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Viruses, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2016)

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Open AccessReview
Griffithsin: An Antiviral Lectin with Outstanding Therapeutic Potential
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100296
Received: 2 September 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2343 | PDF Full-text (8109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Griffithsin (GRFT), an algae-derived lectin, is one of the most potent viral entry inhibitors discovered to date. It is currently being developed as a microbicide with broad-spectrum activity against several enveloped viruses. GRFT can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at picomolar concentrations, [...] Read more.
Griffithsin (GRFT), an algae-derived lectin, is one of the most potent viral entry inhibitors discovered to date. It is currently being developed as a microbicide with broad-spectrum activity against several enveloped viruses. GRFT can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at picomolar concentrations, surpassing the ability of most anti-HIV agents. The potential to inhibit other viruses as well as parasites has also been demonstrated. Griffithsin’s antiviral activity stems from its ability to bind terminal mannoses present in high-mannose oligosaccharides and crosslink these glycans on the surface of the viral envelope glycoproteins. Here, we review structural and biochemical studies that established mode of action and facilitated construction of GRFT analogs, mechanisms that may lead to resistance, and in vitro and pre-clinical results that support the therapeutic potential of this lectin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lectins as Antiviral)
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Open AccessArticle
The Microtubule Inhibitor Podofilox Inhibits an Early Entry Step of Human Cytomegalovirus
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100295
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 11 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1809 | PDF Full-text (2723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus is a ubiquitous β-herpesvirus that infects many different cell types through an initial binding to cell surface receptors followed by a fusion event at the cell membrane or endocytic vesicle. A recent high-throughput screen to identify compounds that block a step [...] Read more.
Human cytomegalovirus is a ubiquitous β-herpesvirus that infects many different cell types through an initial binding to cell surface receptors followed by a fusion event at the cell membrane or endocytic vesicle. A recent high-throughput screen to identify compounds that block a step prior to viral gene expression identified podofilox as a potent and nontoxic inhibitor. Time-of-addition studies in combination with quantitative-PCR analysis demonstrated that podofilox limits an early step of virus entry at the cell surface. Podofilox was also able to drastically reduce infection by herpes simplex 1, an α-herpesvirus with a very similar entry process to CMV. Podofilox caused a reduced maximal plateau inhibition of infection by viruses with single step binding processes prior to fusion-like Newcastle disease virus, Sendai virus, and influenza A virus or viruses that enter via endocytosis like vesicular stomatitis virus and a clinical-like strain of CMV. These results indicate that microtubules appear to be participating in the post-binding step of virus entry including the pre- and post-penetration events. Modulation of the plasma membrane is required to promote virus entry for herpesviruses, and that podofilox, unlike colchicine or nocodazole, is able to preferentially target microtubule networks at the plasma membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
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Open AccessReview
Ubiquitin in Influenza Virus Entry and Innate Immunity
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100293
Received: 14 September 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3895 | PDF Full-text (2227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Viruses are obligatory cellular parasites. Their mission is to enter a host cell, to transfer the viral genome, and to replicate progeny whilst diverting cellular immunity. The role of ubiquitin is to regulate fundamental cellular processes such as endocytosis, protein degradation, and immune [...] Read more.
Viruses are obligatory cellular parasites. Their mission is to enter a host cell, to transfer the viral genome, and to replicate progeny whilst diverting cellular immunity. The role of ubiquitin is to regulate fundamental cellular processes such as endocytosis, protein degradation, and immune signaling. Many viruses including influenza A virus (IAV) usurp ubiquitination and ubiquitin-like modifications to establish infection. In this focused review, we discuss how ubiquitin and unanchored ubiquitin regulate IAV host cell entry, and how histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), a cytoplasmic deacetylase with ubiquitin-binding activity, mediates IAV capsid uncoating. We also discuss the roles of ubiquitin in innate immunity and its implications in the IAV life cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses 2016 - At the Forefront of Virus-Host Interactions)
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Open AccessReview
Measles to the Rescue: A Review of Oncolytic Measles Virus
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100294
Received: 31 July 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 7485 | PDF Full-text (583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oncolytic virotherapeutic agents are likely to become serious contenders in cancer treatment. The vaccine strain of measles virus is an agent with an impressive range of oncolytic activity in pre-clinical trials with increasing evidence of safety and efficacy in early clinical trials. This [...] Read more.
