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Viruses, Volume 10, Issue 12 (December 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) We employed two different approaches to mutate Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2). [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Engineering RNA Virus Interference via the CRISPR/Cas13 Machinery in Arabidopsis
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120732
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems are key immune mechanisms helping prokaryotic species fend off RNA and DNA viruses. CRISPR/Cas9 has broad applications in basic research and biotechnology and has been widely used across eukaryotic species for genome
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Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems are key immune mechanisms helping prokaryotic species fend off RNA and DNA viruses. CRISPR/Cas9 has broad applications in basic research and biotechnology and has been widely used across eukaryotic species for genome engineering and functional analysis of genes. The recently developed CRISPR/Cas13 systems target RNA rather than DNA and thus offer new potential for transcriptome engineering and combatting RNA viruses. Here, we used CRISPR/LshCas13a to stably engineer Arabidopsis thaliana for interference against the RNA genome of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). Our data demonstrate that CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) guiding Cas13a to the sequences encoding helper component proteinase silencing suppressor (HC-Pro) or GFP target 2 (GFP-T2) provide better interference compared to crRNAs targeting other regions of the TuMV RNA genome. This work demonstrates the exciting potential of CRISPR/Cas13 to be used as an antiviral strategy to obstruct RNA viruses, and encourages the search for more robust and effective Cas13 variants or CRISPR systems that can target RNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of CRISPR Technology in Virology 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Global Interactomics Connect Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus Protein NUMA1 to Influenza Virus Maturation
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120731
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Influenza A virus (IAV) infections remain a major human health threat. IAV has enormous genetic plasticity and can rapidly escape virus-targeted anti-viral strategies. Thus, there is increasing interest to identify host proteins and processes the virus requires for replication and maturation. The IAV
[...] Read more.
Influenza A virus (IAV) infections remain a major human health threat. IAV has enormous genetic plasticity and can rapidly escape virus-targeted anti-viral strategies. Thus, there is increasing interest to identify host proteins and processes the virus requires for replication and maturation. The IAV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a critical multifunctional protein that is expressed to high levels in infected cells. Host proteins that interact with NS1 may serve as ideal targets for attenuating IAV replication. We previously developed and characterized broadly cross-reactive anti-NS1 monoclonal antibodies. For the current study, we used these mAbs to co-immunoprecipitate native IAV NS1 and interacting host proteins; 183 proteins were consistently identified in this NS1 interactome study, 124 of which have not been previously reported. RNAi screens identified 11 NS1-interacting host factors as vital for IAV replication. Knocking down one of these, nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 (NUMA1), dramatically reduced IAV replication. IAV genomic transcription and translation were not inhibited but transport of viral structural proteins to the cell membrane was hindered during maturation steps in NUMA1 knockdown (KD) cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CSV2018: The 2nd symposium of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV))
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Detection of Beta and Gamma Human Herpesviruses by Multiplex qPCR Reveals Simple Infection and Coinfection Episodes Increasing Risk for Graft Rejection in Solid Organ Transplantation
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120730
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Herpesviruses are common components of the human microbiome that become clinically relevant when a competent immunosurveillance is compromised, such as in transplantation. Members of the beta and gamma subfamilies are associated with a wide diversity of pathologies, including end-organ disease and cancer. In
[...] Read more.
Herpesviruses are common components of the human microbiome that become clinically relevant when a competent immunosurveillance is compromised, such as in transplantation. Members of the beta and gamma subfamilies are associated with a wide diversity of pathologies, including end-organ disease and cancer. In this study, we developed a multiplex qPCR technique with high specificity, sensitivity, efficiency and predictability that allowed the simultaneous detection and quantification of beta and gamma human herpesviruses. The technique was tested in a cohort of 34 kidney- or liver-transplanted pediatric patients followed up for up to 12 months post-transplant. Viral load was determined in 495 leukocyte-plasma paired samples collected bi-weekly or monthly. Human herpesvirus (HHV) 7 was the herpesvirus most frequently found in positive samples (39%), followed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (20%). Also, EBV and HHV7 were present in the majority of coinfection episodes (62%). The share of positive samples exclusively detected either in leukocytes or plasma was 85%, suggesting that these herpesviruses tended to take a latent or lytic path in an exclusive manner. Infection by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and HHV6, as well as coinfection by EBV/HHV7 and EBV/HHV6/HHV7, were associated with graft rejection (RR = 40.33 (p = 0.0013), 5.60 (p = 0.03), 5.60 (p = 0.03) and 17.64 (p = 0.0003), respectively). The routine monitoring of beta and gamma herpesviruses should be mandatory in transplant centers to implement preventive strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview Cervical Cancer Screening Programs in Europe: The Transition Towards HPV Vaccination and Population-Based HPV Testing
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120729
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 15 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Cervical cancer is the fourth most frequently occurring cancer in women around the world and can affect them during their reproductive years. Since the development of the Papanicolaou (Pap) test, screening has been essential in identifying cervical cancer at a treatable stage. With
[...] Read more.
