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Special Issue "Psychological Factors that Influence the Athlete's Performance and Well-being"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Mental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020) | Viewed by 31530

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Regular sports practice has a positive influence on the physical and psychological health of athletes. Sports performance depends not only on the physical qualities of the athletes, but also on psychological variables. In a competitive context, knowledge and manipulation of psychological variables such as attention, self-confidence, stress control, anxiety, motivation, cohesion, self-control or emotional self-regulation, moods, and interpersonal skills can influence the athlete's performance. Even the practice of sports can generate feelings of fear of failure and the appearance of feelings of shame, creating in athletes a certain degree of insecurity, anxiety or stress and avoidance behaviors, which can affect the wellbeing, interpersonal behavior, and sports performance of athletes. On the other hand, competitive sport is a means of socializing influences that have an impact on the training of the player, the promotion of a balanced sporting context, and the intention to continue practizing sport. Hence, the physical and psychological well-being of athletes depends on the social environments where the sport is practiced, which is related to the significant agents of the environment. This Special Issue aims to collect the most recent research on these psychological factors that influence sports performance, the psychological wellbeing of the athlete, and sports adherence.

Prof. Manuel Gómez-López
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Psychological wellbeing
  • Performance
  • Physical activity and sport
  • Fear of failure
  • Stress and anxiety
  • Motivational climate
  • Motivation
  • Sports adherence

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Article
Relationship between Pre-Competition Mental State and Sport Result of Disabled Boccia Athletes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218232 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1055
Abstract
The relationship between sport result and pre-competition mental state of 109 boccia athletes was analyzed. Mental state was described by: athletic identity, self-esteem, self-efficacy for sports, hope for success, fear of failure, anxiety, and expectancy of success. Correlation analyses were made for all [...] Read more.
The relationship between sport result and pre-competition mental state of 109 boccia athletes was analyzed. Mental state was described by: athletic identity, self-esteem, self-efficacy for sports, hope for success, fear of failure, anxiety, and expectancy of success. Correlation analyses were made for all four boccia classes (BC1, BC2, BC3, and BC4) and revealed that only athletic identity was associated with sport result in class BC4. Four hierarchical multiple regression models (for BC1, BC2, BC3, and BC4 boccia classes) were created, with sport result as the dependent variable. Only the BC4 model was significant and included athletic identity, anxiety, self-efficacy for sports, and expectancy of success, which explained 49% of variance in sport result. BC4 class results indicate that psychological variables have a potential impact on sport performance in boccia, and the type and level of disability should be taken into account. Full article
Article
Study of the Motivation of Spanish Amateur Runners Based on Training Patterns and Gender
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8185; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218185 - 05 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 907
Abstract
The objectives of the present study are to analyze the different training patterns of the amateur runners, according to their gender, and to find out a correlation between the training pattern and the motivation. The sample was composed of 457 amateur runners. For [...] Read more.
The objectives of the present study are to analyze the different training patterns of the amateur runners, according to their gender, and to find out a correlation between the training pattern and the motivation. The sample was composed of 457 amateur runners. For the collection of data, a two-part questionnaire was used. The first part consisted of questions about sporting and healthy patterns and the second part consisted of the Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), adapted to Spanish. The obtained results indicated that their motives for starting to practice running and to continue their involvement are health and fun. The training pattern is as follows: they practise one to three days per week, running from three to five hours overall plus additional stretching and high intensity training. They participated in less than one running event per month. Most of them did not belong to an athletic club, did not have a coach, were not federated and have more than four years’ experience of running. What concerns the gender differences, the men trained more than the women, and they did it with relatives and friends; women preferred to do it with friends or by themselves with the assistance of a coach. Age and running hours per week were the best variables to predict the task goal orientation, especially for men. For women, training hours per week predicted the goal orientation but to the ego. This finding could be especially helpful for coaches. A high number of training hours for men was linked with a task goal orientation, and on the other hand, for women it meant an ego goal orientation. The consequences of their behaviours were likely to be markedly different. Full article
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Article
Psychological Strain and Suicidal Ideation in Athletes: The Multiple Mediating Effects of Hopelessness and Depression
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8087; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218087 - 02 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1362
Abstract
The present study aims to examine the relationship between psychological strain, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression among Chinese athletes. Participants were 774 Chinese athletes (454 men and 320 women), with a range of ages from 12 to 35 (M = 18.47, SD [...] Read more.
