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Medicina, Volume 56, Issue 7 (July 2020) – 46 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Functional dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common gastrointestinal clinical syndromes and its etiology remains largely idiopathic. FD pharmacotherapy is difficult and often yields unsatisfactory results. Within this article, we investigate, for the first time, the efficacy and safety of trimebutine as monotherapy for FD. Trimebutine is a prokinetic drug, exhibiting also antimuscarinic and opiate receptor (mu, kappa and delta) agonist effects, as well as antibiotic properties. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective study was conducted; trimebutine was compared against placebo for a period of four weeks in patients diagnosed with FD. It was shown that trimebutine monotherapy is an effective and safe therapeutic approach for FD. This article is supplemented with additional information regarding the pathophysiology of FD and relevant additional pharmacological studies. [...] Read more.
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27 pages, 1220 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Artificial Intelligence in the Endoscopic Assessment of Premalignant and Malignant Esophageal Lesions: Present and Future
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070364 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2744
Abstract
In the gastroenterology field, the impact of artificial intelligence was investigated for the purposes of diagnostics, risk stratification of patients, improvement in quality of endoscopic procedures and early detection of neoplastic diseases, implementation of the best treatment strategy, and optimization of patient prognosis. [...] Read more.
In the gastroenterology field, the impact of artificial intelligence was investigated for the purposes of diagnostics, risk stratification of patients, improvement in quality of endoscopic procedures and early detection of neoplastic diseases, implementation of the best treatment strategy, and optimization of patient prognosis. Computer-assisted diagnostic systems to evaluate upper endoscopy images have recently emerged as a supporting tool in endoscopy due to the risks of misdiagnosis related to standard endoscopy and different expertise levels of endoscopists, time-consuming procedures, lack of availability of advanced procedures, increasing workloads, and development of endoscopic mass screening programs. Recent research has tended toward computerized, automatic, and real-time detection of lesions, which are approaches that offer utility in daily practice. Despite promising results, certain studies might overexaggerate the diagnostic accuracy of artificial systems, and several limitations remain to be overcome in the future. Therefore, additional multicenter randomized trials and the development of existent database platforms are needed to certify clinical implementation. This paper presents an overview of the literature and the current knowledge of the usefulness of different types of machine learning systems in the assessment of premalignant and malignant esophageal lesions via conventional and advanced endoscopic procedures. This study makes a presentation of the artificial intelligence terminology and refers also to the most prominent recent research on computer-assisted diagnosis of neoplasia on Barrett’s esophagus and early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and prediction of invasion depth in esophageal neoplasms. Furthermore, this review highlights the main directions of future doctor–computer collaborations in which machines are expected to improve the quality of medical action and routine clinical workflow, thus reducing the burden on physicians. Full article
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11 pages, 1535 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Novel Anticoagulants on the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Mucosa
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070363 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2576
Abstract
Background and objectives: Although treatment with novel oral non-vitamin K antagonist 3anticoagulants (NOACs) is associated with an overall decrease in hemorrhagic complications compared to warfarin, the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding remains contradictory. Materials and Methods: After the exclusion of patients with pre-existing pathological [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Although treatment with novel oral non-vitamin K antagonist 3anticoagulants (NOACs) is associated with an overall decrease in hemorrhagic complications compared to warfarin, the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding remains contradictory. Materials and Methods: After the exclusion of patients with pre-existing pathological lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) on esophageal-gastroduodenoscopy (EGD) at entry, a cohort of 80 patients (mean age of 74.8 ± 2.0 years) was randomly divided into four equivalent groups, treated with dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, or warfarin. Patients were prospectively followed up for three months of treatment, with a focus on anamnestic and endoscopic signs of bleeding. In addition, bleeding risk factors were evaluated. Results: In none of the patients treated with warfarin or NOACs was any serious or clinically significant bleeding recorded within the follow-up period. The incidence of clinical bleeding and endoscopically detected bleeding in the upper GT after three months of treatment was not statistically different among groups (χ2 = 2.8458; p = 0.41608). The presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) was a risk factor for upper GIT bleeding (p < 0.05), while the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) was a protective factor (p = 0.206; Spearman’s correlation coefficient = 0.205). We did not record any post-biopsy continued bleeding. Conclusions: No significant GIT bleeding was found in any of the treatment groups, so we consider it beneficial to perform routine EGD before the initiation of any anticoagulant therapy in patients with an increased risk of upper GIT bleeding. Detection and eradication of HP as well as preventive PPI treatment may mitigate the occurrence of endoscopic bleeding. Endoscopic biopsy during the NOAC treatment is safe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thrombotic Disorders and Antithrombotic Treatments)
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7 pages, 3025 KiB  
Case Report
One-Step Lower Leg Reconstruction with Vascularized Functional Vastus Lateralis Muscle Flap in the Treatment of Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma for a Six-Month-Old Boy: A Case Report
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070362 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a common soft tissue sarcoma in childhood, however, it is very rare in the neonatal period (0.4–2% of cases). This case depicts a boy, who presented with RMS at two weeks of age, but officially diagnosed at the age of [...] Read more.