Cervical cancer is the fourth most frequently occurring cancer in women around the world and can affect them during their reproductive years. Since the development of the Papanicolaou (Pap) test, screening has been essential in identifying cervical cancer at a treatable stage. With the identification of the human papillomavirus (HPV) as the causative agent of essentially all cervical cancer cases, HPV molecular screening tests and HPV vaccines for primary prevention against the virus have been developed. Accordingly, comparative studies were designed to assess the performance of cervical cancer screening methods in order to devise the best screening strategy possible. This review critically assesses the current cervical cancer screening methods as well as the implementation of HPV vaccination in Europe. The most recent European Guidelines and recommendations for organized population-based programs with HPV testing as the primary screening method are also presented. Lastly, the current landscape of cervical cancer screening programs is assessed for both European Union member states and some associated countries, in regard to the transition towards population-based screening programs with primary HPV testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Contemporary Zika Virus Isolates Induce More dsRNA and Produce More Negative-Strand Intermediate in Human Astrocytoma Cells
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120728
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
The recent emergence and rapid geographic expansion of Zika virus (ZIKV) poses a significant challenge for public health. Although historically causing only mild febrile illness, recent ZIKV outbreaks have been associated with more severe neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and fetal microcephaly.
[...] Read more.
The recent emergence and rapid geographic expansion of Zika virus (ZIKV) poses a significant challenge for public health. Although historically causing only mild febrile illness, recent ZIKV outbreaks have been associated with more severe neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and fetal microcephaly. Here we demonstrate that two contemporary (2015) ZIKV isolates from Puerto Rico and Brazil may have increased replicative fitness in human astrocytoma cells. Over a single infectious cycle, the Brazilian isolate replicates to higher titers and induces more severe cytopathic effects in human astrocytoma cells than the historical African reference strain or an early Asian lineage isolate. In addition, both contemporary isolates induce significantly more double-stranded RNA in infected astrocytoma cells, despite similar numbers of infected cells across isolates. Moreover, when we quantified positive- and negative-strand viral RNA, we found that the Asian lineage isolates displayed substantially more negative-strand replicative intermediates than the African lineage isolate in human astrocytoma cells. However, over multiple rounds of infection, the contemporary ZIKV isolates appear to be impaired in cell spread, infecting a lower proportion of cells at a low MOI despite replicating to similar or higher titers. Taken together, our data suggests that contemporary ZIKV isolates may have evolved mechanisms that allow them to replicate with increased efficiency in certain cell types, thereby highlighting the importance of cell-intrinsic factors in studies of viral replicative fitness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances on Zika Virus Research)
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Open AccessArticle SARS-Like Coronavirus WIV1-CoV Does Not Replicate in Egyptian Fruit Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus)
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120727
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 15 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like WIV1-coronavirus (CoV) was first isolated from Rhinolophus sinicus bats and can use the human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. In the current study, we investigate the ability of WIV1-CoV to infect Rousettus aegyptiacus bats. No clinical signs
[...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like WIV1-coronavirus (CoV) was first isolated from Rhinolophus sinicus bats and can use the human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. In the current study, we investigate the ability of WIV1-CoV to infect Rousettus aegyptiacus bats. No clinical signs were observed throughout the experiment. Furthermore, only four oropharyngeal swabs and two respiratory tissues, isolated on day 3 post inoculation, were found positive for viral RNA. Two out of twelve bats showed a modest increase in coronavirus specific antibodies post challenge. In conclusion, WIV1-CoV was unable to cause a robust infection in Rousettus aegyptiacus bats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle The Amino-Terminal Region of Hepatitis E Virus ORF1 Containing a Methyltransferase (Met) and a Papain-Like Cysteine Protease (PCP) Domain Counteracts Type I Interferon Response
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120726
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for large waterborne epidemics of hepatitis in endemic countries and is an emerging zoonotic pathogen worldwide. In endemic regions, HEV-1 or HEV-2 genotypes are frequently associated with fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women, while with zoonotic HEV (HEV-3
[...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for large waterborne epidemics of hepatitis in endemic countries and is an emerging zoonotic pathogen worldwide. In endemic regions, HEV-1 or HEV-2 genotypes are frequently associated with fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women, while with zoonotic HEV (HEV-3 and HEV-4), chronic cases of hepatitis and severe neurological disorders are reported. Hence, it is important to characterize the interactions between HEV and its host. Here, we investigated the ability of the nonstructural polyprotein encoded by the first open reading frame (ORF1) of HEV to modulate the host early antiviral response and, in particular, the type I interferon (IFN-I) system. We found that the amino-terminal region of HEV-3 ORF1 (MetYPCP), containing a putative methyltransferase (Met) and a papain-like cysteine protease (PCP) functional domain, inhibited IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activation and the expression of several IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in response to IFN-I. We showed that the MetYPCP domain interfered with the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of the transcription protein (STAT) signalling pathway by inhibiting STAT1 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation after IFN-I treatment. In contrast, MetYPCP had no effect on STAT2 phosphorylation and a limited impact on the activation of the JAK/STAT pathway after IFN-II stimulation. This inhibitory function seemed to be genotype-dependent, as MetYPCP from HEV-1 had no significant effect on the JAK/STAT pathway. Overall, this study provides evidence that the predicted MetYPCP domain of HEV ORF1 antagonises STAT1 activation to modulate the IFN response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessEditorial One Health (r)Evolution: Learning from the Past to Build a New Future
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120725
Received: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
The One Health concept recognizes that the health of human beings, animals, plants and the environment is interconnected and interdependent. This idea has been shaped over the centuries and has gained momentum and traction as anatomy, physiology, microbiology and other disciplines have substantiated
[...] Read more.