The present study aims to examine the relationship between psychological strain, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression among Chinese athletes. Participants were 774 Chinese athletes (454 men and 320 women), with a range of ages from 12 to 35 (M = 18.47, SD = 3.39). The structural equation modeling method was used to examine the multiple mediating effects of hopelessness and depression between psychological strain and suicidal ideation. As expected, a positive correlation between psychological strain, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression was found. Additionally, results seem to indicate that psychological strain directly and positively influenced suicidal ideation, and that hopelessness and depression played a serial mediating role in the relationship between psychological strain and suicidal ideation. To conclude, the psychological strain theory is applicable for explaining suicidal ideation in athletes. In athletes, psychological strain is sequentially associated first with a sense of hopelessness and then depression, which is in turn related to suicidal ideation. The present study makes a significant contribution to the literature because we provide a new theoretical basis and new methods for preventing mental disorder and suicidality in athletes. Full article
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Article
Acute Effects of Self-Selected Music Intervention on Golf Performance and Anxiety Level in Collegiate Golfers: A Crossover Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7478; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207478 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1219
Abstract
Music has been reported as a positive intervention for improving psychophysiological conditions and exercise performance. However, the effects of music intervention on golf performance in association with psychophysiological responses have not been well examined in the literature. The purpose of the study was [...] Read more.
Music has been reported as a positive intervention for improving psychophysiological conditions and exercise performance. However, the effects of music intervention on golf performance in association with psychophysiological responses have not been well examined in the literature. The purpose of the study was to investigate the acute effects of self-selected music intervention on golf swing and putting performance, heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and anxiety. Twenty collegiate golfers voluntarily participated in this study (age = 20.2 ± 1.4 years, height = 171.7 ± 8.0 cm, body weight = 69.5 ± 14.6 kg, golf experience = 7.5 ± 2.1 years). A cross-over and within-subject design was used in this study. Participants performed a non-music trial (T1), pre-exercise music trial (T2), and simultaneous music trial (T3) in a randomized order with 48–72 h apart. The participants were attached to a HR monitor to record the HR and HRV during the measurement. The golf swing and putting performance was assessed by using the Golfzon golf simulator system. The state-trait anxiety inventory-state questionnaire (STAI-S) was used to evaluate anxiety state. All measurements were taken during baseline (phase one) and after resting or music intervention (phase two). Repeated measurement of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Cohen’s effect size (ES) were used for statistical analyses. The results show no significant differences in golf swing and putting performance (p > 0.05). However, significant decrease in STAI-S score was found in T2 (p = 0.047, ES = 0.32). A significant increase in the standard deviation of normal R-R interval (SDNN), low-frequency power spectrum (LF), standard deviation of along the line-of-identity (SD2) in T2 and T3 were observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a single pre-exercise or simultaneous self-selected music intervention contributes minor effects to golf performance in collegiate golfers. The positive benefits of self-selected music intervention on the psychological condition and cardia-related modulation while practicing golf is warranted. Full article
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Article
Well-Being and Throwing Speed of Women Handball Players Affected by Feedback
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6064; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176064 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
This research aims at studying the effect of feedback on well-being (vitality, and positive and negative affect), competence valuation, perceived competence, motivation, and performance (throwing speed and accuracy) in a throwing task. Thirty nine expert women handball players, with experience in international handball [...] Read more.
This research aims at studying the effect of feedback on well-being (vitality, and positive and negative affect), competence valuation, perceived competence, motivation, and performance (throwing speed and accuracy) in a throwing task. Thirty nine expert women handball players, with experience in international handball competitions, participated in this study. They were indiscriminately ascribed to one of three different experimental conditions measuring feedback: (positive, negative, and none). Significant differences in well-being (positive affect) and throwing speed were found among the three feedback groups. More concretely, higher levels of positive affect and throwing speed were found in the negative feedback group in comparison with the other two groups (positive and no-feedback). These results have important implications for athletes’ well-being and performance, and for coaches’ training programs. Full article
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Article
The Comparison of Perfectionism and Commitment between Professional and Amateur Golfers and the Association between Perfectionism and Commitment in the Two Groups
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5657; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165657 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1111
Abstract
This study investigated differences in perfectionist traits and commitment between professional and amateur golfers, as well as correlations among perfectionist traits, commitment, and golf handicap. Using simple random sampling, 486 professional golfers (mean age = 22.1 ± 3.0, 52.1% female) and 233 amateur [...] Read more.