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a common soft tissue sarcoma in childhood, however, it is very rare in the neonatal period (0.4–2% of cases). This case depicts a boy, who presented with RMS at two weeks of age, but officially diagnosed at the age of three months. MRI and scintigraphy determined a soft tissue tumor in the soleus muscle, while biopsy confirmed embryonal RMS with high mitotic activity (Ki67 (monoclonal antibodies) ~80%). CWS (Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe)-2012 with I2VA (ifosfamide, vincristine, actinomycin) chemotherapy regimen was administered per protocol. Surgical treatment was performed at age of six months and 18 days. The operation consisted of radical tumor resection and total triceps surae with partial fibula resection. Immediate reconstruction of triceps muscle was accomplished using a vascularized functional musculocutaneous vastus lateralis flap. Functional outcome was measured using the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) with the results of 92.5% and 99% respectively. Full article
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11 pages, 2799 KiB  
Article
Signs of Dehydration after Hip Fracture Surgery: An Observational Descriptive Study
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070361 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2236
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Dehydration might be an issue after hip fracture surgery, but the optimal tools to identify the dehydrated condition have not been determined. The aim of the present study was to compare the characteristics of elderly postoperative patients who were classified [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Dehydration might be an issue after hip fracture surgery, but the optimal tools to identify the dehydrated condition have not been determined. The aim of the present study was to compare the characteristics of elderly postoperative patients who were classified as dehydrated according to the methods used in the clinic. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight patients aged between 65 and 97 (mean, 82) years were studied after being admitted to a geriatric department for rehabilitation after hip fracture surgery. Each patient underwent blood analyses, urine sampling, and clinical examinations. Results: Patients ingested a mean of 1,008 mL (standard deviation, 309 mL) of fluid during their first day at the clinic. Serum osmolality increased significantly with the plasma concentrations of sodium, creatinine, and urea. Seven patients had high serum osmolality (≥300 mosmol/kg) that correlated with the presence of tongue furrows (p < 0.04), poor skin turgor (p < 0.03), and pronounced albuminuria (p < 0.03). Eight patients had concentrated urine (urine-specific gravity ≥ 1.025) that correlated with a low intake of liquid and with a decrease in body weight during the past month of −3.0 kg (25–75 th percentiles, −5.1 to −0.9) versus +0.2 (−1.9 to +2.7) kg (p < 0.04). Conclusions: Renal fluid conservation of water, either in the form of hyperosmolality or concentrated urine, was found in 40% of the patients after hip fracture surgery. Hyperosmolality might not indicate a more severe fluid deficit than is indicated by concentrated urine but suggests an impaired ability to concentrate the urine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatrics/Aging)
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10 pages, 496 KiB  
Article
Predicting Old-age Mortality Using Principal Component Analysis: Results from a National Panel Survey in Korea
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070360 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This study aimed to group diseases classified by the International Classification of Diseases using principal component analysis, and discuss a systematic approach to reducing the preventable death rate from a perspective of public health. Materials and Methods: Using a 10-year [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This study aimed to group diseases classified by the International Classification of Diseases using principal component analysis, and discuss a systematic approach to reducing the preventable death rate from a perspective of public health. Materials and Methods: Using a 10-year follow-up analysis of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) data, this study obtained de-identified data including participants’ data of community-dwelling individuals aged ≥45 years from 2006 to 2016. Participants were randomly selected using a multistage, stratified probability sampling based on geographical area and housing type. We excluded 37 participants with missing information at baseline and included 10,217 study participants. This study used the principal component analysis to extract comorbidity patterns, and chi-square test and Cox proportional hazards models for analyzing the association between the factors of interest. Results: Principal component 1 (diabetes, heart disease, and hypertension) was associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) of 1.079 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.031–1.129, p = 0.001). Principal component 3 (psychiatric and cerebrovascular diseases) was related to an increased HR of 1.134 (95% CI 1.094–1.175, p < 0.0001). Moreover, principal component 4 was associated with a high HR of 1.172 (95% CI 1.130–1.215, p < 0.0001). However, among participants aged between 45 and 64 years, principal component 4 showed a meaningfully increased HR of 1.262 (95% CI 1.184–1.346, p < 0.001). In this study, among the four principal components, three were statistically associated with increased mortality. Conclusions: The principal component analysis for predicting mortality may become a useful tool, and artificial intelligence (AI) will improve a value-based healthcare strategy, along with developing a clinical decision support model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence Research in Healthcare)
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11 pages, 1480 KiB  
Article
Expression Levels of Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress-Related Genes in Skin Biopsies and Their Association with Pityriasis Alba
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070359 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1881
Abstract
Background and objectives: Pytiriasis alba (PA) is a common skin disorder which affects 80% of children between six and 16 years. The etiology of PA is unclear, but hypo-pigmented patches in photo-exposed zones characterize the disease. Because the high ultraviolet exposition of [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Pytiriasis alba (PA) is a common skin disorder which affects 80% of children between six and 16 years. The etiology of PA is unclear, but hypo-pigmented patches in photo-exposed zones characterize the disease. Because the high ultraviolet exposition of the skin promotes an acute inflammatory response and an increase of oxidative stress (OS), this study aimed to evaluate the expression levels of inflammatory and OS-related genes in skin biopsies, and their association with PA. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out. Skin biopsies of the lesion sites and healthy skin (controls) from 16 children with PA were evaluated. The tissue expression of IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, TNFα, INFγ, IL-1β, SOD1, and HMOX1 was analyzed by qRT-PCR, using SYBR Green and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene as the endogenous control. Results: There were differences in the ΔCq values of HMOX1, SOD1, IL-6, and IFNγ between tissue with lesions and healthy skin (p < 0.05). Compared with healthy skin, IL-6, IFNγ, HMOX1, and SOD1 were predominantly under-expressed in the lesion sites. However, 25% of skin biopsies with lesions showed over-expression of these four genes. Positive correlations between the expression of IL-6 and HMOX1, SOD1, and IFNγ (p < 0.05) were also observed. Conclusions: Our results suggest the presence of molecular stages of PA, defined according to the over-expression (first stage) or under-expression (second stage) of the HMOX1, SOD1, IL-6, and IFNγ genes in abnormal skin tissue. These findings may have implications for the selection of treatment for PA-related lesions. Full article