Oncolytic virotherapeutic agents are likely to become serious contenders in cancer treatment. The vaccine strain of measles virus is an agent with an impressive range of oncolytic activity in pre-clinical trials with increasing evidence of safety and efficacy in early clinical trials. This paramyxovirus vaccine has a proven safety record and is amenable to careful genetic modification in the laboratory. Overexpression of the measles virus (MV) receptor CD46 in many tumour cells may direct the virus to preferentially enter transformed cells and there is increasing awareness of the importance of nectin-4 and signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) in oncolysis. Successful attempts to retarget MV by inserting genes for tumour-specific ligands to antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CD20, CD38, and by engineering the virus to express synthetic microRNA targeting sequences, and “blinding” the virus to the natural viral receptors are exciting measures to increase viral specificity and enhance the oncolytic effect. Sodium iodine symporter (NIS) can also be expressed by MV, which enables in vivo tracking of MV infection. Radiovirotherapy using MV-NIS, chemo-virotherapy to convert prodrugs to their toxic metabolites, and immune-virotherapy including incorporating antibodies against immune checkpoint inhibitors can also increase the oncolytic potential. Anti-viral host immune responses are a recognized barrier to the success of MV, and approaches such as transporting MV to the tumour sites by carrier cells, are showing promise. MV Clinical trials are producing encouraging preliminary results in ovarian cancer, myeloma and cutaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and the outcome of currently open trials in glioblastoma multiforme, mesothelioma and squamous cell carcinoma are eagerly anticipated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Measles Virus Research)
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Open AccessReview
In Vitro and In Vivo Models for the Study of Human Polyomavirus Infection
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100292
Received: 4 August 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1910 | PDF Full-text (479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Developments of genome amplification techniques have rapidly expanded the family of human polyomaviruses (PyV). Following infection early in life, PyV persist in their hosts and are generally of no clinical consequence. High-level replication of PyV can occur in patients under immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory [...] Read more.
Developments of genome amplification techniques have rapidly expanded the family of human polyomaviruses (PyV). Following infection early in life, PyV persist in their hosts and are generally of no clinical consequence. High-level replication of PyV can occur in patients under immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory therapy and causes severe clinical entities, such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, polyomavirus-associated nephropathy or Merkel cell carcinoma. The characterization of known and newly-discovered human PyV, their relationship to human health, and the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis remain to be elucidated. Here, we summarize the most widely-used in vitro and in vivo models to study the PyV-host interaction, pathogenesis and anti-viral drug screening. We discuss the strengths and limitations of the different models and the lessons learned. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association of the Host Immune Response with Protection Using a Live Attenuated African Swine Fever Virus Model
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100291
Received: 22 July 2016 / Revised: 24 September 2016 / Accepted: 16 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1810 | PDF Full-text (3350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of swine caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV). There is no vaccine to prevent the disease and current control measures are limited to culling and restricting animal movement. Swine infected with [...] Read more.
African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of swine caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV). There is no vaccine to prevent the disease and current control measures are limited to culling and restricting animal movement. Swine infected with attenuated strains are protected against challenge with a homologous virulent virus, but there is limited knowledge of the host immune mechanisms generating that protection. Swine infected with Pretoriuskop/96/4 (Pret4) virus develop a fatal severe disease, while a derivative strain lacking virulence-associated gene 9GL (Pret4Δ9GL virus) is completely attenuated. Swine infected with Pret4Δ9GL virus and challenged with the virulent parental virus at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection (dpi) showed a progressive acquisition of protection (from 40% at 7 dpi to 80% at 21 and 28 dpi). This animal model was used to associate the presence of host immune response (ASFV-specific antibody and interferon (IFN)-γ responses, or specific cytokine profiles) and protection against challenge. With the exception of ASFV-specific antibodies in survivors challenged at 21 and 28 dpi, no association between the parameters assessed and protection could be established. These results, encompassing data from 65 immunized swine, underscore the complexity of the system under study, suggesting that protection relies on the concurrence of different host immune mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Nuclear Antiviral Factors against Invading DNA Viruses: The Immediate Fate of Incoming Viral Genomes
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100290
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2072 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, it has been suggested that host cells exert intrinsic mechanisms to control nuclear replicating DNA viruses. This cellular response involves nuclear antiviral factors targeting incoming viral genomes. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is the best-studied model in this context, and it [...] Read more.
In recent years, it has been suggested that host cells exert intrinsic mechanisms to control nuclear replicating DNA viruses. This cellular response involves nuclear antiviral factors targeting incoming viral genomes. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is the best-studied model in this context, and it was shown that upon nuclear entry HSV-1 genomes are immediately targeted by components of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) and the nuclear DNA sensor IFI16 (interferon gamma inducible protein 16). Based on HSV-1 studies, together with limited examples in other viral systems, these phenomena are widely believed to be a common cellular response to incoming viral genomes, although formal evidence for each virus is lacking. Indeed, recent studies suggest that the case may be different for adenovirus infection. Here we summarize the existing experimental evidence for the roles of nuclear antiviral factors against incoming viral genomes to better understand cellular responses on a virus-by-virus basis. We emphasize that cells seem to respond differently to different incoming viral genomes and discuss possible arguments for and against a unifying cellular mechanism targeting the incoming genomes of different virus families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Uncoating and Nuclear Import)
Open AccessArticle
Cutthroat Trout Virus—Towards a Virus Model to Support Hepatitis E Research
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100289
Received: 4 July 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2247 | PDF Full-text (3794 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cutthroat trout virus (CTV) is a non-pathogenic fish virus belonging to the Hepeviridae family, and it is distantly related to hepatitis E virus (HEV). Here, we report the development of an efficient cell culture system where CTV can consistently replicate to titers never [...] Read more.
