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Current Oncology is published by MDPI from Volume 28 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Multimed Inc..

Curr. Oncol., Volume 19, Issue 1 (February 2012) – 16 articles

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Article
Response to Second-Line Erlotinib in an EGFR Mutation-Negative Patient with Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Make No Assumptions
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(1), 42-46; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.949 - 01 Feb 2012
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 233
Abstract
Erlotinib—an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (tki) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr)—has commonly been used as a therapeutic option in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) patients in the second- or third-line treatment setting. A mutation in [...] Read more.
Erlotinib—an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (tki) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr)—has commonly been used as a therapeutic option in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) patients in the second- or third-line treatment setting. A mutation in the EGFR gene (EGFR M+) confers an increased response to this class of drugs. In the first-line setting, use of tkis is restricted to patients having a mutation. The importance of this biomarker has been questioned in subsequent treatment lines. Here, we report a case showing a positive response to erlotinib treatment in the second-line setting. The patient, an elderly male smoker with stage iv nsclc, had a tumour that was EGFR mutation-negative (wild-type EGFR). Based on this clinical case, we discuss the controversy concerning the need for, and impact of, testing for EGFR mutation after first-line treatment. Full article
Correction
Corrigendum: Survival and Treatment Patterns in Elderly Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Manitoba
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1012 - 01 Feb 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 194
Abstract
Zoann Nugent is to be retracted from the author list[...]. Full article
Article
Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I and Tumour Immuno-Evasion: How to Fool T Cells and Natural Killer Cells at One Time
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(1), 39-41; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.945 - 01 Feb 2012
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 385
Abstract
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (ctls) and natural killer (nk) cells lyse tumours expressing and lacking, respectively, properly conformed class i molecules of the major histocompatibility complex [mhc-i (Figure 1)] [...] [...] Read more.
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (ctls) and natural killer (nk) cells lyse tumours expressing and lacking, respectively, properly conformed class i molecules of the major histocompatibility complex [mhc-i (Figure 1)] [...] Full article
Article
Understanding and Overcoming Chemoresistance in Ovarian Cancer: Emerging Role of the Endothelin Axis
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(1), 36-38; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.895 - 01 Feb 2012
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 258
Abstract
Epithelial ovarian cancer ( EOC) is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer mortality worldwide. [...] Full article
Case Report
Medullary Thyroid Cancer and Pseudocirrhosis: Case Report and Literature Review
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(1), 36-41; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.840 - 01 Feb 2012
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 332
Abstract
Pseudocirrhosis is a rare form of liver disease that can cause clinical symptoms and radiographic signs of cirrhosis; however, its histologic features suggest a distinct pathologic process. In the setting of cancer, hepatic metastases and systemic chemotherapy are suspected causes of pseudocirrhosis. Here, [...] Read more.
Pseudocirrhosis is a rare form of liver disease that can cause clinical symptoms and radiographic signs of cirrhosis; however, its histologic features suggest a distinct pathologic process. In the setting of cancer, hepatic metastases and systemic chemotherapy are suspected causes of pseudocirrhosis. Here, we present a patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the liver who developed pseudocirrhosis while on maintenance sunitinib after receiving 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (folfox) in combination with sunitinib. Cirrhotic change in liver morphology was accompanied by diffusely infiltrative carcinomatous disease resembling the primary tumor. We discuss the diagnosis of pseudocirrhosis in this case and review the literature regarding pseudocirrhosis in cancer. Full article
Article
Phase I Study of the Plk1 Inhibitor BI 2536 Administered Intravenously on Three Consecutive Days in Advanced Solid Tumours
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(1), 28-35; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.866 - 01 Feb 2012
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 478
Abstract
Background: This open-label phase i study with an accelerated titration design was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose of BI 2536, a potent, highly selective small-molecule polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) inhibitor. Methods: Patients with advanced solid tumours received a single [...] Read more.
