug. Therefore, APS formation is one method of improving the pharmaceutical properties of this drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Solid Dispersion Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Hydrophilic Carriers on Structural Transitions and In Vitro Properties of Solid Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11060267
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 8 June 2019
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Abstract
Self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) offer potential for improving the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, their susceptibilities during long term storage and in vivo precipitation issues limit their successful commercial application. To overcome these limitations, SMEDDS can be solidified with solid [...] Read more.
Self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) offer potential for improving the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, their susceptibilities during long term storage and in vivo precipitation issues limit their successful commercial application. To overcome these limitations, SMEDDS can be solidified with solid carriers, thus producing solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (S-SMEDDS). In this study, effects of various hydrophilic carriers on structural transitions and in vitro properties of S-SMEDDS were investigated in order to set up in vitro methods for screening out appropriate carriers for S-SMEDDS. Liquid SMEDDS was prepared and characterized using nimodipine as a model drug. The effects of various hydrophilic carriers on internal microstructure and solubilization of SMEDDS were investigated by conductivity measurement and in vitro dispersion test. The results showed that hydrophilic carriers including dextran 40, maltodextrin and PVP K30 seemed to delay the percolation transition of SMEDDS, allowing it to maintain a microstructure that was more conducive to drug dissolution, thus significantly increasing the solubilization of nimodipine in the self-microemulsifying system and decreasing drug precipitation when dispersed in simulated gastric fluid. S-SMEDDS of nimodipine were prepared by using spray drying with hydrophilic carriers. The effects of various hydrophilic carriers on in vitro properties of S-SMEDDS were investigated by using SEM, DSC, PXRD and in vitro dissolution. The results showed that properties of hydrophilic carriers, especially relative molecular mass of carriers, had obvious influences on surface morphologies of S-SMEDDS, reconstitution of microemulsion and physical state of nimodipine in S-SMEDDS. Considering that in vitro properties of S-SMEDDS are closely related to their pharmacokinetic properties in vivo, the simple and economical in vitro evaluation methods established in this paper can be used to screen solid carriers of S-SMEDDS well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Oral and Buccal Drug Delivery)
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