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Viruses 2016, 8(10), 271;

Atypical Porcine Pestivirus: A Possible Cause of Congenital Tremor Type A‐II in Newborn Piglets

MSD Animal Health/Intervet International bv., Department Discovery & Technology, Wim de Körverstraat 35, P.O. Box 31, 5830AA Boxmeer, The Netherlands
Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Current address: Aduro Biotech Europe, 5349AB, Oss, The Netherlands
MSD Animal Health/Intervet Nederland bv., Wim de Körverstraat 35, P.O. Box 31, 5830AA Boxmeer, The Netherlands
Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, 3584CL, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Current address: Department of Biochemistry, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
Current address: Vaxxinova GmbH, 48149, Münster, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work and share last authorship.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 4 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Congenital tremor type A‐II in piglets has been regarded as a transmissible disease since the 1970s, possibly caused by a very recently‐described virus: atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, we describe several strains of APPV in piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremor (10 of 10 farms tested). Piglets on a farm with no history of congenital tremor were PCR‐negative for the virus. To demonstrate a causal relationship between APPV and disease, three gilts were inoculated via intramuscular injection at day 32 of pregnancy. In two of the three litters, vertical transmission of the virus occurred. Clinical signs of congenital tremor were observed in APPV‐infected newborns, yet also two asymptomatic carriers were among the offspring. Piglets of one litter were PCR‐negative for the virus, and these piglets were all without congenital tremors. Long‐term follow up of farm piglets born with congenital tremors showed that the initially high viremia in serum declines at five months of age, but shedding of the virus in feces continues, which explains why the virus remains present at affected farms and causes new outbreaks. We conclude that trans‐placental transmission of APPV and subsequent infection of the fetuses is a very likely cause of congenital tremor type A‐II in piglets. View Full-Text
Keywords: pestivirus; congenital tremor; swine; persistent infection; APPV pestivirus; congenital tremor; swine; persistent infection; APPV

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de Groof, A.; Deijs, M.; Guelen, L.; van Grinsven, L.; van Os‐Galdos, L.; Vogels, W.; Derks, C.; Cruijsen, T.; Geurts, V.; Vrijenhoek, M.; Suijskens, J.; van Doorn, P.; van Leengoed, L.; Schrier, C.; Hoek, L. Atypical Porcine Pestivirus: A Possible Cause of Congenital Tremor Type A‐II in Newborn Piglets. Viruses 2016, 8, 271.

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