Background: This open-label phase i study with an accelerated titration design was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose of BI 2536, a potent, highly selective small-molecule polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) inhibitor. Methods: Patients with advanced solid tumours received a single 60-minute intravenous infusion of BI 2536 (50–70 mg) on days 1–3 of each 21-day treatment course. Recipients without disease progression or untenable toxicity could receive additional treatment courses. The maximum tolerated dose was determined based on dose-limiting toxicities. Other assessments included safety, pharmacokinetic profile, and antitumour activity according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Results: The study enrolled 21 patients. The maximum tolerated dose for BI 2536 was determined to be 60 mg for the study schedule. Dose-limiting toxicities included hematologic events, hypertension, elevated liver enzymes, and fatigue. The most frequently reported drug-related adverse events were mild-to-moderate fatigue, leukopenia, constipation, nausea, mucosal inflammation, anorexia, and alopecia. The pharmacokinetics of BI 2536 were linear within the dose range tested. Plasma concentration profiles exhibited multi-compartmental pharmacokinetic behaviour, with a terminal elimination half-life of 20–30 hours. Conclusions: In the present study, BI 2536 showed an acceptable safety profile warranting further investigation of Plk1 inhibitors in this patient population. Full article
Article
Challenges in Knowledge Translation: The Early Years of Cancer Care Ontario’s Program in Evidence-Based Care
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(1), 27-35; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.985 - 01 Feb 2012
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 238
Abstract
Background: Cancer Care Ontario’s Program in Evidence-Based Care (pebc) was formalized in 1997 to produce clinical practice guidelines for cancer management for the Province of Ontario. At the time, the gap between guideline development and implementation was beginning to be acknowledged. [...] Read more.
Background: Cancer Care Ontario’s Program in Evidence-Based Care (pebc) was formalized in 1997 to produce clinical practice guidelines for cancer management for the Province of Ontario. At the time, the gap between guideline development and implementation was beginning to be acknowledged. The Program implemented strategies to promote use of guidelines. Methods: The program had to overcome numerous social challenges to survive. (1) Prospective strategies useful to practitioners—including participation, transparent communication, a methodological vision, and methodology skills development offerings—were used to create a culture of research-informed oncology practice within a broad community of practitioners. (2) Reactive strategies ensured the survival of the program in the early years, when some within the influential academic community and among decision-makers were skeptical about the feasibility of a rigorous methodologic approach meeting the fast turnaround times necessary for policy. Results: The paper details the pebc strategies within the context of what was known about knowledge translation (kt) at the time, and it tries to identify key success factors. Conclusions: Many of the barriers faced in the implementation of kt—and the strategies for overcoming them—are unavailable in the public domain because the relevant reporting does not fit the traditional paradigm for publication. Telling the “stories behind the story” should be encouraged to enhance the practice of kt beyond the science. Full article
Editorial
E-Manuscript Article Summaries *
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(1), 23-26; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1041 - 01 Feb 2012
Viewed by 168
Abstract
Pseudocirrhosis is a rare form of liver disease that causes clinical symptoms and shows radiographic signs of cirrhosis, but that has histologic features suggesting a distinct pathologic process[...]. Full article
Letter
Re. Karam I, Melosky B. Response to Second-Line Erlotinib in an EGFR Mutation-Negative Patient with Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Make No Assumptions
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(1), 21-22; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.959 - 01 Feb 2012
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 215
Abstract
I agree with the statement in this publication that tyrosine kinase inhibitors (tkis) against the epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr) should be considered [...] Full article
Article
Fine-Needle Sspiration Biopsy versus Core-Needle Biopsy in Diagnosing Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(1), 16-27; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.871 - 01 Feb 2012
Cited by 96 | Viewed by 756
Abstract
Background: Lung cancer leads cancer-related mortality in the world. The objective of the present systematic review was to compare fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) with core-needle biopsy (CNB) for diagnostic characteristics and yields for diagnosing lung cancer in patients [...] Read more.
Background: Lung cancer leads cancer-related mortality in the world. The objective of the present systematic review was to compare fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) with core-needle biopsy (CNB) for diagnostic characteristics and yields for diagnosing lung cancer in patients with lung lesions. Methods: The MEDLINE and EMBASA databases (from January 1, 1990, to September 14, 2009), the Cochrane Library (to Issue 4, 2009), and selected guideline Web sites were searched for relevant articles. Results: For overall diagnostic characteristics (benign vs. malignant) of FNAB and CNB, the ranges of sensitivity were 81.3%–90.8% and 85.7–97.4% respectively; of specificity, 75.4%–100.0% and 88.6%–100.0%; and of accuracy, 79.7%–91.8% and 89.0%–96.9%. For specific diagnostic characteristics of FNAB and CNB (identifying the histologic subtype of malignancies or the specific benign diagnoses), the ranges of sensitivity were 56.3%–86.5% and 56.5–88.7% respectively; of specificity, 6.7%–57.1% and 52.4%–100.0%; and of accuracy, 40.4%–81.2% and 66.7%–93.2%. Compared with FNAB, CNB did not result in a higher complication rate (pneumothorax or hemoptysis). No study has yet compared the diagnostic yields of FNAB and of CNB for molecular predictive-marker studies in patients with lung lesions. Discussion and Conclusions: The evidence is currently insufficient to support a difference between FNAB and CNB in identifying lung malignancies in patients with lung lesions. Compared with FNAB, CNB m ight h ave a h igher s pecificity t o diagnose specific benign lesions. Well-designed, good-quality studies comparing FNAB with CNB for diagnostic characteristics and yields in diagnosing lung cancer should be encouraged. Full article
Editorial
A Call for Action in Survivorship Research and Care
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(1), 16-20; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.850 - 01 Feb 2012
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 230
Abstract
The term “cancer survivor” has been used to convey various meanings over time. [...] Full article
Editorial
Cancer Control: Life and Death in an Unequal World
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(1), 12-15; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.994 - 01 Feb 2012
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 233
Abstract
Cancer and non-communicable diseases (ncds) sharing common causal risk factors are not under control [...] Full article
Article
Role of Pemetrexed in Sdvanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, with Histology Subgroup Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(1), 9-15; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.891 - 01 Feb 2012
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 392
Abstract
Purpose: Platinum-based regimens represent the standard first-line treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (SNCLC). However, newer data have established a role for pemetrexed in the treatment of this disease. Such data suggest that histology represents a determining factor in the selection [...] Read more.
