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Nanoparticle- and Nanoporous-Membrane-Mediated Delivery of Therapeutics

Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials Department, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St (former EL Tahrirst)-Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt
International and Inter-University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala 686560, India
Biophysics Branch, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884, Egypt
Faculty of Engineering, Badr University, Cairo 11829, Egypt
Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, India
Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE113TU, UK
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(6), 294;
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
PDF [8696 KB, uploaded 21 June 2019]


Pharmaceutical particulates and membranes possess promising prospects for delivering drugs and bioactive molecules with the potential to improve drug delivery strategies like sustained and controlled release. For example, inorganic-based nanoparticles such as silica-, titanium-, zirconia-, calcium-, and carbon-based nanomaterials with dimensions smaller than 100 nm have been extensively developed for biomedical applications. Furthermore, inorganic nanoparticles possess magnetic, optical, and electrical properties, which make them suitable for various therapeutic applications including targeting, diagnosis, and drug delivery. Their properties may also be tuned by controlling different parameters, e.g., particle size, shape, surface functionalization, and interactions among them. In a similar fashion, membranes have several functions which are useful in sensing, sorting, imaging, separating, and releasing bioactive or drug molecules. Engineered membranes have been developed for their usage in controlled drug delivery devices. The latest advancement in the technology is therefore made possible to regulate the physico-chemical properties of the membrane pores, which enables the control of drug delivery. The current review aims to highlight the role of both pharmaceutical particulates and membranes over the last fifteen years based on their preparation method, size, shape, surface functionalization, and drug delivery potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmaceutical particulates; membranes; drug delivery systems; bio-imaging; bioactive molecules pharmaceutical particulates; membranes; drug delivery systems; bio-imaging; bioactive molecules

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Mabrouk, M.; Rajendran, R.; Soliman, I.E.; Ashour, M.M.; Beherei, H.H.; Tohamy, K.M.; Thomas, S.; Kalarikkal, N.; Arthanareeswaran, G.; Das, D.B. Nanoparticle- and Nanoporous-Membrane-Mediated Delivery of Therapeutics. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 294.

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