The One Health concept recognizes that the health of human beings, animals, plants and the environment is interconnected and interdependent. This idea has been shaped over the centuries and has gained momentum and traction as anatomy, physiology, microbiology and other disciplines have substantiated earlier theories. Here we recall major historical milestones which have contributed to shaping the One Health concept as it is today, and discuss the past and future drivers in view of future challenges in an evolving scenario. Full article
Open AccessOpinion Advances in Influenza Virus Research: A Personal Perspective
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120724
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
Technical advances in the last decade have made it possible to investigate influenza virus infection from the cellular and subcellular level to intact animals and humans. As a result, we have gained a new understanding of the virus and disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What’s New with Flu?)
Open AccessReview Prion Strain-Specific Structure and Pathology: A View from the Perspective of Glycobiology
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120723
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 15 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
Prion diseases display multiple disease phenotypes characterized by diverse clinical symptoms, different brain regions affected by the disease, distinct cell tropism and diverse PrPSc deposition patterns. The diversity of disease phenotypes within the same host is attributed to the ability of PrP
[...] Read more.
Prion diseases display multiple disease phenotypes characterized by diverse clinical symptoms, different brain regions affected by the disease, distinct cell tropism and diverse PrPSc deposition patterns. The diversity of disease phenotypes within the same host is attributed to the ability of PrPC to acquire multiple, alternative, conformationally distinct, self-replicating PrPSc states referred to as prion strains or subtypes. Structural diversity of PrPSc strains has been well documented, yet the question of how different PrPSc structures elicit multiple disease phenotypes remains poorly understood. The current article reviews emerging evidence suggesting that carbohydrates in the form of sialylated N-linked glycans, which are a constitutive part of PrPSc, are important players in defining strain-specific structures and disease phenotypes. This article introduces a new hypothesis, according to which individual strain-specific PrPSc structures govern selection of PrPC sialoglycoforms that form strain-specific patterns of carbohydrate epitopes on PrPSc surface and contribute to defining the disease phenotype and outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deciphering the Molecular Targets of Prion and Prion-Like Strains)
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Open AccessMeeting Report “FAGOMA: Spanish Network of Bacteriophages and Transducer Elements”—V Meeting Report
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120722
Received: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
The Spanish Network of Bacteriophages and Transducer Elements (FAGOMA) was created to answer the need of Spanish scientists working on phages to exchange knowledge and find synergies. Seven years and five meetings later, the network has become a fruitful forum where groups working
[...] Read more.
The Spanish Network of Bacteriophages and Transducer Elements (FAGOMA) was created to answer the need of Spanish scientists working on phages to exchange knowledge and find synergies. Seven years and five meetings later, the network has become a fruitful forum where groups working on distinct aspects of phage research (structural and molecular biology, diversity, gene transfer and evolution, virus–host interactions, clinical, biotechnological and industrial applications) present their work and find new avenues for collaboration. The network has recently increased its visibility and activity by getting in touch with the French Phage Network (Phages.fr) and with different national and international scientific institutions. Here, we present a summary of the fifth meeting of the FAGOMA network, held in October 2018 in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), in which the participants shared some of their latest results and discussed future challenges of phage research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Viruses)
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Open AccessReview Development of Small-Molecule MERS-CoV Inhibitors
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120721
Received: 24 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) with potential to cause global pandemics remains a threat to the public health, security, and economy. In this review, we focus on advances in the research and development of small-molecule MERS-CoV inhibitors targeting different stages of the
[...] Read more.
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) with potential to cause global pandemics remains a threat to the public health, security, and economy. In this review, we focus on advances in the research and development of small-molecule MERS-CoV inhibitors targeting different stages of the MERS-CoV life cycle, aiming to prevent or treat MERS-CoV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MERS-CoV)
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Open AccessArticle A Divergent Hepatitis D-Like Agent in Birds
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120720
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is currently only found in humans and is a satellite virus that depends on hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope proteins for assembly, release, and entry. Using meta-transcriptomics, we identified the genome of a novel HDV-like agent in ducks. Sequence
[...] Read more.