This study investigated differences in perfectionist traits and commitment between professional and amateur golfers, as well as correlations among perfectionist traits, commitment, and golf handicap. Using simple random sampling, 486 professional golfers (mean age = 22.1 ± 3.0, 52.1% female) and 233 amateur golfers (mean age = 44.8 ± 10.2, 55.8% female) were recruited and assessed using the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS) and Expansion of Sports Commitment Model (ESCM). An ANCOVA, controlling for age, golf career length, and training time, revealed lower MPS self-oriented scores (10.3%; F = 8.9, p < 0.01; effect size [ES] = 0.498) and higher ESCM-Cognition (12.6%; F = 9.4, p < 0.01; ES = 0.691) and ESCM-Behavior (9.4%; F = 4.6, p = 0.03; ES = 0.479) scores in professional golfers than in amateur golfers. In partial correlations controlling for age, golf career length, and training time, professional golfers’ MPS scores were negatively associated with ESCM-Cognition scores (r = -0.30, p < 0.001). Professional golfers’ mean golf handicap was positively correlated with MPS total (r = 0.33, p < 0.01). Altogether, golfers seeking to attain high levels of performance must consider the mental aspect of golfing and find ways to maximize commitment levels while minimizing perfectionist traits. Full article
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Article
Resilient Resources in Youth Athletes and Their Relationship with Anxiety in Different Team Sports
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5569; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155569 - 01 Aug 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2221
Abstract
The objective of this study is to show the links and differences in the expressions of competitive anxiety in the face of the existence of resilient resources in young athletes, according to sporting (years of experience) and personal (gender) characteristics. To meet these [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to show the links and differences in the expressions of competitive anxiety in the face of the existence of resilient resources in young athletes, according to sporting (years of experience) and personal (gender) characteristics. To meet these aims, the participants answered the Resilience Scale (RS-14) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2R (CSAI-2R). The sample consisted of 241 adolescent handball and basketball players between 14 and 17 years old. Different analyses were performed, including a differential and multivariate descriptive, a correlation, and a multiple regression. The results showed that anxiety was negatively related to resilience in its acceptance dimension. It was shown that girls showed higher levels of somatic anxiety, while boys showed higher levels of acceptance. Statistically significant differences were found in the resources for acceptance in favor of boys, while there were significantly different indicators in somatic anxiety and self-confidence in favor of girls. The sports experience was positively related to resilience and negatively to anxiety. Although the existence of indicators of cognitive anxiety (e.g., recurrent thoughts or rhyming), coaches and athletes need to understand that they are also indicators of a necessary activation for psychological functioning. Channeling such a process through psychological training of different skills will enhance the capacities for self-confidence. Full article
Article
Coach–Athlete Attachment and the Subjective Well-Being of Athletes: A Multiple-Mediation Model Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4675; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134675 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1422
Abstract
The current study aims to explore how coach–athlete attachment affects the subjective well-being (SWB) of athletes and is primarily focused on the confirmation of the mediating roles of athletes’ perceived coach support and self-esteem in the relationship between them. A total of 179 [...] Read more.
The current study aims to explore how coach–athlete attachment affects the subjective well-being (SWB) of athletes and is primarily focused on the confirmation of the mediating roles of athletes’ perceived coach support and self-esteem in the relationship between them. A total of 179 Chinese athletes participated in this study, in which they responded to questions comprising a coach–athlete attachment scale, a perceived coach support measurement, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and SWB measures. The results suggest that both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance significantly predict SWB in athletes. The effects of attachment anxiety on SWB are partially mediated by perceived coach support and self-esteem, and the effects of attachment avoidance on SWB are completely mediated by perceived coach support and self-esteem. Moreover, a chain mediating effect was found: coach–athlete attachment → perceived coach support → self-esteem → SWB. These findings extend the conclusions of prior reports and shed light on how coach–athlete attachment influences the athlete’s well-being. Full article
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Article
Female Soccer Players’ Psychological Profile: Differences between Professional and Amateur Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124357 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
The psychological variables that affect competitive performance are called the psychological profile of athletes. In recent years, the interest in female soccer players and the psychological characteristics that affect their performance has increased. The aim of the present study is to analyze the [...] Read more.
The psychological variables that affect competitive performance are called the psychological profile of athletes. In recent years, the interest in female soccer players and the psychological characteristics that affect their performance has increased. The aim of the present study is to analyze the psychological characteristics of female professional soccer players and female amateur soccer players, as well as to determine the differences in the psychological profile of both groups. The participants were 134 federated female soccer players, with an average age of 18.28 years (SD = 4.05). To assess the psychological profile, the questionnaire on Psychological Characteristics related to Sports Performance (CPRD) by Gimeno, Buceta, and Pérez-Llantada (2001) was used. The results showed that female professional players presented higher values for motivation, while the female amateur players presented higher values for stress control and the influence of performance evaluation. These results can have a great impact on coaches’ work, since they can help them to establish tasks and training methods consistent with the characteristics of their players. Full article
Article
Influence of Music on Closed Motor Skills: A Controlled Study with Novice Female Dart-Throwers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114146 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
The influence of music heard at different tempos is analyzed during the execution of a dart-throwing task. The sample consisted of 56 female university students (Mean age = 23.38, SD = 6.773). The participants were randomly assigned to GC (group control without music; [...] Read more.
