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Article

Acute Effects of Self-Selected Music Intervention on Golf Performance and Anxiety Level in Collegiate Golfers: A Crossover Study

1
Graduate Institute of Sports Training, University of Taipei, Taipei 11153, Taiwan
2
Department of Physical Education, University of Taipei, Taipei 10048, Taiwan
3
Department of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Taipei, Taipei 11153, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7478; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207478
Received: 8 September 2020 / Revised: 7 October 2020 / Accepted: 13 October 2020 / Published: 14 October 2020
Music has been reported as a positive intervention for improving psychophysiological conditions and exercise performance. However, the effects of music intervention on golf performance in association with psychophysiological responses have not been well examined in the literature. The purpose of the study was to investigate the acute effects of self-selected music intervention on golf swing and putting performance, heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and anxiety. Twenty collegiate golfers voluntarily participated in this study (age = 20.2 ± 1.4 years, height = 171.7 ± 8.0 cm, body weight = 69.5 ± 14.6 kg, golf experience = 7.5 ± 2.1 years). A cross-over and within-subject design was used in this study. Participants performed a non-music trial (T1), pre-exercise music trial (T2), and simultaneous music trial (T3) in a randomized order with 48–72 h apart. The participants were attached to a HR monitor to record the HR and HRV during the measurement. The golf swing and putting performance was assessed by using the Golfzon golf simulator system. The state-trait anxiety inventory-state questionnaire (STAI-S) was used to evaluate anxiety state. All measurements were taken during baseline (phase one) and after resting or music intervention (phase two). Repeated measurement of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Cohen’s effect size (ES) were used for statistical analyses. The results show no significant differences in golf swing and putting performance (p > 0.05). However, significant decrease in STAI-S score was found in T2 (p = 0.047, ES = 0.32). A significant increase in the standard deviation of normal R-R interval (SDNN), low-frequency power spectrum (LF), standard deviation of along the line-of-identity (SD2) in T2 and T3 were observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a single pre-exercise or simultaneous self-selected music intervention contributes minor effects to golf performance in collegiate golfers. The positive benefits of self-selected music intervention on the psychological condition and cardia-related modulation while practicing golf is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: golf swing; golf putting; pre-exercise music; simultaneous music; psychology; autonomic nervous system golf swing; golf putting; pre-exercise music; simultaneous music; psychology; autonomic nervous system
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, H.-T.; Tai, H.-L.; Yang, C.-C.; Chen, Y.-S. Acute Effects of Self-Selected Music Intervention on Golf Performance and Anxiety Level in Collegiate Golfers: A Crossover Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7478. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207478

AMA Style

Wang H-T, Tai H-L, Yang C-C, Chen Y-S. Acute Effects of Self-Selected Music Intervention on Golf Performance and Anxiety Level in Collegiate Golfers: A Crossover Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(20):7478. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207478

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Hung-Tsung, Hsia-Ling Tai, Chia-Chen Yang, and Yung-Sheng Chen. 2020. "Acute Effects of Self-Selected Music Intervention on Golf Performance and Anxiety Level in Collegiate Golfers: A Crossover Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 20: 7478. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207478

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