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is currently only found in humans and is a satellite virus that depends on hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope proteins for assembly, release, and entry. Using meta-transcriptomics, we identified the genome of a novel HDV-like agent in ducks. Sequence analysis revealed secondary structures that were shared with HDV, including self-complementarity and ribozyme features. The predicted viral protein shares 32% amino acid similarity to the small delta antigen of HDV and comprises a divergent phylogenetic lineage. The discovery of an avian HDV-like agent has important implications for the understanding of the origins of HDV and sub-viral agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid Resistance in Chrysanthemum
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120719
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) is one of the most severe threats in Chrysanthemum morifolium production. Over the last decade, several studies have reported the natural occurrence of CSVd resistance in chrysanthemum germplasms. Such CSVd-resistant germplasms are desirable for the stable production of chrysanthemum
[...] Read more.
Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) is one of the most severe threats in Chrysanthemum morifolium production. Over the last decade, several studies have reported the natural occurrence of CSVd resistance in chrysanthemum germplasms. Such CSVd-resistant germplasms are desirable for the stable production of chrysanthemum plants. Current surveys include finding new resistant chrysanthemum cultivars, breeding, and revealing resistant mechanisms. We review the progress, from discovery to current status, of CSVd-resistance studies, while introducing information on the improvement of associated inoculation and diagnostic techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viroid-2018: International Conference on Viroids and Viroid-Like RNAs)
Open AccessArticle CD8+ T Cells Responding to the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Protein Delivered by Vaccinia Virus MVA in Mice
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120718
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 16 December 2018
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Abstract
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), a novel infectious agent causing severe respiratory disease and death in humans, was first described in 2012. Antibodies directed against the MERS-CoV spike (S) protein are thought to play a major role in controlling MERS-CoV infection and
[...] Read more.
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), a novel infectious agent causing severe respiratory disease and death in humans, was first described in 2012. Antibodies directed against the MERS-CoV spike (S) protein are thought to play a major role in controlling MERS-CoV infection and in mediating vaccine-induced protective immunity. In contrast, relatively little is known about the role of T cell responses and the antigenic targets of MERS-CoV that are recognized by CD8+ T cells. In this study, the highly conserved MERS-CoV nucleocapsid (N) protein served as a target immunogen to elicit MERS-CoV-specific cellular immune responses. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a safety-tested strain of vaccinia virus for preclinical and clinical vaccine research, was used for generating MVA-MERS-N expressing recombinant N protein. Overlapping peptides spanning the whole MERS-CoV N polypeptide were used to identify major histocompatibility complex class I/II-restricted T cell responses in BALB/c mice immunized with MVA-MERS-N. We have identified a H2-d restricted decamer peptide epitope in the MERS-N protein with CD8+ T cell antigenicity. The identification of this epitope, and the availability of the MVA-MERS-N candidate vaccine, will help to evaluate MERS-N-specific immune responses and the potential immune correlates of vaccine-mediated protection in the appropriate murine models of MERS-CoV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MERS-CoV)
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Open AccessArticle Strawberry Vein Banding Virus P6 Protein Is a Translation Trans-Activator and Its Activity Can be Suppressed by FveIF3g
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120717
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
The strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV) open reading frame (ORF) VI encodes a P6 protein known as the RNA silencing suppressor. This protein is known to form inclusion like granules of various sizes and accumulate in both the nuclei and the cytoplasm of
[...] Read more.
The strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV) open reading frame (ORF) VI encodes a P6 protein known as the RNA silencing suppressor. This protein is known to form inclusion like granules of various sizes and accumulate in both the nuclei and the cytoplasm of SVBV-infected plant cells. In this study, we have determined that the P6 protein is the only trans-activator (TAV) encoded by SVBV, and can efficiently trans-activate the translation of downstream gfp mRNA in a bicistron derived from the SVBV. Furthermore, the P6 protein can trans-activate the expression of different bicistrons expressed by different caulimovirus promoters. The P6 protein encoded by SVBV from an infectious clone can also trans-activate the expression of bicistron. Through protein-protein interaction assays, we determined that the P6 protein could interact with the cell translation initiation factor FveIF3g of Fragaria vesca and co-localize with it in the nuclei of Nicotiana benthamiana cells. This interaction reduced the formation of P6 granules in cells and its trans-activation activity on translation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Tree Viruses and Viroids)
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Open AccessArticle Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus NS 1 Targets TRIM25 to Suppress RIG-I Ubiquitination and Subsequent RIG-I-Mediated Antiviral Signaling
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120716
Received: 6 October 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
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Abstract
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe acute lower respiratory tract disease. Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) serves as an innate immune sensor and triggers antiviral responses upon recognizing viral infections including RSV. Since tripartite motif-containing protein 25 (TRIM25)-mediated K63-polyubiquitination is crucial for RIG-I activation,