Cutthroat trout virus (CTV) is a non-pathogenic fish virus belonging to the Hepeviridae family, and it is distantly related to hepatitis E virus (HEV). Here, we report the development of an efficient cell culture system where CTV can consistently replicate to titers never observed before with a hepevirus. By using the rainbow trout gill (RTGill-W1) cell line, CTV reaches 1010 geq/mL intracellularly and 109 geq/mL extracellularly within 5–6 days in culture. We additionally established a qPCR system to investigate CTV infectivity, and developed a specific antibody directed against the viral capsid protein encoded by ORF2. With these methods, we were able to follow the progressive accumulation of viral RNA and the capsid protein, and their intracellular distribution during virus replication. Virus progeny purified through iodixanol density gradients indicated—that similar to HEV—CTV produced in cell culture is also lipid-associated. The lack of an efficient cell culture system has greatly impeded studies with HEV, a major human pathogen that causes hepatitis worldwide. Although several cell culture systems have recently been established, the replication efficiency of HEV is not robust enough to allow studies on different aspects of the virus replication cycle. Therefore, a surrogate virus that can replicate easily and efficiently in cultured cells would be helpful to boost research studies with hepeviruses. Due to its similarities, but also its key differences to HEV, CTV represents a promising tool to elucidate aspects of the replication cycle of Hepeviridae in general, and HEV in particular. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Hepatitis E Virus Research)
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Open AccessReview
Where in the Cell Are You? Probing HIV-1 Host Interactions through Advanced Imaging Techniques
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100288
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 6 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2922 | PDF Full-text (1413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Viruses must continuously evolve to hijack the host cell machinery in order to successfully replicate and orchestrate key interactions that support their persistence. The type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is a prime example of viral persistence within the host, having plagued the human [...] Read more.
Viruses must continuously evolve to hijack the host cell machinery in order to successfully replicate and orchestrate key interactions that support their persistence. The type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is a prime example of viral persistence within the host, having plagued the human population for decades. In recent years, advances in cellular imaging and molecular biology have aided the elucidation of key steps mediating the HIV-1 lifecycle and viral pathogenesis. Super-resolution imaging techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) and photoactivation and localization microscopy (PALM) have been instrumental in studying viral assembly and release through both cell–cell transmission and cell–free viral transmission. Moreover, powerful methods such as Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) have shed light on the protein-protein interactions HIV-1 engages within the host to hijack the cellular machinery. Specific advancements in live cell imaging in combination with the use of multicolor viral particles have become indispensable to unravelling the dynamic nature of these virus-host interactions. In the current review, we outline novel imaging methods that have been used to study the HIV-1 lifecycle and highlight advancements in the cell culture models developed to enhance our understanding of the HIV-1 lifecycle. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hepatitis B Virus Protein X Induces Degradation of Talin-1
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100281
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 6 October 2016 / Accepted: 9 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1722 | PDF Full-text (2996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the infected human hepatocyte, expression of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) accessory protein X (HBx) is essential to maintain viral replication in vivo. HBx critically interacts with the host damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) and the associated ubiquitin ligase machinery, suggesting [...] Read more.
In the infected human hepatocyte, expression of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) accessory protein X (HBx) is essential to maintain viral replication in vivo. HBx critically interacts with the host damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) and the associated ubiquitin ligase machinery, suggesting that HBx functions by inducing the degradation of host proteins. To identify such host proteins, we systematically analyzed the HBx interactome. One HBx interacting protein, talin-1 (TLN1), was proteasomally degraded upon HBx expression. Further analysis showed that TLN1 levels indeed modulate HBV transcriptional activity in an HBx-dependent manner. This indicates that HBx-mediated TLN1 degradation is essential and sufficient to stimulate HBV replication. Our data show that TLN1 can act as a viral restriction factor that suppresses HBV replication, and suggest that the HBx relieves this restriction by inducing TLN1 degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
4EBP-Dependent Signaling Supports West Nile Virus Growth and Protein Expression
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100287
Received: 8 July 2016 / Revised: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 7 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
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Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) is a (+) sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the Flavivirus genus. WNV RNA possesses an m7GpppNm 5′ cap with 2′-O-methylation that mimics host mRNAs preventing innate immune detection and allowing the virus to translate its [...] Read more.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a (+) sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the Flavivirus genus. WNV RNA possesses an m7GpppNm 5′ cap with 2′-O-methylation that mimics host mRNAs preventing innate immune detection and allowing the virus to translate its RNA genome through the utilization of cap-dependent translation initiation effectors in a wide variety of host species. Our prior work established the requirement of the host mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) for optimal WNV growth and protein expression; yet, the roles of the downstream effectors of mTORC1 in WNV translation are unknown. In this study, we utilize gene deletion mutants in the ribosomal protein kinase called S6 kinase (S6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP) pathways downstream of mTORC1 to define the role of mTOR-dependent translation initiation signals in WNV gene expression and growth. We now show that WNV growth and protein expression are dependent on mTORC1 mediated-regulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP/eIF4E) interaction and eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex formation to support viral growth and viral protein expression. We also show that the canonical signals of mTORC1 activation including ribosomal protein s6 (rpS6) and S6K phosphorylation are not required for WNV growth in these same conditions. Our data suggest that the mTORC1/4EBP/eIF4E signaling axis is activated to support the translation of the WNV genome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavivirus Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100286
Received: 9 October 2016 / Revised: 9 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1654 | PDF Full-text (23467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require [...] Read more.
Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4) containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV) is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview
Gene Regulation and Quality Control in Murine Polyomavirus Infection
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100284
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1708 | PDF Full-text (2137 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Murine polyomavirus (MPyV) infects mouse cells and is highly oncogenic in immunocompromised hosts and in other rodents. Its genome is a small, circular DNA molecule of just over 5000 base pairs and it encodes only seven polypeptides. While seemingly simply organized, this virus [...] Read more.
Murine polyomavirus (MPyV) infects mouse cells and is highly oncogenic in immunocompromised hosts and in other rodents. Its genome is a small, circular DNA molecule of just over 5000 base pairs and it encodes only seven polypeptides. While seemingly simply organized, this virus has adopted an unusual genome structure and some unusual uses of cellular quality control pathways that, together, allow an amazingly complex and varied pattern of gene regulation. In this review we discuss how MPyV leverages these various pathways to control its life cycle. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Single Amino Acid Substitution N659D in HIV-2 Envelope Glycoprotein (Env) Impairs Viral Release and Hampers BST-2 Antagonism
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100285
Received: 25 August 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2239 | PDF Full-text (2571 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
BST-2 or tetherin is a host cell restriction factor that prevents the budding of enveloped viruses at the cell surface, thus impairing the viral spread. Several countermeasures to evade this antiviral factor have been positively selected in retroviruses: the human immunodeficiency virus type [...] Read more.
BST-2 or tetherin is a host cell restriction factor that prevents the budding of enveloped viruses at the cell surface, thus impairing the viral spread. Several countermeasures to evade this antiviral factor have been positively selected in retroviruses: the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) relies on the envelope glycoprotein (Env) to overcome BST-2 restriction. The Env gp36 ectodomain seems involved in this anti-tetherin activity, however residues and regions interacting with BST-2 are not clearly defined. Among 32 HIV-2 ROD Env mutants tested, we demonstrated that the asparagine residue at position 659 located in the gp36 ectodomain is mandatory to exert the anti-tetherin function. Viral release assays in cell lines expressing BST-2 showed a loss of viral release ability for the HIV-2 N659D mutant virus compared to the HIV-2 wild type virus. In bst-2 inactivated H9 cells, those differences were lost. Subtilisin treatment of infected cells demonstrated that the N659D mutant was more tethered at the cell surface. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments confirmed a direct molecular link between Env and BST-2 and highlighted an inability of the mutant to bind BST-2. We also tested a virus presenting a truncation of 109 amino acids at the C-terminal part of Env, a cytoplasmic tail partial deletion that is spontaneously selected in vitro. Interestingly, viral release assays and FRET experiments indicated that a full Env cytoplasmic tail was essential in BST-2 antagonism. In HIV-2 infected cells, an efficient Env-mediated antagonism of BST-2 is operated through an intermolecular link involving the asparagine 659 residue as well as the C-terminal part of the cytoplasmic tail. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mutagenic Effects of Ribavirin on Hepatitis E Virus—Viral Extinction versus Selection of Fitness-Enhancing Mutations
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100283
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 October 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2183 | PDF Full-text (844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an important agent of viral hepatitis worldwide, can cause severe courses of infection in pregnant women and immunosuppressed patients. To date, HEV infections can only be treated with ribavirin (RBV). Major drawbacks of this therapy are that RBV is [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an important agent of viral hepatitis worldwide, can cause severe courses of infection in pregnant women and immunosuppressed patients. To date, HEV infections can only be treated with ribavirin (RBV). Major drawbacks of this therapy are that RBV is not approved for administration to pregnant women and that the virus can acquire mutations, which render the intra-host population less sensitive or even resistant to RBV. One of the proposed modes of action of RBV is a direct mutagenic effect on viral genomes, inducing mismatches and subsequent nucleotide substitutions. These transition events can drive the already error-prone viral replication beyond an error threshold, causing viral population extinction. In contrast, the expanded heterogeneous viral population can facilitate selection of mutant viruses with enhanced replication fitness. Emergence of these mutant viruses can lead to therapeutic failure. Consequently, the onset of RBV treatment in chronically HEV-infected individuals can result in two divergent outcomes: viral extinction versus selection of fitness-enhanced viruses. Following an overview of RNA viruses treated with RBV in clinics and a summary of the different antiviral modes of action of this drug, we focus on the mutagenic effect of RBV on HEV intrahost populations, and how HEV is able to overcome lethal mutagenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Hepatitis E Virus Research)
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Open AccessReview
The Immune Response in Measles: Virus Control, Clearance and Protective Immunity
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100282
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 6 October 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3376 | PDF Full-text (589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Measles is an acute systemic viral infection with immune system interactions that play essential roles in multiple stages of infection and disease. Measles virus (MeV) infection does not induce type 1 interferons, but leads to production of cytokines and chemokines associated with nuclear [...] Read more.