Purpose: Platinum-based regimens represent the standard first-line treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (SNCLC). However, newer data have established a role for pemetrexed in the treatment of this disease. Such data suggest that histology represents a determining factor in the selection of treatment. Methods: We undertook a systematic review of the literature for randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of pemetrexed with that of other treatments in advanced SNCLC. Data and study quality were assessed according to published guidelines. Results: We identified five trials that compared pemetrexed with other treatments or with placebo. Overall survival for patients treated with pemetrexed was superior to that with other treatments: hazard ratio (HR): 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80 to 0.99. The survival benefit was limited to patients with non-squamous histology: hr: 0.82; 95% ci: 0.73 to 0.91. Pemetrexed was inferior to other chemotherapy options in patients with squamous histology: hr: 1.19; 95% ci: 0.99 to 1.43. Conclusions: Compared with other chemotherapy agents, pemetrexed is more effective for the treatment of SNCLC in patients with non-squamous histology. Full article
Editorial
A Model for Breast Cancer Risk Based on Stem-Cell Theory
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(1), 9-11; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1003 - 01 Feb 2012
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 200
Abstract
Recent studies of cells in culture and of mice models support the notion that the mammary stem cell is a precursor to the breast cancer cell 1–4. [...] Full article
Editorial
egfr Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Lung Cancer: Make No Assumptions
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.955 - 01 Feb 2012
Viewed by 191
Abstract
The systemic treatment options and algorithm for stage iv non-small-cell lung cancer have changed tremendously since 2005, leading to improved survival and quality of life for this group of patients [...] Full article
Article
Increased Alpha-Fetoprotein Receptor in the Serum of Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(1), 1-8; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.979 - 01 Feb 2012
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 391
Abstract
The alpha-fetoprotein (afp) receptor (recaf) is an oncofetal antigen found in most types of cancer. Using a competitive radioimmunoassay, we measured the concentration of serum recaf in three sets of samples. Set 1 was blind and consisted of 119 [...] Read more.
The alpha-fetoprotein (afp) receptor (recaf) is an oncofetal antigen found in most types of cancer. Using a competitive radioimmunoassay, we measured the concentration of serum recaf in three sets of samples. Set 1 was blind and consisted of 119 normal subjects, 43 breast cancer patients (stages i and ii), and 20 patients with benign breast conditions. In this set, the assay discriminated normal from cancer samples with a receiver operating characteristic for the area under the curve (ROCAUC) of 0.983; with 95% specificity and 93% sensitivity at a cut-off of 4.6 K (arbitrary) recaf units; and with 72% sensitivity and 100% specificity at a cut-off of 7.3 K units. At 7.3 K units, the specificity for benign breast conditions was 85%, and the sensitivity was 72% (ROCAUC was 0.773). Carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 15-3 respectively showed 39% and 41% sensitivity, with 95% specificity in comparisons of normal with cancer samples, and 34% and 44% sensitivity, with 85% specificity in comparisons of benign with cancer samples. Set 2 consisted of 353 normal, 30 benign, and 64 cancer samples (stages ii and iii). The recaf assay sensitivity in discriminating normal from cancer samples was 97%, with 97% specificity. Benign compared with cancer samples showed 87% sensitivity, with 97% specificity. Set 3 included only 40 normal and 40 cancer samples. The assay sensitivity was 89%, with 100% specificity. Sets 2 and 3 were not tested with carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 15-3. These results strongly suggest that the recaf assay could be used for detecting breast cancer in its early stages. Full article
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