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10 pages, 758 KiB  
Article
Progression to Severe Hypernatremia in Hospitalized General Medicine Inpatients: An Observational Study of Hospital-Acquired Hypernatremia
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070358 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3494
Abstract
Background and objectives: Hypernatremia can be community or hospital-acquired, and there may be specific factors unique to the hospital environment, such as intravenous fluid treatment, which contribute to hypernatremia. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with the progression [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Hypernatremia can be community or hospital-acquired, and there may be specific factors unique to the hospital environment, such as intravenous fluid treatment, which contribute to hypernatremia. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with the progression from moderate to severe hospital-acquired hypernatremia among patients admitted under general medicine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective, single-center cohort study (2012 to 2017), we used ICD-10 coding and medical records to identify adult patients who developed moderate hypernatremia and followed them for progression to severe hypernatremia. We profiled the serum biochemistry and the volume and composition of prescribed intravenous fluids. We applied logistic regression to determine the factors associated with the progression to severe hypernatremia, using the patients with moderate hypernatremia as reference. Results: Of the 180 medical inpatients (median age of 81 years) with moderate hospital-acquired hypernatremia, 9.4% progressed to severe hypernatremia. Normal saline comprised 76% of intravenous fluid volume administered prior to onset of moderate hypernatremia. After the onset, 38% of fluid volume prescribed remained normal saline. The factors independently associated with progression to severe hypernatremia included chronic kidney disease stage (odds ratio 2.38, 95% CI: 1.26–4.50, P = 0.008) and serum creatinine increase (per 10 µmol/L, OR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.07–1.57, P = 0.009). Conclusions: Patients with chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury may have an increased risk of severe hospital-acquired hypernatremia. Full article
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11 pages, 761 KiB  
Article
Intravenous r-tPA Dose Influence on Outcome after Middle Cerebral Artery Ischemic Stroke Treatment by Mechanical Thrombectomy
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070357 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2012
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Pretreatment with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is still recommended in all eligible acute ischemic stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion before mechanical thrombectomy (MTE). However, the added value and safety of bridging therapy versus direct MTE remains controversial. We aimed at evaluating [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Pretreatment with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is still recommended in all eligible acute ischemic stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion before mechanical thrombectomy (MTE). However, the added value and safety of bridging therapy versus direct MTE remains controversial. We aimed at evaluating the influence of r-tPA dose level in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion treated with MTE. Materials and Methods: We prospectively compared clinical and radiological outcomes in 38 bridging patients, with 65 receiving direct MTE for MCA stroke admitted to Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Clinics. Following our protocol, r-tPA infusion was stopped just before MTE in the operating room. Therefore, we divided all bridging patients into three groups according to the amount of r-tPA they received: bolus, partial dose or full dose. Functional independence at 90 days was assessed by a modified Rankin Scale score, i.e., from 0–2. The safety outcomes included 90-day mortality and any intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Results: Baseline characteristics and functional outcome at 90 days did not differ between the bridging and direct MTE groups. Shorter MTE procedure and hospitalization time (p = 0.025 and p = 0.036, respectively) were observed in the direct MTE group. An IVT treatment subgroup analysis showed higher rates of symptomatic ICH (p < 0.001) and longer intervals between imaging to MTE (p = 0.005) in the full r-tPA dose group. Conclusions: In patients with an MCA stroke, direct MTE seems to be a safe and equally effective as bridging therapy. The optimal r-tPA dose remains unclear. Randomized trials are needed to accurately evaluate the added value of r-tPA in patients treated with MTE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurology)
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10 pages, 643 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of 6-Week Nordic Walking Training on Functional Performance, Gait Quality, and Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070356 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3095
Abstract
Background and objectives: Motor rehabilitation improves physical mobility and quality of life in Parkinson’s disease (PD). As specialized rehabilitation is expensive and resource-consuming, there is a need for simpler, cost-effective methods. The purpose of the study was to determine whether Nordic Walking (NW) [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Motor rehabilitation improves physical mobility and quality of life in Parkinson’s disease (PD). As specialized rehabilitation is expensive and resource-consuming, there is a need for simpler, cost-effective methods. The purpose of the study was to determine whether Nordic Walking (NW) training may support the management of motor disability in PD. Materials and Methods: Forty patients (median age 64.0 years, range 50–75 years) with idiopathic PD, Hoehn and Yahr stages II–III, were randomly assigned to NW or standard rehabilitation (SR) programs, comprising twelve rehabilitation sessions conducted bi-weekly throughout the 6-week study period. Results: Median Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part III scores were significantly reduced with NW, by 8.5, and with SR, by 6.0 points (both p < 0.001), with significantly greater improvement with NW than with SR (p = 0.047). Gait quality and balance control, measured using the Dynamic Gait Index, improved with NW by a median of 8.0 and with SR by 5.5 points (both p < 0.001), with slightly greater improvement with NW, compared to the SR group (p = 0.064). Quality of life, assessed using the Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), improved with NW by a median of 15 and with SR by 12 points, p = 0.001 and p = 0.008, respectively. Conclusions: The 6-week Nordic Walking program improves functional performance, quality of gait, and quality of life in patients with PD and has comparable effectiveness to standard rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurology)
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8 pages, 1592 KiB  
Case Report
A Patient with Cryoglobulinemic Membranoproliferative GN (MPGN) Who Survived COVID-19 Disease: Case Presentation and Current Data of COVID-19 Infection in Dialysis and Transplanted Patients in Greece
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070355 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2979
Abstract
The evolving pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 has posed a substantial health risk worldwide. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the clinical course and the therapeutic management of patients with chronic kidney disease and COVID-19 infection. To date, most evidence has [...] Read more.
