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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010164

PM2.5-Bound Toxic Elements in an Urban City in East China: Concentrations, Sources, and Health Risks

1
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China
2
Environmental Monitoring Central Station of Shandong Province, Jinan 250101, China
3
Department of Chemistry, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 1 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Pollution and Health Risk Assessment)
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Abstract

Concentrations of PM2.5-bound trace elements have increased in China, with increasing anthropogenic emissions. In this study, long-term measurements of PM2.5-bound trace elements were conducted from January 2014 to January 2015 in the urban city of Jinan, east China. A positive matrix factorization model (PMF) and health risk assessment were used to evaluate the sources and health risks of these elements, respectively. Compared with most Chinese megacities, there were higher levels of arsenic, manganese, lead, chromium, and zinc in this city. Coal combustion, the smelting industry, vehicle emission, and soil dust were identified as the primary sources of all the measured elements. Heating activities during the heating period led to a factor of 1.3–2.8 higher concentrations for PM2.5 and all measured elements than those during the non-heating period. Cumulative non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of the toxic elements exceeded the safety levels by 8–15 and 10–18 times, respectively. Arsenic was the critical element having the greatest health risk. Coal combustion caused the highest risk among the four sources. This work provides scientific data for making targeted policies to control air pollutants and protect human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: elemental composition; PMF; human exposure; fine particles elemental composition; PMF; human exposure; fine particles
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Du, L.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Z.; Hou, C.; Mao, H.; Li, T.; Nie, X. PM2.5-Bound Toxic Elements in an Urban City in East China: Concentrations, Sources, and Health Risks. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 164.

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