The influence of music heard at different tempos is analyzed during the execution of a dart-throwing task. The sample consisted of 56 female university students (Mean age = 23.38, SD = 6.773). The participants were randomly assigned to GC (group control without music; n = 18), GS (group with slow-paced music at a tempo of 60 BPM; n = 19) and GF (group with fast-paced music at a tempo of 105 BPM; n = 19). All participants performed a dart-throwing task in two phases. Analysis of the scores obtained during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of dart throwing (examining both between-group differences and within-group differences, i.e., changes in scores from Phase 1 to Phase 2 using a mixed factorial ANOVA) revealed no differences in dart-throwing scores. There were, however, differences in execution time, where the participants in GS needed more time to complete the task than those in GF (F(2,55) = 4.426, p = 0.017) with a large effect size (ŋ2p = 0.143), although neither of these groups differed from GC. The results are discussed in terms of the role of music in precision tasks and the synchronization of the task with the pace of the music. Full article
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Article
Psychometric Properties of the Polish Version of Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3593; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103593 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
The main aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire (TEOSQ). The study covered 651 athletes aged 19.2 years, SD (Standard deviation) = 2.21. The task and ego [...] Read more.
The main aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire (TEOSQ). The study covered 651 athletes aged 19.2 years, SD (Standard deviation) = 2.21. The task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire (TEOSQ) and sport motivation scale (SMS-28) were used. Cronbach’s Alpha for the ego subscale was 0.84, and for the task subscale 0.81 (McDonald’s omega was 0.84, 0.82 respectively). The reliability of the test-retest with two weeks interval was ICC (Intraclass correlation coefficient) = 0.86 for ego and ICC = 0.86 for task. Initially, the two-factor model was not fully fitted (CFI (Comparative fit index) = 0.84), however the model with correlated errors for selected test items was well fitted to data (CFI = 0.95). Statistically significant, positive correlations between the task orientation and the intrinsic motivation components were obtained. Additionally, individual athletes had higher scores on the ego factor and lower scores on the task factor than the team athletes. These effects were moderated by the level of participation and occurred among high-performance athletes. Due to satisfactory reliability and validity indicators the Polish version of the task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire (TEOSQ) can be used both for scientific research and in the individual diagnostics of athletes. Full article
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Article
Why Negative or Positive, If It makes Me Win? Dark Personality in Spanish Competitive Athletes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3504; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103504 - 17 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
Research on the dark triad traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy) is increasingly focusing on the functional or dysfunctional influences of personality traits on cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses. Thus, studies in sport contexts have shown that athletes who participate in competitive sports have [...] Read more.
Research on the dark triad traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy) is increasingly focusing on the functional or dysfunctional influences of personality traits on cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses. Thus, studies in sport contexts have shown that athletes who participate in competitive sports have higher scores in the dark triad than those who do not. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to evaluate the linear and predictive relationships between dark traits and competitiveness (p < 0.01), as well as to identify any differences based on sports orientation (professionals vs. amateurs). Scales SD3 (dark personality) and C−10 (competitiveness) were applied to a sample of Spanish athletes (n = 806). The results show that competitiveness is strongly related to the traits of the dark personality triad. Narcissism is related to both the desire to win and the fear of losing, while Machiavellian tendencies are high when athletes feel like losers. Finally, psychopathic tendencies are related to feelings of inferiority and fear of failure. In conclusion, the results suggest that dark personality traits are related not only to the individuality of the athletes, but also to the self-perception of both their psychological response and the competitiveness of their sporting environment. Full article
Article
“Coach Really Knew What I Needed and Understood Me Well as a Person”: Effective Communication Acts in Coach–Athlete Interactions among Korean Olympic Archers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093101 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2226
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to qualitatively explore situations in which athletes perceived communication with their coach to be important and determine the effect of this communication on the athletes. Literature on the communication process in sports emphasizes the distinct characteristics of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to qualitatively explore situations in which athletes perceived communication with their coach to be important and determine the effect of this communication on the athletes. Literature on the communication process in sports emphasizes the distinct characteristics of each sports and its setting. However, previous research has not studied various settings in detail, and archery is yet to be explored. The qualitative process included an in-depth, semi-structured interview with eight Olympic archers. Thematic analysis was used to interpret the data. Athletes perceived communication with coaches to be important during their performance, while dealing with psychological crises, and during their training. Our analysis suggests that, depending on the communicative actions, a coach may positively or negatively impact an athlete’s self-awareness, self-confidence, anxiety, autonomy, and motivation. A noteworthy finding of this study is that archers perceive communication with coaches about the selection and management of equipment as important. This study emphasizes the critical role of an athlete’s communication with the coach in various situations and discusses the theoretical and practical implications in the context of sports performance. Full article
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Article
Psychological Profile, Competitive Anxiety, Moods and Self-Efficacy in Beach Handball Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010241 - 29 Dec 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2967
Abstract
The first objective of this research was to analyze the relationships between the sports psychological profile, competitive anxiety, mood and self-efficacy in beach handball players. The second objective was to determine the predictive capacity of the psychological profile on competitive anxiety, moods and [...] Read more.