The evolving pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 has posed a substantial health risk worldwide. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the clinical course and the therapeutic management of patients with chronic kidney disease and COVID-19 infection. To date, most evidence has come from renal transplantation, with about 45 patients reported thus far, and the current data from the ERA-EDTA (ERACODA) registry for transplanted patients and patients on Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT); as for those with glomerular diseases, data are lacking. Herein, we report the case of a 62-year-old patient with severe membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis who had been receiving a high burden of immunosuppression until four months before the COVID-19 infection. He developed severe disease with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. After treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, despite his low chances, he gradually recovered and survived. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the few reported patients with glomerulonephritis who had COVID-19 Besides our single case with glomerulonephritis early during the disease outbreak, the very low prevalence of COVID-19 infection in the country’s transplant recipients (0.038%) and dialysis patients (0.24%) reflects the impact of the rapid implementation of social distancing rules as well as of preventive measures for disease control in the hospitals and dialysis units in our country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease)
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13 pages, 12649 KiB  
Article
Designers Drugs—A New Challenge to Emergency Departments—An Observational Study in Poland
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070354 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2036
Abstract
Background and Objective: In the last decade, the phenomenon of using new psychoactive substances (NPS), called designer drugs, has been on rise. Though their production and marketing in Poland is prohibited, reports of the Supreme Audit Office noted that young people are [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: In the last decade, the phenomenon of using new psychoactive substances (NPS), called designer drugs, has been on rise. Though their production and marketing in Poland is prohibited, reports of the Supreme Audit Office noted that young people are increasingly reaching for new intoxication agents in the form of designer drugs. There is a significant increase in the number of patients with NPS abuse admitted to the emergency departments. As NPS cannot be detected by standard tests for the presence of psychoactive substances, it is difficult to choose the appropriate therapeutic intervention. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the patient characteristics in the population of adults and children suspected of using NPS and formulate the protocol for diagnosis and treatment. Materials and Method: The paper is based on a retrospective analysis of medical records of hospitalized patients in the Clinical Emergency Department of The Regional Specialist Hospital in Olsztyn (SKOR WSS, emergency department (ED)) and the Pediatric Emergency Department of the Provincial Specialist Children′s Hospital in Olsztyn (SORD WSSD, pediatric emergency department (PED)) between years 2013 to 2018. The patient records related to their general symptoms at admission, mental state and laboratory diagnostic tests were evaluated. Results: The majority of patients hospitalized due to the suspected use of NPS were adolescents in 2013–2016 and a reversal of this trend was observed in 2017–2018 when number of adults admitted to the emergency department (ED) due to NPS use was higher. The NPS abuse was significantly higher among male patients, alcoholics, people using other psychoactive substances, patients suffering from mental disorders and teenagers in difficult socio-economic family situations. Whereas, the most common symptoms among pediatric patients were co-ordination disorder and aggression, in adults mainly tachycardia and aggression was observed. The laboratory tests in significant number of adult patients showed leukocytosis and ketonuria. Conclusions: In the present study, no unambiguous toxidrome or biochemical pattern characteristic for using NPS was observed. However, evaluation of blood morphology, coagulation parameters, liver and kidney function can be helpful in the diagnostic and therapeutic process. Symptomatic treatment of patients, fluid therapy and sedation was sufficient in most cases to resolve the patient symptoms in 48 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emergency Medicine)
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10 pages, 1014 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Procedural Thromboembolisms after Mechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070353 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
Background and objective: Procedural thromboembolisms after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke has rarely been studied. We retrospectively evaluated factors associated with procedural thromboembolisms after MT using diffusion-weight imaging (DWI) within 2 days of MT. Materials and Methods: From January 2018 to [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Procedural thromboembolisms after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke has rarely been studied. We retrospectively evaluated factors associated with procedural thromboembolisms after MT using diffusion-weight imaging (DWI) within 2 days of MT. Materials and Methods: From January 2018 to March 2020, 78 patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent MT were evaluated using DWI. Procedural thromboembolisms were defined as new cerebral infarctions in other territories from the occluded artery on DWI after MT. Results: Procedural thromboembolisms were observed on DWI in 16 patients (20.5%). Procedural thromboembolisms were associated with old age (73.8 ± 8.18 vs. 66.8 ± 11.2 years, p = 0.021), intravenous (IV) thrombolysis (12 out of 16 (75.0%) vs. 25 out of 62 (40.3%), p = 0.023), heparinization (4 out of 16 (25.0%) vs. 37 out of 62 (59.7%), p = 0.023), and longer procedural time (90.9 ± 35.6 vs. 64.4 ± 33.0 min, p = 0.006). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that procedural thromboembolisms were independently associated with procedural time (adjusted odds ratio (OR); 1.020, 95% confidence interval (CI); 1.002–1.039, p = 0.030) and IV thrombolysis (adjusted OR; 4.697, 95% CI; 1.223–18.042, p = 0.024). The cutoff value of procedural time for predicting procedural thromboembolisms was ≥71 min (area under the curve; 0.711, 95% CI; 0.570–0.851, p = 0.010). Conclusions: Procedural thromboembolisms after MT for acute ischemic stroke are significantly associated with longer procedural time and IV thrombolysis. This study suggests that patients with IV thrombolysis and longer procedural time (≥71 min) are at a higher risk of procedural thromboembolisms after MT for acute ischemic stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thrombotic Disorders and Antithrombotic Treatments)
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19 pages, 830 KiB  
Review
Eating Disorders in Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women: A Systematic Review
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070352 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 7350
Abstract
Background and objectives: Pregnancy is a stage associated with various biopsychosocial changes. These changes, along with concerns about keeping an adequate weight, can modulate an individual’s risk for psychological disorders, especially eating disorders (EDs). The aim of this review was to investigate the [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Pregnancy is a stage associated with various biopsychosocial changes. These changes, along with concerns about keeping an adequate weight, can modulate an individual’s risk for psychological disorders, especially eating disorders (EDs). The aim of this review was to investigate the prevalence, associated risks, and consequences of eating disorders in pregnancy and in breastfeeding mothers. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was carried out following the PRISMA guidelines in the scientific databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycINFO. Search terms related to EDs, pregnancy, and breastfeeding were used. The evaluation of the methodological quality of the studies was carried out using different scales; CASP (Checklist for Cohort Study), NICE (Methodology Checklist for Cohort Study), ARHQ (Methodology Checklist for Cross-Sectional), and NOS (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for Cohort). Results: From 2920 studies, 16 were selected to study EDs in pregnant women and 2 studies in nursing mothers. Most of the studies used questionnaires and scales as tools for the diagnosis of EDs. Binge eating, anxiety, and depression were the most common comorbidities of EDs, accompanied in most cases by excessive concern about weight gain. The consequences of EDs are diverse. The prevalence of EDs in this population is estimated to be 1 out of 20. Conclusions: Eating disorders are related to anxiety and depression and have negative consequences for both mothers and fetuses (cesarean, miscarriages, premature births). More research on the field to determine the risk factors for EDs in the population of pregnant and lactating women is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Misdiagnosis, Complications and Outcomes)
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16 pages, 4501 KiB  
Article
Effects of 3D Moving Platform Exercise on Physiological Parameters and Pain in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070351 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2319
Abstract