Measles is an acute systemic viral infection with immune system interactions that play essential roles in multiple stages of infection and disease. Measles virus (MeV) infection does not induce type 1 interferons, but leads to production of cytokines and chemokines associated with nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) signaling and activation of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NLRP3) inflammasome. This restricted response allows extensive virus replication and spread during a clinically silent latent period of 10–14 days. The first appearance of the disease is a 2–3 day prodrome of fever, runny nose, cough, and conjunctivitis that is followed by a characteristic maculopapular rash that spreads from the face and trunk to the extremities. The rash is a manifestation of the MeV-specific type 1 CD4+ and CD8+ T cell adaptive immune response with lymphocyte infiltration into tissue sites of MeV replication and coincides with clearance of infectious virus. However, clearance of viral RNA from blood and tissues occurs over weeks to months after resolution of the rash and is associated with a period of immunosuppression. However, during viral RNA clearance, MeV-specific antibody also matures in type and avidity and T cell functions evolve from type 1 to type 2 and 17 responses that promote B cell development. Recovery is associated with sustained levels of neutralizing antibody and life-long protective immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Measles Virus Research)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of the Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 (EHV-1) US3-Encoded Protein Kinase in Actin Reorganization and Nuclear Egress
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100275
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 3 October 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1791 | PDF Full-text (3420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by US3 gene (pUS3) of alphaherpesviruses was shown to modulate actin reorganization, cell-to-cell spread, and virus egress in a number of virus species. However, the role of the US3 orthologues of equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 (EHV-1 [...] Read more.
The serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by US3 gene (pUS3) of alphaherpesviruses was shown to modulate actin reorganization, cell-to-cell spread, and virus egress in a number of virus species. However, the role of the US3 orthologues of equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4) has not yet been studied. Here, we show that US3 is not essential for virus replication in vitro. However, growth rates and plaque diameters of a US3-deleted EHV-1 and a mutant in which the catalytic active site was destroyed were significantly reduced when compared with parental and revertant viruses or a virus in which EHV-1 US3 was replaced with the corresponding EHV-4 gene. The reduced plaque sizes were consistent with accumulation of primarily enveloped virions in the perinuclear space of the US3-negative EHV-1, a phenotype that was also rescued by the EHV-4 orthologue. Furthermore, actin stress fiber disassembly was significantly more pronounced in cells infected with parental EHV-1, revertant, or the recombinant EHV-1 expressing EHV-4 US3. Finally, we observed that deletion of US3 in EHV-1 did not affect the expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of infected cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview
Cross- and Co-Packaging of Retroviral RNAs and Their Consequences
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100276
Received: 11 July 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 October 2016 / Published: 11 October 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1659 | PDF Full-text (2157 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Retroviruses belong to the family Retroviridae and are ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles that contain a dimeric RNA genome. Retroviral particle assembly is a complex process, and how the virus is able to recognize and specifically capture the genomic RNA (gRNA) among millions of other [...] Read more.
Retroviruses belong to the family Retroviridae and are ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles that contain a dimeric RNA genome. Retroviral particle assembly is a complex process, and how the virus is able to recognize and specifically capture the genomic RNA (gRNA) among millions of other cellular and spliced retroviral RNAs has been the subject of extensive investigation over the last two decades. The specificity towards RNA packaging requires higher order interactions of the retroviral gRNA with the structural Gag proteins. Moreover, several retroviruses have been shown to have the ability to cross-/co-package gRNA from other retroviruses, despite little sequence homology. This review will compare the determinants of gRNA encapsidation among different retroviruses, followed by an examination of our current understanding of the interaction between diverse viral genomes and heterologous proteins, leading to their cross-/co-packaging. Retroviruses are well-known serious animal and human pathogens, and such a cross-/co-packaging phenomenon could result in the generation of novel viral variants with unknown pathogenic potential. At the same time, however, an enhanced understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these specific interactions makes retroviruses an attractive target for anti-viral drugs, vaccines, and vectors for human gene therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNA Packaging)
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Open AccessReview
Morbillivirus Experimental Animal Models: Measles Virus Pathogenesis Insights from Canine Distemper Virus
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100274
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 30 September 2016 / Published: 11 October 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2975 | PDF Full-text (1288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Morbilliviruses share considerable structural and functional similarities. Even though disease severity varies among the respective host species, the underlying pathogenesis and the clinical signs are comparable. Thus, insights gained with one morbillivirus often apply to the other members of the genus. Since the [...] Read more.
Morbilliviruses share considerable structural and functional similarities. Even though disease severity varies among the respective host species, the underlying pathogenesis and the clinical signs are comparable. Thus, insights gained with one morbillivirus often apply to the other members of the genus. Since the Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes severe and often lethal disease in dogs and ferrets, it is an attractive model to characterize morbillivirus pathogenesis mechanisms and to evaluate the efficacy of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. This review compares the cellular tropism, pathogenesis, mechanisms of persistence and immunosuppression of the Measles virus (MeV) and CDV. It then summarizes the contributions made by studies on the CDV in dogs and ferrets to our understanding of MeV pathogenesis and to vaccine and drugs development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Measles Virus Research)
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Open AccessArticle
A Single Lineage of Hepatitis E Virus Causes Both Outbreaks and Sporadic Hepatitis in Sudan
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100273
Received: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 30 September 2016 / Published: 6 October 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1558 | PDF Full-text (893 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Few studies have reported sporadic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections during non‐outbreak periods in Africa. In this study, the prevalence of HEV infection in Sudan was investigated in 432 patients with acute hepatitis from 12 localities in North Kordofan, and from 152 patients [...] Read more.