[...] Read more.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe acute lower respiratory tract disease. Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) serves as an innate immune sensor and triggers antiviral responses upon recognizing viral infections including RSV. Since tripartite motif-containing protein 25 (TRIM25)-mediated K63-polyubiquitination is crucial for RIG-I activation, several viruses target initial RIG-I activation through ubiquitination. RSV NS1 and NS2 have been shown to interfere with RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. In this study, we explored the possibility that NS1 suppresses RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by targeting TRIM25. Ubiquitination of ectopically expressed RIG-I-2Cards domain was decreased by RSV infection, indicating that RSV possesses ability to inhibit TRIM25-mediated RIG-I ubiquitination. Similarly, ectopic expression of NS1 sufficiently suppressed TRIM25-mediated RIG-I ubiquitination. Furthermore, interaction between NS1 and TRIM25 was detected by a co-immunoprecipitation assay. Further biochemical assays showed that the SPRY domain of TRIM25, which is responsible for interaction with RIG-I, interacted sufficiently with NS1. Suppression of RIG-I ubiquitination by NS1 resulted in decreased interaction between RIG-I and its downstream molecule, MAVS. The suppressive effect of NS1 on RIG-I signaling could be abrogated by overexpression of TRIM25. Collectively, this study suggests that RSV NS1 interacts with TRIM25 and interferes with RIG-I ubiquitination to suppress type-I interferon signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Seasonality Drives Microbial Community Structure, Shaping both Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Host–Viral Relationships in an Arctic Marine Ecosystem
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120715
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
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Abstract
The Arctic marine environment experiences dramatic seasonal changes in light and nutrient availability. To investigate the influence of seasonality on Arctic marine virus communities, five research cruises to the west and north of Svalbard were conducted across one calendar year, collecting water from
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The Arctic marine environment experiences dramatic seasonal changes in light and nutrient availability. To investigate the influence of seasonality on Arctic marine virus communities, five research cruises to the west and north of Svalbard were conducted across one calendar year, collecting water from the surface to 1000 m in depth. We employed metabarcoding analysis of major capsid protein g23 and mcp genes in order to investigate T4-like myoviruses and large dsDNA viruses infecting prokaryotic and eukaryotic picophytoplankton, respectively. Microbial abundances were assessed using flow cytometry. Metabarcoding results demonstrated that seasonality was the key mediator shaping virus communities, whereas depth exerted a diversifying effect within seasonal virus assemblages. Viral diversity and virus-to-prokaryote ratios (VPRs) dropped sharply at the commencement of the spring bloom but increased across the season, ultimately achieving the highest levels during the winter season. These findings suggest that viral lysis may be an important process during the polar winter, when productivity is low. Furthermore, winter viral communities consisted of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) distinct from those present during the spring-summer season. Our data provided a first insight into the diversity of viruses in a hitherto undescribed marine habitat characterized by extremes in light and productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses of Microbes V: Biodiversity and Future Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Detection of Different Zika Virus Lineages via Molecular Computation in a Point-of-Care Assay
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120714
Received: 20 October 2018 / Revised: 8 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
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Abstract
We have developed a generalizable “smart molecular diagnostic” capable of accurate point-of-care (POC) detection of variable nucleic acid targets. Our isothermal assay relies on multiplex execution of four loop-mediated isothermal amplification reactions, with primers that are degenerate and redundant, thereby increasing the breadth
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We have developed a generalizable “smart molecular diagnostic” capable of accurate point-of-care (POC) detection of variable nucleic acid targets. Our isothermal assay relies on multiplex execution of four loop-mediated isothermal amplification reactions, with primers that are degenerate and redundant, thereby increasing the breadth of targets while reducing the probability of amplification failure. An easy-to-read visual answer is computed directly by a multi-input Boolean OR logic gate (gate output is true if either one or more gate inputs is true) signal transducer that uses degenerate strand exchange probes to assess any combination of amplicons. We demonstrate our methodology by using the same assay to detect divergent Asian and African lineages of the evolving Zika virus (ZIKV), while maintaining selectivity against non-target viruses. Direct analysis of biological specimens proved possible, with crudely macerated ZIKV-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes being identified with 100% specificity and sensitivity. The ease-of-use with minimal instrumentation, broad programmability, and built-in fail-safe reliability make our smart molecular diagnostic attractive for POC use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances on Zika Virus Research)
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Open AccessArticle Transcriptional and Small RNA Responses of the White Mold Fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum to Infection by a Virulence-Attenuating Hypovirus
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120713
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
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Abstract
Mycoviruses belonging to the family Hypoviridae cause persistent infection of many different host fungi. We previously determined that the white mold fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 2-L (SsHV2-L) exhibits reduced virulence, delayed/reduced sclerotial formation, and enhanced production of aerial
