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Viruses, Volume 2, Issue 3 (March 2010) – 4 articles , Pages 692-781

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Review
Pathogenesis of Noroviruses, Emerging RNA Viruses
Viruses 2010, 2(3), 748-781; https://doi.org/10.3390/v2030748 - 23 Mar 2010
Cited by 97 | Viewed by 16932
Abstract
Human noroviruses in the family Caliciviridae are a major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis. They are responsible for at least 95% of viral outbreaks and over 50% of all outbreaks worldwide. Transmission of these highly infectious plus-stranded RNA viruses occurs primarily through contaminated food [...] Read more.
Human noroviruses in the family Caliciviridae are a major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis. They are responsible for at least 95% of viral outbreaks and over 50% of all outbreaks worldwide. Transmission of these highly infectious plus-stranded RNA viruses occurs primarily through contaminated food or water, but also through person-to-person contact and exposure to fomites. Norovirus infections are typically acute and self-limited. However, disease can be much more severe and prolonged in infants, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Norovirus outbreaks frequently occur in semi-closed communities such as nursing homes, military settings, schools, hospitals, cruise ships, and disaster relief situations. Noroviruses are classified as Category B biodefense agents because they are highly contagious, extremely stable in the environment, resistant to common disinfectants, and associated with debilitating illness. The number of reported norovirus outbreaks has risen sharply since 2002 suggesting the emergence of more infectious strains. There has also been increased recognition that noroviruses are important causes of childhood hospitalization. Moreover, noroviruses have recently been associated with multiple clinical outcomes other than gastroenteritis. It is unclear whether these new observations are due to improved norovirus diagnostics or to the emergence of more virulent norovirus strains. Regardless, it is clear that human noroviruses cause considerable morbidity worldwide, have significant economic impact, and are clinically important emerging pathogens. Despite the impact of human norovirus-induced disease and the potential for emergence of highly virulent strains, the pathogenic features of infection are not well understood due to the lack of a cell culture system and previous lack of animal models. This review summarizes the current understanding of norovirus pathogenesis from the histological to the molecular level, including contributions from new model systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Emerging and Re-Emerging RNA Viruses)
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Article
A Novel System for Identification of Inhibitors of Rift Valley Fever Virus Replication
Viruses 2010, 2(3), 731-747; https://doi.org/10.3390/v2030731 - 18 Mar 2010
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5670
Abstract
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a human and livestock pathogen endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. We have developed a T7-dependent system for the efficient production of RVFV-like particles (RVF-VLPs) based on the virulent ZH-501 strain of RVFV. The RVF-VLPs are capable of performing [...] Read more.
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a human and livestock pathogen endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. We have developed a T7-dependent system for the efficient production of RVFV-like particles (RVF-VLPs) based on the virulent ZH-501 strain of RVFV. The RVF-VLPs are capable of performing a single round of infection, allowing for the study of viral replication, assembly, and infectivity. We demonstrate that these RVF-VLPs are antigenically indistinguishable from authentic RVFV and respond similarly to a wide array of known and previously unknown chemical inhibitors. This system should be useful for screening for small molecule inhibitors of RVFV replication. Full article
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Article
Complete Genomic Sequence of Bacteriophage Felix O1
Viruses 2010, 2(3), 710-730; https://doi.org/10.3390/v2030710 - 09 Mar 2010
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 8233
Abstract
Bacteriophage O1 is a Myoviridae A1 group member used historically for identifying Salmonella. Sequencing revealed a single, linear, 86,155-base-pair genome with 39% average G+C content, 131 open reading frames, and 22 tRNAs. Closest protein homologs occur in Erwinia amylovora phage φEa21-4 and [...] Read more.
Bacteriophage O1 is a Myoviridae A1 group member used historically for identifying Salmonella. Sequencing revealed a single, linear, 86,155-base-pair genome with 39% average G+C content, 131 open reading frames, and 22 tRNAs. Closest protein homologs occur in Erwinia amylovora phage φEa21-4 and Escherichia coli phage wV8. Proteomic analysis indentified structural proteins: Gp23, Gp36 (major tail protein), Gp49, Gp53, Gp54, Gp55, Gp57, Gp58 (major capsid protein), Gp59, Gp63, Gp64, Gp67, Gp68, Gp69, Gp73, Gp74 and Gp77 (tail fiber). Based on phage-host codon differences, 7 tRNAs could affect translation rate during infection. Introns, holin-lysin cassettes, bacterial toxin homologs and host RNA polymerase-modifying genes were absent. Full article
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Review
Recent Advances in Hepatitis C Virus Cell Entry
Viruses 2010, 2(3), 692-709; https://doi.org/10.3390/v2030692 - 08 Mar 2010
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 9604
Abstract
More than 170 million patients worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Prevalence rates range from 0.5% in Northern European countries to 28% in some areas of Egypt. HCV is hepatotropic, and in many countries chronic hepatitis C is a leading [...] Read more.
More than 170 million patients worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Prevalence rates range from 0.5% in Northern European countries to 28% in some areas of Egypt. HCV is hepatotropic, and in many countries chronic hepatitis C is a leading cause of liver disease including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV persists in 50–85% of infected patients, and once chronic infection is established, spontaneous clearance is rare. HCV is a member of the Flaviviridae family, in which it forms its own genus. Many lines of evidence suggest that the HCV life cycle displays many differences to that of other Flaviviridae family members. Some of these differences may be due to the close interaction of HCV with its host’s lipid and particular triglyceride metabolism in the liver, which may explain why the virus can be found in association with lipoproteins in serum of infected patients. This review focuses on the molecular events underlying the HCV cell entry process and the respective roles of cellular co-factors that have been implied in these events. These include, among others, the lipoprotein receptors low density lipoprotein receptor and scavenger receptor BI, the tight junction factors occludin and claudin-1 as well as the tetraspanin CD81. We discuss the roles of these cellular factors in HCV cell entry and how association of HCV with lipoproteins may modulate the cell entry process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis Viruses)
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