Few studies have reported sporadic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections during non‐outbreak periods in Africa. In this study, the prevalence of HEV infection in Sudan was investigated in 432 patients with acute hepatitis from 12 localities in North Kordofan, and from 152 patients involved in smaller outbreaks of hepatitis in the neighbouring Darfur. HEV infection was diagnosed in 147 (25%) patients: 98 from Kordofan and 49 from Darfur. The mortality was 10%; six of the patients who died from the infection were pregnant women. HEV RNA was detected by quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction (RT‐qPCR) in 38 (26%) patients: 22 from Kordofan and 16 from Darfur. Partial open reading frame (ORF) 1 and ORF2 were sequenced from HEV from nine and three patients, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sudanese strains belonged to genotype 1 (HEV1), and confirmed the segregation of African HEV1 strains into one branch divergent from Asian HEV1. It also revealed that the Sudanese strains from this study and from an outbreak in 2004 formed a separate clade with a common ancestor, distinct from strains from the neighbouring Chad and Egypt. This HEV strain has thus spread in a large area of Sudan, where it has caused both sporadic hepatitis E and outbreaks from at least 2004 and onwards. These data demonstrate that hepatitis E is a constant, on‐going public health problem in Sudan and that there is a need for hepatitis E surveillance, outbreak preparedness, and general improvements of the sanitation in these remote areas of the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Hepatitis E Virus Research)
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Open AccessArticle
A Viral Noncoding RNA Complements a Weakened Viral RNA Silencing Suppressor and Promotes Efficient Systemic Host Infection
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100272
Received: 13 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 4 October 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1580 | PDF Full-text (4769 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Systemic movement of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) in Beta macrocarpa depends on viral RNA3, whereas in Nicotiana benthamiana this RNA is dispensable. RNA3 contains a coremin motif of 20 nucleotides essential for the stabilization of noncoding RNA3 (ncRNA3) and for long‐distance [...] Read more.
Systemic movement of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) in Beta macrocarpa depends on viral RNA3, whereas in Nicotiana benthamiana this RNA is dispensable. RNA3 contains a coremin motif of 20 nucleotides essential for the stabilization of noncoding RNA3 (ncRNA3) and for long‐distance movement in Beta species. Coremin mutants that are unable to accumulate ncRNA3 also do not achieve systemic movement in Beta species. A mutant virus carrying a mutation in the p14 viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR), unable to move long distances, can be complemented with the ncRNA3 in the lesion phenotype, viral RNA accumulation, and systemic spread. Analyses of the BNYVV VSR mechanism of action led to the identification of the RNA‐dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) pathway as a target of the virus VSR and the assignment of a VSR function to the ncRNA3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
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Open AccessArticle
Atypical Porcine Pestivirus: A Possible Cause of Congenital Tremor Type A‐II in Newborn Piglets
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100271
Received: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 4 October 2016
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 2535 | PDF Full-text (661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Congenital tremor type A‐II in piglets has been regarded as a transmissible disease since the 1970s, possibly caused by a very recently‐described virus: atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, we describe several strains of APPV in piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremor (10 [...] Read more.
Congenital tremor type A‐II in piglets has been regarded as a transmissible disease since the 1970s, possibly caused by a very recently‐described virus: atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, we describe several strains of APPV in piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremor (10 of 10 farms tested). Piglets on a farm with no history of congenital tremor were PCR‐negative for the virus. To demonstrate a causal relationship between APPV and disease, three gilts were inoculated via intramuscular injection at day 32 of pregnancy. In two of the three litters, vertical transmission of the virus occurred. Clinical signs of congenital tremor were observed in APPV‐infected newborns, yet also two asymptomatic carriers were among the offspring. Piglets of one litter were PCR‐negative for the virus, and these piglets were all without congenital tremors. Long‐term follow up of farm piglets born with congenital tremors showed that the initially high viremia in serum declines at five months of age, but shedding of the virus in feces continues, which explains why the virus remains present at affected farms and causes new outbreaks. We conclude that trans‐placental transmission of APPV and subsequent infection of the fetuses is a very likely cause of congenital tremor type A‐II in piglets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview
Zoonotic Hepatitis E Virus: Classification, Animal Reservoirs and Transmission Routes
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100270
Received: 22 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 September 2016 / Published: 3 October 2016
Cited by 58 | Viewed by 4741 | PDF Full-text (2047 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the past ten years, several new hepatitis E viruses (HEVs) have been identified in various animal species. In parallel, the number of reports of autochthonous hepatitis E in Western countries has increased as well, raising the question of what role these possible [...] Read more.
During the past ten years, several new hepatitis E viruses (HEVs) have been identified in various animal species. In parallel, the number of reports of autochthonous hepatitis E in Western countries has increased as well, raising the question of what role these possible animal reservoirs play in human infections. The aim of this review is to present the recent discoveries of animal HEVs and their classification within the Hepeviridae family, their zoonotic and species barrier crossing potential, and possible use as models to study hepatitis E pathogenesis. Lastly, this review describes the transmission pathways identified from animal sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Hepatitis E Virus Research)
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Open AccessReview
Multi-Omics Studies towards Novel Modulators of Influenza A Virus–Host Interaction
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100269
Received: 28 July 2016 / Revised: 13 September 2016 / Accepted: 22 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3178 | PDF Full-text (3986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Human influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause global pandemics and epidemics. These viruses evolve rapidly, making current treatment options ineffective. To identify novel modulators of IAV–host interactions, we re-analyzed our recent transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, phosphoproteomics, and genomics/virtual ligand screening data. We identified 713 potential [...] Read more.