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Mycoviruses belonging to the family Hypoviridae cause persistent infection of many different host fungi. We previously determined that the white mold fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 2-L (SsHV2-L) exhibits reduced virulence, delayed/reduced sclerotial formation, and enhanced production of aerial mycelia. To gain better insight into the cellular basis for these changes, we characterized changes in mRNA and small RNA (sRNA) accumulation in S. sclerotiorum to infection by SsHV2-L. A total of 958 mRNAs and 835 sRNA-producing loci were altered after infection by SsHV2-L, among which >100 mRNAs were predicted to encode proteins involved in the metabolism and trafficking of carbohydrates and lipids. Both S. sclerotiorum endogenous and virus-derived sRNAs were predominantly 22 nt in length suggesting one dicer-like enzyme cleaves both. Novel classes of endogenous small RNAs were predicted, including phasiRNAs and tRNA-derived small RNAs. Moreover, S. sclerotiorum phasiRNAs, which were derived from noncoding RNAs and have the potential to regulate mRNA abundance in trans, showed differential accumulation due to virus infection. tRNA fragments did not accumulate differentially after hypovirus infection. Hence, in-depth analysis showed that infection of S. sclerotiorum by a hypovirulence-inducing hypovirus produced selective, large-scale reprogramming of mRNA and sRNA production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Open AccessReview Suppression of Type I Interferon Signaling by Flavivirus NS5
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120712
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 8 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
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Abstract
Type I interferon (IFN-I) is the first line of mammalian host defense against viral infection. To counteract this, the flaviviruses, like other viruses, have encoded a variety of antagonists, and use a multi-layered molecular defense strategy to establish their infections. Among the most
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Type I interferon (IFN-I) is the first line of mammalian host defense against viral infection. To counteract this, the flaviviruses, like other viruses, have encoded a variety of antagonists, and use a multi-layered molecular defense strategy to establish their infections. Among the most potent antagonists is non-structural protein 5 (NS5), which has been shown for all disease-causing flaviviruses to target different steps and players of the type I IFN signaling pathway. Here, we summarize the type I IFN antagonist mechanisms used by flaviviruses with a focus on the role of NS5 in regulating one key regulator of type I IFN, signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances on Zika Virus Research)
Open AccessArticle Parechovirus A Detection by a Comprehensive Approach in a Clinical Laboratory
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120711
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Parechovirus A (Human parechovirus, HPeV) causes symptoms ranging from severe neonatal infection to mild gastrointestinal and respiratory disease. Use of molecular approaches with RT-PCR and genotyping has improved the detection rate of HPeV. Conventional methods, such as viral culture and immunofluorescence assay, together
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Parechovirus A (Human parechovirus, HPeV) causes symptoms ranging from severe neonatal infection to mild gastrointestinal and respiratory disease. Use of molecular approaches with RT-PCR and genotyping has improved the detection rate of HPeV. Conventional methods, such as viral culture and immunofluorescence assay, together with molecular methods facilitate comprehensive viral diagnosis. To establish the HPeV immunofluorescence assay, an antibody against HPeV capsid protein VP0 was generated by using antigenic epitope prediction data. The specificity of the anti-HPeV VP0 antibody was demonstrated on immunofluorescence assay, showing that this antibody was specific for HPeV but not enteroviruses. A total of 74 HPeV isolates, 7 non–polio-enteroviruses and 12 HPeV negative cell culture supernatant were used for evaluating the efficiency of the anti-HPeV VP0 antibody. The sensitivity of HPeV detection by the anti-HPeV VP0 antibody was consistent with 5′untranslated region (UTR) RT-PCR analysis. This study established comprehensive methods for HPeV detection that include viral culture and observation of cytopathic effect, immunofluorescence assay, RT-PCR and genotyping. The methods were incorporated into our routine clinical practice for viral diagnosis. In conclusion, this study established a protocol for enterovirus and HPeV virus identification that combines conventional and molecular methods and would be beneficial for HPeV diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle The N-Terminus of the HIV-1 p6 Gag Protein Regulates Susceptibility to Degradation by IDE
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120710
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
As part of the Pr55Gag polyprotein, p6 fulfills an essential role in the late steps of the replication cycle. However, almost nothing is known about the functions of the mature HIV-1 p6 protein. Recently, we showed that p6 is a bona fide
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As part of the Pr55Gag polyprotein, p6 fulfills an essential role in the late steps of the replication cycle. However, almost nothing is known about the functions of the mature HIV-1 p6 protein. Recently, we showed that p6 is a bona fide substrate of the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a ubiquitously expressed zinc metalloprotease. This phenomenon appears to be specific for HIV-1, since p6 homologs of HIV-2, SIV and EIAV were IDE-insensitive. Furthermore, abrogation of the IDE-mediated degradation of p6 reduces the replication capacity of HIV-1 in an Env-dependent manner. However, it remained unclear to which extent the IDE mediated degradation is phylogenetically conserved among HIV-1. Here, we describe two HIV-1 isolates with IDE resistant p6 proteins. Sequence comparison allowed deducing one single amino acid regulating IDE sensitivity of p6. Exchanging the N-terminal leucine residue of p6 derived from the IDE sensitive isolate HIV-1NL4-3 with proline enhances its stability, while replacing Pro-1 of p6 from the IDE insensitive isolate SG3 with leucine restores susceptibility towards IDE. Phylogenetic analyses of this natural polymorphism revealed that the N-terminal leucine is characteristic for p6 derived from HIV-1 group M except for subtype A, which predominantly expresses p6 with an N-terminal proline. Consequently, p6 peptides derived from subtype A are not degraded by IDE. Thus, IDE mediated degradation of p6 is specific for HIV-1 group M isolates and not occasionally distributed among HIV-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle RVFV Infection in Goats by Different Routes of Inoculation