The first objective of this research was to analyze the relationships between the sports psychological profile, competitive anxiety, mood and self-efficacy in beach handball players. The second objective was to determine the predictive capacity of the psychological profile on competitive anxiety, moods and self-efficacy, which was assessed by linear regression analysis. One hundred and eighty-one beach handball players participated in this research (age: M = 25.68; SD = 5.95), of which 52.49% were male (n = 95) and 47.51% were female (n = 86). The Psychological Sports Execution Inventory (SPPI), the Competition Anxiety State Inventory 2 (CSAI-2), the Mood Profile (POMS) questionnaire and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) were used to obtain the data. Correlation and linear regression analyses reveal statistically significant associations between the constructs studied, both for the total sample and by gender. Specifically, they highlight the relationships between the different measures of the sports psychological profile with self-confidence (p < 0.001), as well as those established between negative coping control with competitive anxiety (p < 0.001), moods (p < 0.05) and general self-efficacy (p < 0.001). Full article

Review

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Review
Effect of Listening to Music on Wingate Anaerobic Test Performance. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4564; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124564 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3018
Abstract
Background: There are many athletes who like to listen to music while making a high intensity effort. However, research into the effects of listening to music on athletic performance has provided controversial results, and it is suggested that the timing and type [...] Read more.
Background: There are many athletes who like to listen to music while making a high intensity effort. However, research into the effects of listening to music on athletic performance has provided controversial results, and it is suggested that the timing and type of music might affect the anaerobic performance response. Purpose: The main aim of the current systematic review and meta-analysis was to analyze the effects while listening to music tasks via the 30 s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) on absolute performance and relative peak power (APP and RPP), absolute and relative mean power (AMP and RMP), and fatigue index (FI). Methods: PRISMA guidelines were used as a basis for conducting this systematic review, with inclusion criteria being set out according to the PICOS model. Computer-based literature research was undertaken until 10 March 2020 using the following online databases: PubMed/Medline, WOS, Cochrane Library, and Scopus. The literature was reviewed with regard to the effects of listening to music on the WAnT using several music variables on: APP, RPP, AMP, RMP and FI. Hedges’ g formula was used to calculate both standard mean differences and 95% confidence intervals, in order to establish continuous outcomes. Furthermore, the I2 statistic evaluated systematic differences (heterogeneity) together with a random effect meta-analysis model. Results: This systematic review included nine articles that researched into the effects of music on WAnT performance (six studies describe improvements in APP and/or RPP, four in AMP and/or RMP and three in FI). The random effects model was used to undertake a final meta-analysis, with standardized mean differences (SMD) and magnitude of standardized mean differences (MSMD) (Hedges’ g) being pooled accordingly. The resulting meta-analysis incorporated eight studies that had been previously published, with results showing that there were no apparent beneficial effects on APP (p = 0.09), AMP (p = 0.33) and FI (p = 0.46) as a consequence of listening to music. However, listening to music showed beneficial effects on RPP (SMD: 0.65; 95%: CI 0.35 to 0.96; MSMD: moderate; I2, 0%; p < 0.001) and RMP (SMD: 1.03; 95%: CI, 0.63 to 1.42; MSMD: trivial; I2, 0%; p < 0.001). Conclusion: This systematic review and meta-analysis has shown that listening to music during the WAnT might physiologically enhance relative anaerobic exercise performance, although reasons remain speculative. Full article
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