Human influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause global pandemics and epidemics. These viruses evolve rapidly, making current treatment options ineffective. To identify novel modulators of IAV–host interactions, we re-analyzed our recent transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, phosphoproteomics, and genomics/virtual ligand screening data. We identified 713 potential modulators targeting 199 cellular and two viral proteins. Anti-influenza activity for 48 of them has been reported previously, whereas the antiviral efficacy of the 665 remains unknown. Studying anti-influenza efficacy and immuno/neuro-modulating properties of these compounds and their combinations as well as potential viral and host resistance to them may lead to the discovery of novel modulators of IAV–host interactions, which might be more effective than the currently available anti-influenza therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses 2016 - At the Forefront of Virus-Host Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Replication of Hepatitis E Virus Strain 47832c in an A549-Derived Subclonal Cell Line
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100267
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1947 | PDF Full-text (2699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a human pathogen with increasing importance. The lack of efficient cell culture systems hampers systematic studies on its replication cycle, virus neutralization and inactivation. Here, several cell lines were inoculated with the HEV genotype 3c strain 47832c, previously [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a human pathogen with increasing importance. The lack of efficient cell culture systems hampers systematic studies on its replication cycle, virus neutralization and inactivation. Here, several cell lines were inoculated with the HEV genotype 3c strain 47832c, previously isolated from a chronically infected transplant patient. At 14 days after inoculation the highest HEV genome copy numbers were found in A549 cells, followed by PLC/PRF/5 cells, whereas HepG2/C3A, Huh-7 Lunet BLR and MRC-5 cells only weakly supported virus replication. Inoculation of A549-derived subclone cell lines resulted in most cases in reduced HEV replication. However, the subclone A549/D3 was susceptible to lower virus concentrations and resulted in higher virus yields as compared to parental A549 cells. Transcriptome analysis indicated a downregulation of genes for carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAM) 5 and 6, and an upregulation of the syndecan 2 (SDC2) gene in A549/D3 cells compared to A549 cells. However, treatment of A549/D3 cells or A549 cells with CEACAM- or syndecan 2-specific antisera did not influence HEV replication. The results show that cells supporting more efficient HEV replication can be selected from the A549 cell line. The specific mechanisms responsible for the enhanced replication remain unknown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Hepatitis E Virus Research)
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Open AccessArticle
The VP1u Receptor Restricts Parvovirus B19 Uptake to Permissive Erythroid Cells
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100265
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2055 | PDF Full-text (2174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a small non-enveloped virus and known as the causative agent for the mild childhood disease erythema infectiosum. B19V has an extraordinary narrow tissue tropism, showing only productive infection in erythroid precursor cells in the bone marrow. We recently [...] Read more.
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a small non-enveloped virus and known as the causative agent for the mild childhood disease erythema infectiosum. B19V has an extraordinary narrow tissue tropism, showing only productive infection in erythroid precursor cells in the bone marrow. We recently found that the viral protein 1 unique region (VP1u) contains an N-terminal receptor-binding domain (RBD), which mediates the uptake of the virus into cells of the erythroid lineage. To further investigate the role of the RBD in connection with a B19V-unrelated capsid, we chemically coupled the VP1u of B19V to the bacteriophage MS2 capsid and tested the internalization capacity of the bioconjugate on permissive cells. In comparison, we studied the cellular uptake and infection of B19V along the erythroid differentiation. The results showed that the MS2-VP1u bioconjugate mimicked the specific internalization of the native B19V into erythroid precursor cells, which further coincides with the restricted infection profile. The successful mimicry of B19V uptake demonstrates that the RBD in the VP1u is sufficient for the endocytosis of the viral capsid. Furthermore, the recombinant VP1u competed with B19V uptake into permissive cells, thus excluding a significant alternative uptake mechanism by other receptors. Strikingly, the VP1u receptor appeared to be expressed only on erythropoietin-dependent erythroid differentiation stages that also provide the necessary intracellular factors for a productive infection. Taken together, these findings suggest that the VP1u binds to a yet-unknown erythroid-specific cellular receptor and thus restricts the virus entry to permissive cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Emergence of a Latent Indian Cassava Mosaic Virus from Cassava Which Recovered from Infection by a Non-Persistent Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100264
Received: 6 August 2016 / Revised: 18 September 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2063 | PDF Full-text (2316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The major threat for cassava cultivation on the Indian subcontinent is cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses which are bipartite begomoviruses with DNA A and DNA B components. Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) [...] Read more.