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120709
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus of the Phenuiviridae family. Infection causes abortions in pregnant animals, high mortality in neonate animals, and mild to severe symptoms in both people and animals. There is currently an ongoing effort to produce safe
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Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus of the Phenuiviridae family. Infection causes abortions in pregnant animals, high mortality in neonate animals, and mild to severe symptoms in both people and animals. There is currently an ongoing effort to produce safe and efficacious veterinary vaccines against RVFV in livestock to protect against both primary infection in animals and zoonotic infections in people. To test the efficacy of these vaccines, it is essential to have a reliable challenge model in relevant target species, including ruminants. We evaluated two goat breeds (Nubian and LaMancha), three routes of inoculation (intranasal, mosquito-primed subcutaneous, and subcutaneous) using an infectious dose of 107 pfu/mL, a virus strain from the 2006–2007 Kenyan/Sudan outbreak and compared the effect of using virus stocks produced in either mammalian or mosquito cells. Our results demonstrated that the highest and longest viremia titers were achieved in Nubian goats. The Nubian breed was also efficient at producing clinical signs, consistent viremia (peak viremia: 1.2 × 103–1.0 × 105 pfu/mL serum), nasal and oral shedding of viral RNA (1.5 × 101–8 × 106 genome copies/swab), a systemic infection of tissues, and robust antibody responses regardless of the inoculation route. The Nubian goat breed and a needle-free intranasal inoculation technique could both be utilized in future vaccine and challenge studies. These studies are important for preventing the spread and outbreak of zoonotic viruses like RVFV and are supported by the Canadian-led BSL4ZNet network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models for Viral Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Modulation of Innate Immune Responses by the Influenza A NS1 and PA-X Proteins
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120708
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Influenza A viruses (IAV) can infect a broad range of animal hosts, including humans. In humans, IAV causes seasonal annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, representing a serious public health and economic problem, which is most effectively prevented through vaccination. The defense mechanisms that
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Influenza A viruses (IAV) can infect a broad range of animal hosts, including humans. In humans, IAV causes seasonal annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, representing a serious public health and economic problem, which is most effectively prevented through vaccination. The defense mechanisms that the host innate immune system provides restrict IAV replication and infection. Consequently, to successfully replicate in interferon (IFN)-competent systems, IAV has to counteract host antiviral activities, mainly the production of IFN and the activities of IFN-induced host proteins that inhibit virus replication. The IAV multifunctional proteins PA-X and NS1 are virulence factors that modulate the innate immune response and virus pathogenicity. Notably, these two viral proteins have synergistic effects in the inhibition of host protein synthesis in infected cells, although using different mechanisms of action. Moreover, the control of innate immune responses by the IAV NS1 and PA-X proteins is subject to a balance that can determine virus pathogenesis and fitness, and recent evidence shows co-evolution of these proteins in seasonal viruses, indicating that they should be monitored for enhanced virulence. Importantly, inhibition of host gene expression by the influenza NS1 and/or PA-X proteins could be explored to develop improved live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) by modulating the ability of the virus to counteract antiviral host responses. Likewise, both viral proteins represent a reasonable target for the development of new antivirals for the control of IAV infections. In this review, we summarize the role of IAV NS1 and PA-X in controlling the antiviral response during viral infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytokine Responses in Viral Infections)
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Open AccessArticle Metatranscriptomic Analysis and In Silico Approach Identified Mycoviruses in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus spp.
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120707
Received: 22 September 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), including Rhizophagus spp., can play important roles in nutrient cycling of the rhizosphere. However, the effect of virus infection on AMF’s role in nutrient cycling cannot be determined without first knowing the diversity of the mycoviruses in AMF. Therefore,
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), including Rhizophagus spp., can play important roles in nutrient cycling of the rhizosphere. However, the effect of virus infection on AMF’s role in nutrient cycling cannot be determined without first knowing the diversity of the mycoviruses in AMF. Therefore, in this study, we sequenced the R. irregularis isolate-09 due to its previously demonstrated high efficiency in increasing the N/P uptake of the plant. We identified one novel mitovirus contig of 3685 bp, further confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR. Also, publicly available Rhizophagus spp. RNA-Seq data were analyzed to recover five partial virus sequences from family Narnaviridae, among which four were from R. diaphanum MUCL-43196 and one was from R. irregularis strain-C2 that was similar to members of the Mitovirus genus. These contigs coded genomes larger than the regular mitoviruses infecting pathogenic fungi and can be translated by either a mitochondrial translation code or a cytoplasmic translation code, which was also reported in previously found mitoviruses infecting mycorrhizae. The five newly identified virus sequences are comprised of functionally conserved RdRp motifs and formed two separate subclades with mitoviruses infecting Gigaspora margarita and Rhizophagus clarus, further supporting virus-host co-evolution theory. This study expands our understanding of virus diversity. Even though AMF is notably hard to investigate due to its biotrophic nature, this study demonstrates the utility of whole root metatranscriptome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Open AccessReview Vertical and Horizontal Transmission of Pospiviroids
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120706