Background and objectives: Patient-handling activities predispose women to chronic low back pain (CLBP), but sufficient evidence is not available on whether a 3D moving platform, made for core stability exercise, affects pain, trunk flexibility, and static/dynamic muscle contractions in CLBP patients. Materials and [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Patient-handling activities predispose women to chronic low back pain (CLBP), but sufficient evidence is not available on whether a 3D moving platform, made for core stability exercise, affects pain, trunk flexibility, and static/dynamic muscle contractions in CLBP patients. Materials and Methods: The participants were twenty-nine women who were randomly divided into a control group (CON) and a 3D exercise group (3DEG), which took part in 3D moving exercise three times a week for 8 weeks. Both groups measured a visual analog scale (VAS) about their CLBP. Body composition, forward and backward trunk flexibilities, static muscle contraction property in rectus abdominis, and erector spinae were measured by tensiomyography, which found contraction time (Tc) and maximal displacement (Dm). Dynamic muscle contraction property in the abdomen and back were measured with an isokinetic device, which could measure peak torque (Pt) and work per repetition (Wr), before and after the trial. Results: The 3DEG had a significantly decreased fat mass and waist/hip ratio, as well as improved static muscle contractions of the erector spinae. The Wr of trunk extensor of 3D exercise group were also significantly increased. In the VAS, although the scores showed a significant change in some variables, while others did not. The Δ% in feeling pain at rest or at night, during exercise, walking, sitting in a hard chair, sitting in a soft chair, and lying down in 3DEG were significantly changed after 8 weeks. This indicates that the platform exercise provided a greater reduction of pain for activities that are done on a daily basis. Conclusions: This study confirms that the 3D moving platform exercise can provide the similar effect of the core stability exercise used in previous studies. Moreover, this study suggests that 3D moving platform exercise is a suitable means to reduce fatness, to increase trunk extensor, and to increase trunk backward flexibility, which led to reduced back pain in the women with CLBP. Full article
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22 pages, 1920 KiB  
Article
Behavioral and Biochemical Effects of Mukia madrespatana Following Single Immobilization Stress on Rats
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070350 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1926 | Correction
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Elevated oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the diagnosis and prognosis of stress and memory-related complications. Mukia madrespatana (M. madrespatana) has been reported to have various biological and antioxidant properties. We intended to [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Elevated oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the diagnosis and prognosis of stress and memory-related complications. Mukia madrespatana (M. madrespatana) has been reported to have various biological and antioxidant properties. We intended to evaluate the effect of M. madrespatana peel on single immobilization stress-induced behavioral deficits and memory changes in rats. Materials and Methods: M. madrespatana peel (2000 mg/kg/day, orally) was administered to control and immobilize stressed animals for 4 weeks. Anxiolytic, antidepressant, and memory-enhancing effects of M. madrespatana were observed in both unstressed and stressed animals. Results: Lipid peroxidation was decreased while antioxidant enzymes were increased in both unstressed and stressed animals. Acetylcholine level was increased while acetylcholinesterase activity was decreased in both M. madrespatana treated unstressed and stressed rats. There was also an improvement in memory function. Serotonin neurotransmission was also regulated in M. madrespatana treated rats following immobilization stress with anxiolytic and anti-depressive effects. Conclusion: Based on the current study, it is suggested that M. madrespatana has strong antioxidant properties and may be beneficial as dietary supplementation in stress and memory-related conditions. Full article
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8 pages, 1723 KiB  
Review
Topical Corticosteroids a Viable Solution for Oral Graft versus Host Disease? A Systematic Insight on Randomized Clinical Trials
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070349 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1978
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This research attempts to provide a clear view of the literature on randomized clinical trials (RCTs) concerning the efficacy of topical dexamethasone, clobetasol and budesonide in oral graft versus host disease (GVHD). Materials and Methods: An electronic search of the [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This research attempts to provide a clear view of the literature on randomized clinical trials (RCTs) concerning the efficacy of topical dexamethasone, clobetasol and budesonide in oral graft versus host disease (GVHD). Materials and Methods: An electronic search of the PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases was carried out for eligible RCTs. Studies were included if they had adult patients with oral GVHD treatment with topical corticosteroids, and if the RCT study was published in English. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess the quality of these studies. Overall, three RCTs were included (an Open, Randomized, Multicenter Trial; a Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial; and an Open-Label Phase II Randomized Trial). Results: The trials involved 76 patients, of which 44 patients received topical dexamethasone, 14 patients received topical clobetasol and 18 patients received topical budesonide. Topical agents were most frequently used when oral tissues were the sole site of involvement. It appears that the best overall response is present for budesonide with no difference between the four arms, followed by clobetasol, and then by dexamethasone. The limitation of the current study is mainly represented by the fact that overall response was derived in two of the studies from other parameters. Moreover, both budesonide and clobetasol were used in only one study each, while two assessed dexamethasone. Conclusions: Based on the clinical trials, all three agents seem to be effective in treating oral GVHD and had a satisfactory safety profile. There is still a need for assessing high quality RCTs to assess the efficacy of these therapies on a larger cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Medicine)
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9 pages, 1412 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Everolimus and Radiation Therapy on Pulmonary Fibrosis
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070348 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2145
Abstract
Background and objectives: Everolimus (EVE) is a mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor that is widely used in cancer patients. Pulmonary toxicity, usually manifesting as interstitial pneumonitis, is a serious adverse effect of this drug. Radiation therapy, which is often administered in [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Everolimus (EVE) is a mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor that is widely used in cancer patients. Pulmonary toxicity, usually manifesting as interstitial pneumonitis, is a serious adverse effect of this drug. Radiation therapy, which is often administered in conjunction with chemotherapy for synergistic effects, also causes pulmonary fibrosis. In view of pulmonary damage development in these two forms of cancer treatment, we have examined the effect of EVE administration individually, in combination with radiation given in varying sequences, and its relation to the extent of pulmonary damage. Materials and Methods: We performed an experimental study in albino rats, which were randomized into five groups: (1) control group, (2) EVE alone, (3) EVE 22 h after radiation, (4) EVE 2 h after irradiation, and (5) only radiation. Sixteen weeks after thoracic irradiation, rat lung tissue samples were examined under light microscopy, and the extent of pulmonary damage was estimated. After this, we calculated median fibrosis scores in each group. Results: The highest fibrosis score was noted in Group 4. Among the five groups, the control group had a significantly lower median fibrosis score compared to the others. When the median fibrosis score of the group that received concurrent EVE with radiation therapy (RT) (Group 4) was compared with that of the control group, the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0022). However, no significant differences were achieved among the study groups that received EVE only or RT only, whether concurrently or sequentially (p > 0.05). Conclusion: EVE is an effective treatment option for the management of several malignancies and is often combined with other therapies, such as radiation, for a more efficient response. However, an increased risk of pulmonary fibrosis should also be anticipated when these two modalities are combined, as they both can cause pulmonary damage, especially when administered concurrently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
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8 pages, 1141 KiB  
Article
Trends in Mortality Rates of Corpus Uteri and Ovarian Cancer in Lithuania, 1987–2016
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070347 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1442
Abstract
Background: The corpus uteri and ovarian cancers burden in Lithuania has remained high. The aim of this study was to investigate time trends in mortality rates of corpus uteri and ovarian cancer in Lithuania across age groups and time periods over a [...] Read more.