The major threat for cassava cultivation on the Indian subcontinent is cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses which are bipartite begomoviruses with DNA A and DNA B components. Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) cause CMD in India. Two isolates of SLCMV infected the cassava cultivar Sengutchi in the fields near Malappuram and Thiruvananthapuram cities of Kerala State, India. The Malappuram isolate was persistent when maintained in the Madurai Kamaraj University (MKU, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India) greenhouse, whereas the Thiruvananthapuram isolate did not persist. The recovered cassava plants with the non-persistent SLCMV, which were maintained vegetative in quarantine in the University of Basel (Basel, Switzerland) greenhouse, displayed re-emergence of CMD after a six-month period. Interestingly, these plants did not carry SLCMV but carried ICMV. It is interpreted that the field-collected, SLCMV-infected cassava plants were co-infected with low levels of ICMV. The loss of SLCMV in recovered cassava plants, under greenhouse conditions, then facilitated the re-emergence of ICMV. The partial dimer clones of the persistent and non-persistent isolates of SLCMV and the re-emerged isolate of ICMV were infective in Nicotiana benthamiana upon agroinoculation. Studies on pseudo-recombination between SLCMV and ICMV in N. benthamiana provided evidence for trans-replication of ICMV DNA B by SLCMV DNA A. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Characterization of a Trisegmented Mycovirus from the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100268
Received: 21 August 2016 / Revised: 15 September 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1885 | PDF Full-text (19194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus, consisting of three dsRNA genome segments and possibly belonging to the family Chrysoviridae, was isolated from the filamentous phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and designated as Colletotrichum gloeosprioides chrysovirus 1 (CgCV1). The three dsRNAs of the CgCV1 [...] Read more.
A novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus, consisting of three dsRNA genome segments and possibly belonging to the family Chrysoviridae, was isolated from the filamentous phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and designated as Colletotrichum gloeosprioides chrysovirus 1 (CgCV1). The three dsRNAs of the CgCV1 genome with lengths of 3397, 2869, and 2630 bp (dsRNAs1–3) were found to contain a single open reading frame (ORF) putatively encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a capsid protein, and a protease, respectively, all of which exhibited some degree of sequence similarity to the comparable putative proteins encoded by the genus Chrysovirus. The 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions in each dsRNA segment contained similar sequences that were strictly conserved at the termini. Moreover, isometric virus-like particles (VLPs) with a diameter of approximately 40 nm were extracted from fungal mycelia. Phylogenetic analysis based on the conserved dsRNA1-encoded RdRp showed that CgCV1 is a new virus belonging to the Chrysoviridae family. BLAST analysis revealed the presence of CgCV1-like sequences in the chromosomes of Medicago truncatula and Solanum tuberosum. Moreover, some sequences in the transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) library and expressed sequence tag database (ESTdb) of other eudicot and monocot plants were also found to be related to CgCV1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
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Open AccessCommentary
Vesicular Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Transport—Herpesviruses as Pioneers in Cell Biology
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100266
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1590 | PDF Full-text (555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Herpesviruses use a vesicle-mediated transfer of intranuclearly assembled nucleocapsids through the nuclear envelope (NE) for final maturation in the cytoplasm. The molecular basis for this novel vesicular nucleo-cytoplasmic transport is beginning to be elucidated in detail. The heterodimeric viral nuclear egress complex (NEC), [...] Read more.
Herpesviruses use a vesicle-mediated transfer of intranuclearly assembled nucleocapsids through the nuclear envelope (NE) for final maturation in the cytoplasm. The molecular basis for this novel vesicular nucleo-cytoplasmic transport is beginning to be elucidated in detail. The heterodimeric viral nuclear egress complex (NEC), conserved within the classical herpesviruses, mediates vesicle formation from the inner nuclear membrane (INM) by polymerization into a hexagonal lattice followed by fusion of the vesicle membrane with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). Mechanisms of capsid inclusion as well as vesicle-membrane fusion, however, are largely unclear. Interestingly, a similar transport mechanism through the NE has been demonstrated in nuclear export of large ribonucleoprotein complexes during Drosophila neuromuscular junction formation, indicating a widespread presence of a novel concept of cellular nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses 2016 - At the Forefront of Virus-Host Interactions)
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Open AccessReview
Structural Maturation of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase—A Metamorphic Solution to Genomic Instability
Viruses 2016, 8(10), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8100260
Received: 1 July 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2591 | PDF Full-text (8033 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT)—a critical enzyme of the viral life cycle—undergoes a complex maturation process, required so that a pair of p66 precursor proteins can develop conformationally along different pathways, one evolving to form active polymerase and ribonuclease H [...] Read more.
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT)—a critical enzyme of the viral life cycle—undergoes a complex maturation process, required so that a pair of p66 precursor proteins can develop conformationally along different pathways, one evolving to form active polymerase and ribonuclease H (RH) domains, while the second forms a non-functional polymerase and a proteolyzed RH domain. These parallel maturation pathways rely on the structural ambiguity of a metamorphic polymerase domain, for which the sequence–structure relationship is not unique. Recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies utilizing selective labeling techniques, and structural characterization of the p66 monomer precursor have provided important insights into the details of this maturation pathway, revealing many aspects of the three major steps involved: (1) domain rearrangement; (2) dimerization; and (3) subunit-selective RH domain proteolysis. This review summarizes the major structural changes that occur during the maturation process. We also highlight how mutations, often viewed within the context of the mature RT heterodimer, can exert a major influence on maturation and dimerization. It is further suggested that several steps in the RT maturation pathway may provide attractive targets for drug development. Full article
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