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Viroids are highly structured, single-stranded, non-protein-coding circular RNA pathogens. Some viroids are vertically transmitted through both viroid-infected ovule and pollen. For example, potato spindle tuber viroid, a species that belongs to Pospiviroidae family, is delivered to the embryo through the ovule or pollen
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Viroids are highly structured, single-stranded, non-protein-coding circular RNA pathogens. Some viroids are vertically transmitted through both viroid-infected ovule and pollen. For example, potato spindle tuber viroid, a species that belongs to Pospiviroidae family, is delivered to the embryo through the ovule or pollen during the development of reproductive tissues before embryogenesis. In addition, some of Pospiviroidae are also horizontally transmitted by pollen. Tomato planta macho viroid in pollen infects to the ovary from pollen tube during pollen tube elongation and eventually causes systemic infection, resulting in the establishment of horizontal transmission. Furthermore, fertilization is not required to accomplish the horizontal transmission. In this review, we will overview the recent research progress in vertical and horizontal transmission of viroids, mainly by focusing on histopathological studies, and also discuss the impact of seed transmission on viroid dissemination and seed health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viroid-2018: International Conference on Viroids and Viroid-Like RNAs)
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Open AccessArticle The Revisited Genome of Bacillus subtilis Bacteriophage SPP1
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120705
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 is a lytic siphovirus first described 50 years ago. Its complete DNA sequence was reported in 1997. Here we present an updated annotation of the 44,016 bp SPP1 genome and its correlation to different steps of the viral multiplication
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Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 is a lytic siphovirus first described 50 years ago. Its complete DNA sequence was reported in 1997. Here we present an updated annotation of the 44,016 bp SPP1 genome and its correlation to different steps of the viral multiplication process. Five early polycistronic transcriptional units encode phage DNA replication proteins and lysis functions together with less characterized, mostly non-essential, functions. Late transcription drives synthesis of proteins necessary for SPP1 viral particles assembly and for cell lysis, together with a short set of proteins of unknown function. The extensive genetic, biochemical and structural biology studies on the molecular mechanisms of SPP1 DNA replication and phage particle assembly rendered it a model system for tailed phages research. We propose SPP1 as the reference species for a new SPP1-like viruses genus of the Siphoviridae family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteriophage Genomes and Genomics: News from the Wild)
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Open AccessReview Pathogen at the Gates: Human Cytomegalovirus Entry and Cell Tropism
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120704
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
The past few years have brought substantial progress toward understanding how human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) enters the remarkably wide spectrum of cell types and tissues that it infects. Neuropilin-2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) were identified as receptors, respectively, for the trimeric
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The past few years have brought substantial progress toward understanding how human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) enters the remarkably wide spectrum of cell types and tissues that it infects. Neuropilin-2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) were identified as receptors, respectively, for the trimeric and pentameric glycoprotein H/glycoprotein L (gH/gL) complexes that in large part govern HCMV cell tropism, while CD90 and CD147 were also found to play roles during entry. X-ray crystal structures for the proximal viral fusogen, glycoprotein B (gB), and for the pentameric gH/gL complex (pentamer) have been solved. A novel virion gH complex consisting of gH bound to UL116 instead of gL was described, and findings supporting the existence of a stable complex between gH/gL and gB were reported. Additional work indicates that the pentamer promotes a mode of cell-associated spread that resists antibody neutralization, as opposed to the trimeric gH/gL complex (trimer), which appears to be broadly required for the infectivity of cell-free virions. Finally, viral factors such as UL148 and US16 were identified that can influence the incorporation of the alternative gH/gL complexes into virions. We will review these advances and their implications for understanding HCMV entry and cell tropism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cytomegalovirus Research)
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Open AccessCommunication Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a Partitivirus from Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA Strain C24
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120703
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
The complete genome of a novel double-stranded (ds) RNA mycovirus, named as Rhizoctonia solani partitivirus 5 (RsPV5), isolated from rice sheath blight fungus R. solani AG-1 IA strain C24, was sequenced and analysed. RsPV5 consists of two segments, dsRNA-1 (1899 nucleotides) and dsRNA-2
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The complete genome of a novel double-stranded (ds) RNA mycovirus, named as Rhizoctonia solani partitivirus 5 (RsPV5), isolated from rice sheath blight fungus R. solani AG-1 IA strain C24, was sequenced and analysed. RsPV5 consists of two segments, dsRNA-1 (1899 nucleotides) and dsRNA-2 (1787 nucleotides). DsRNA-1 has an open reading frame (ORF) 1 that potentially codes for a protein of 584 amino acid (aa) containing the conserved motifs of a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and dsRNA-2 also contains a ORF 2, encoding a putative capsid protein (CP) of 513 aa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RsPV5 clustered together with six other viruses in an independent clade of the genus Alphapartitivirus, indicating that RsPV5 was a new member of the genus Alphapartitivirus, within the family Partitiviridae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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