Background: The corpus uteri and ovarian cancers burden in Lithuania has remained high. The aim of this study was to investigate time trends in mortality rates of corpus uteri and ovarian cancer in Lithuania across age groups and time periods over a 30-year time span. Materials and Methods: Data on numbers of deaths from corpus uteri cancer during the period 1987–2016 and ovarian cancer during the period 1993–2016 were obtained from the WHO mortality database. Trends in age-standardized mortality rates (ASR, world standard), and age-specific rates were analyzed by calculating annual percentage change using Joinpoint regression. In addition, age–period–cohort analysis was performed for each cancer type. Results: Mortality from corpus uteri cancer decreased by −1.2% (95% CI: −1.8; −0.7) annually from 1987 to 2016. Decrease was most pronounced in youngest age group of 40–49 years; annual percentage change was −2.4 (95% CI: −4.0; −0.9). Mortality rates for ovarian cancers decreased by −1.2% (95% CI: −1.6; −0.8) annually from 1993 to 2016. Corpus uteri and ovarian cancer ASRs in 2016 were 3.5/100,000 and 7.4/100,000, respectively. The age–period–cohort analysis suggests that temporal trends in corpus uteri cancer mortality rates could be attributed to period and cohort effects. Conclusion: A reduction in mortality rate was observed for corpus uteri and ovarian cancer over the entire study period. Similar decreasing pattern for corpus uteri and ovarian cancer mortality indicate effect of shared factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
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11 pages, 918 KiB  
Article
Residential Links to Air Pollution and School Children with Asthma in Vilnius (Population Study)
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070346 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
Background and objectives: Many studies have been carried out on the negative health effects of exposure to PM10, PM 2.5, NO2, CO, SO2 and B[a]P for small populations. The main purpose of this study was to explore [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Many studies have been carried out on the negative health effects of exposure to PM10, PM 2.5, NO2, CO, SO2 and B[a]P for small populations. The main purpose of this study was to explore the association of air pollution to diagnosis of asthma for the whole huge population of school children between 7–17 years in Vilnius (Lithuania) using geographical information system analysis tools. Material and Methods: In the research, a child population of 51,235 individuals was involved. From this large database, we identified children who had asthma diagnosis J45 (ICD-10 AM). Residential pollution concentrations and proximity to roads and green spaces were obtained using the ArcGIS spatial analysis tool from simulated air pollution maps. Multiple stepwise logistic regression was used to explore the relation between air pollution concentration and proximity between the roads and green spaces where children with asthma were living. Further, we explored the interaction between variables. Results: From 51,235 school children aged 7–17 years, 3065 children had asthma in 2017. We investigated significant associations, such as the likelihood of getting sick with age (odds ratio (OR) = 0.949, p < 0.001), gender (OR = 1.357, p = 0.003), NO2 (OR = 1.013, p = 0.019), distance from the green spaces (OR = 1.327, p = 0.013) and interactions of age × gender (OR = 1.024, p = 0.051). The influence of gender on disease is partly explained by different age dependency slopes for boys and girls. Conclusions: According to our results, younger children are more likely to get sick, more cases appended on the lowest age group from 7 to 10 years (almost half cases (49.2%)) and asthma was respectively nearly twice more common in boys (64.1%) than in girls (35.9%). The risk of asthma is related to a higher concentration of NO2 and residence proximity to green spaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
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13 pages, 608 KiB  
Article
Clinicopathological Significance of EBV-Infected Gastric Carcinomas: A Meta-Analysis
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070345 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2199
Abstract
Background and objectives: The present study aims to elucidate the clinicopathologic significance of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection in gastric carcinomas (GCs) through a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Sixty-one eligible studies were included in the present meta-analysis. The included patients, with and [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The present study aims to elucidate the clinicopathologic significance of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection in gastric carcinomas (GCs) through a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Sixty-one eligible studies were included in the present meta-analysis. The included patients, with and without EBV infection, were 2063 and 17,684, respectively. We investigated the clinicopathologic characteristics and various biomarkers, including programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Results: The estimated EBV-infected rate of GCs was 0.113 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.088–0.143). The EBV infection rates in GC cells were 0.138 (95% CI: 0.096–0.194), 0.103 (95% CI: 0.077–0.137), 0.080 (95% CI: 0.061–0.106), and 0.042 (95% CI: 0.016–0.106) in the population of Asia, America, Europe, and Africa, respectively. There was a significant difference between EBV-infected and noninfected GCs in the male: female ratio, but not other clinicopathological characteristics. EBV infection rates were higher in GC with lymphoid stroma (0.573, 95% CI: 0.428–0.706) than other histologic types of GCs. There were significant differences in high AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A (ARID1A) and PD-L1 expressions, and high CD8+ TILs between EBV-infected and noninfected GCs. Conclusions: Our results showed that EBV infection of GCs was frequently found in male patients and GCs with lymphoid stroma. EBV infection was significantly correlated with ARID1A and PD-L1 expressions and CD8+ TILs in GCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meta-Research in the Medico-Scientific Field)
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10 pages, 505 KiB  
Article
Neurodevelopmental Aspects and Cortical Auditory Maturation in Children with Cochlear Implants
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070344 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1903
Abstract
Background and objectives: The cochlear implant is not only meant to restore auditory function, but it also has a series of benefits on the psychomotor development and on the maturation of central auditory pathways. In this study, with the help of neuropsychological [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The cochlear implant is not only meant to restore auditory function, but it also has a series of benefits on the psychomotor development and on the maturation of central auditory pathways. In this study, with the help of neuropsychological tests and cortical auditory potentials (CAEPs), we intend to identify a series of instruments that allow us to monitor children with a cochlear implant, and later on, to admit them into an individualized rehabilitation program. Materials and methods: This is a longitudinal study containing 17 subjects (6 boys and 11 girls) diagnosed with congenital sensorineural hearing loss. The average age for cochlear implantation in our cohort is 22 months old. Each child was tested before the cochlear implantation, tested again 3 months after the implant, and then 6 months after the implant. To test the general development, we used the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST II). CAEPs were recorded to assess the maturation of central auditory pathways. Results: The results showed there was progress in both general development and language development, with a significant statistical difference between the overall DQ (developmental quotient) and language DQ before the cochlear implantation and three and six months later, respectively. Similarly, CAEP measurements revealed a decrease of positive-going component (P1) latency after cochlear implantation. Conclusion: CAEPs and neuropsychological tests prove to be useful instruments for monitoring the progress in patients with cochlear implants during the rehabilitation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurology)
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11 pages, 878 KiB  
Article
Neck Dissection for Cervical Lymph Node Metastases from Remote Primary Malignancies
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070343 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Patients with cervical lymph node metastases from remote primary tumours have poor prognoses because of the advanced stage of their cancer. Owing to recent progress in the nonsurgical management of various cancer types, options for surgical treatment to reduce [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Patients with cervical lymph node metastases from remote primary tumours have poor prognoses because of the advanced stage of their cancer. Owing to recent progress in the nonsurgical management of various cancer types, options for surgical treatment to reduce tumour volume are increasing, and may help improve survival rates. For example, neck dissection may be a good option as a definitive therapy for some patients with resectable cervical metastases. We assessed patients who underwent neck dissection with curative intent and discuss the effectiveness of this approach for cervical metastases from remote malignancies. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 18 patients (10 males and 8 females in an age range of 30–79 years) who underwent neck dissections for neck lymph node metastases from a remote primary tumour between 2010 and 2019. Patient clinical characteristics, preoperative accuracy of positive node localisation using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography (FDG/PET-CT), and patient survival rates were estimated. Results: Primary sites included ten lungs, two mammary glands, one thymus, one thoracic oesophagus, one stomach, one uterine cervix, one ovary, and one testis per patient. There were 19 levels with FDG/PET-CT positive nodes in 17 out of 18 patients. Conversely, there were 28 pathological positive levels out of 50 dissected levels. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of FDG-PET/CT in predicting positive nodes were 69%, 88%, 95%, 47%, and 74%, respectively. The three-year overall survival (OS) rate for all patients was 70%. The three-year OS rate of the group with zero or one pathological positive nodes was 81%, which was significantly higher than that of the group with more than two positive nodes (51%) (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Neck dissection for cervical lymph node metastases from remote primary malignancies may improve prognoses, especially considering anticancer agents and radiotherapy advancements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metastatic Head and Neck Malignancy)
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11 pages, 1178 KiB  
Article
Postoperative Delirium in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070342 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The incidence of postoperative delirium (POD) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unclear. It seems that postoperative respiratory problems that may occur in COPD patients, including prolonged mechanical ventilation or respiratory-tract infections, may contribute to the development [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The incidence of postoperative delirium (POD) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unclear. It seems that postoperative respiratory problems that may occur in COPD patients, including prolonged mechanical ventilation or respiratory-tract infections, may contribute to the development of delirium. The aim of the study was to identify a relationship between COPD and the occurrence of delirium after cardiac surgery and the impact of these combined disorders on postoperative mortality. Materials and Methods: We performed an analysis of data collected from 4151 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in a tertiary cardiac-surgery center between 2012 and 2018. We included patients with a clinical diagnosis of COPD according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. The primary endpoint was postoperative delirium; Confusion Assessment Method in the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) was used for delirium assessment. Results: Final analysis included 283 patients with COPD, out of which 65 (22.97%) were diagnosed with POD. Delirious COPD patients had longer intubation time (p = 0.007), more often required reintubation (p = 0.019), had significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) three days after surgery (p = 0.009) and were more often diagnosed with pneumonia (p < 0.001). The CRP rise on day three correlated positively with the occurrence of postoperative pneumonia (r = 0.335, p = 0.005). The probability of survival after CABG was significantly lower in COPD patients with delirium (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study confirmed the relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the incidence of delirium after cardiac surgery. The probability of survival in COPD patients undergoing CABG who developed postoperative delirium was significantly decreased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delirium in Critically Ill Patients)
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10 pages, 276 KiB  
Article
Treatment Strategies for Pilonidal Sinus Disease in Switzerland and Austria
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070341 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2463
Abstract
Background and objective: No current nationwide consensus exists on pilonidal disease (PD) treatment in Switzerland and Austria. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the spectrum of PD treatment strategies in Switzerland and Austria. Materials and Methods: A [...] Read more.
Background and objective: No current nationwide consensus exists on pilonidal disease (PD) treatment in Switzerland and Austria. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the spectrum of PD treatment strategies in Switzerland and Austria. Materials and Methods: A survey including 196 certified institutions (Switzerland, N = 99 and Austria, N = 97) was performed. Treatment strategies for both chronic and acute pilonidal disease were investigated, as well as evolution of treatment over the last 20 years. Results: In total, 92 of 196 (47%) hospitals participated in the survey. Recurrence rate (20%) was similar between the two countries. In acute pilonidal disease, a two-stage approach with incision and drainage as the first step was preferred over a one-stage procedure in both countries. In Austria, all patients with chronic pilonidal disease were treated as inpatients, whereas 28% of patients in Switzerland were treated on an outpatient basis (p = 0.0019). Median length of hospital stay was double in Austria (four days) compared to Switzerland (two days; p < 0.001). Primary resection and off-midline closure (p = 0.017) and the use of tissue flaps (p = 0.023) were performed more commonly in Austria than in Switzerland. Minimally invasive techniques were performed more often in Switzerland than in Austria (52% vs. 4%, p < 0.001). Overall, wide excision with secondary wound healing or midline closures declined over the last 20 years. Conclusion: Treatment strategies for chronic PD differ between Austria and Switzerland with more and longer inpatient care in Austria, increasingly minimally invasive approaches in Switzerland, and outdated procedures still being performed in both countries. Overall, heterogeneity of practice dominates in both countries. Full article
8 pages, 950 KiB  
Article
Diagnostic Value of Circulating miR-202 in Early-Stage Breast Cancer in South Korea
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070340 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
Background and objectives: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Early stage diagnosis is important for predicting increases in treatment success rates and decreases in patient mortality. Recently, circulating biomarkers such as circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, exosomes, [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Early stage diagnosis is important for predicting increases in treatment success rates and decreases in patient mortality. Recently, circulating biomarkers such as circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, exosomes, and circulating microRNAs have been examined as blood-based markers for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Although miR-202 has been studied for its function or expression in breast cancer, its potential diagnostic value in a clinical setting remains elusive and miR-202 has not been investigated in South Korea. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of miR-202 in plasma samples of breast cancer patients in South Korea. Materials and Methods: We investigated miR-202 expression in the plasma of 30 breast cancer patients during diagnosis along with 30 healthy controls in South Korea by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results: The results showed that circulating miR-202 levels were significantly elevated in the breast cancer patients compared with those in healthy controls (p < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of circulating miR-202 were 90.0% and 93.0%, respectively. Additionally, circulating miR-202 showed high positivity at early stage. The positive rate of miR-202 was as follows: 100% (10/10) for stage I, 90% (9/10) for stage II, and 80% (8/10) for stage III. miR-202 was also a predictor of a 9.6-fold high risk for breast cancer (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Additional alternative molecular biomarkers for diagnosis and management of pre-cancer patients are needed. Circulating miR-202 might be potential diagnostic tool for detecting early stage breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment)
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12 pages, 476 KiB  
Article
Trimebutine Maleate Monotherapy for Functional Dyspepsia: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Prospective Trial
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070339 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4556
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders; it has a great impact on patient quality of life and is difficult to treat satisfactorily. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of trimebutine maleate (TM) in [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders; it has a great impact on patient quality of life and is difficult to treat satisfactorily. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of trimebutine maleate (TM) in patients with FD. Materials and Methods: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, prospective study was conducted, including 211 patients with FD. Participants were randomized to receive TM 300 mg twice per day (BID, 108 patients) or placebo BID (103 patients) for 4 weeks. The Glasgow Dyspepsia Severity Score (GDSS) was used to evaluate the relief of dyspepsia symptoms. Moreover, as a pilot secondary endpoint, a substudy (eight participants on TM and eight on placebo) was conducted in to evaluate gastric emptying (GE), estimated using a 99mTc-Tin Colloid Semi Solid Meal Scintigraphy test. Results: Of the 211 patients enrolled, 185 (87.7%) (97 (52.4%) in the TM group and 88 (47.6%) in the placebo group) completed the study and were analyzed. The groups did not differ in their demographic and medical history data. Regarding symptom relief, being the primary endpoint, a statistically significant reduction in GDSS for the TM group was revealed between the first (2-week) and final (4-week) visit (p-value = 0.02). The 99 mTc-Tin Colloid Semi Solid Meal Scintigraphy testing showed that TM significantly accelerated GE obtained at 50 min (median emptying 75.5% in the TM group vs. 66.6% in the placebo group, p = 0.036). Adverse effects of low to moderate severity were reported in 12.3% of the patients on TM. Conclusion: TM monotherapy appears to be an effective and safe approach to treating FD, although the findings presented here warrant further confirmation. Full article
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9 pages, 1297 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Muscle Exercise on Perforators Flow: A Prospective Cohort Study
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070338 - 08 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1910
Abstract
Background and objectives: The metabolic response after exercise causes a significant increase in the muscle blood flow. While these effects are demonstrated for intra-muscular vessels, there is no evidence about the inter-muscular vessels, such as the septocutaneous perforators supplying the skin after [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The metabolic response after exercise causes a significant increase in the muscle blood flow. While these effects are demonstrated for intra-muscular vessels, there is no evidence about the inter-muscular vessels, such as the septocutaneous perforators supplying the skin after they branch out from the deep source artery. The aim of our prospective study was to quantify the changes in the anterior tibial artery perforators arterial blood flow after mild isotonic exercise in a young and healthy population. Material and Methods: We performed a prospective analysis of 34 patients who were admitted to the Plastic Surgery Department from December 2019 to April 2020. Flow velocities of two previously identified anterior tibial artery perforators were recorded both before and after 10 complete flexion-extensions of the foot. The time to revert to basal flow was measured. We further classified the overmentioned patients based on their level of physical activity. Results: We registered a significant increase in systolic, diastolic and mean blood flow velocities both in proximal and distal anterior tibial artery perforators after exercise. Fitter patients exhibited a higher increase in proximal leg perforators than those who did less than three aerobic workouts a week. The time to return to basal flow ranged from 60 to 90 s. Conclusions: This was the first study to describe the effect of muscular activity on perforators blood flow. Even mild exercise significantly increases the perforator flow. Waiting at least two minutes at rest before performing the Doppler study, thus avoiding involved muscle activation, can notably improve the reliability of the pre-operative planning. Full article
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12 pages, 691 KiB  
Review
Dysautonomia in Alzheimer's Disease
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070337 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4238
Abstract
Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, and its prevalence increases with age. Although there is a large amount of scientific literature focusing on Alzheimer's disease cardinal cognitive features, autonomic nervous system dysfunction remains understudied despite being common in the elderly. In [...] Read more.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, and its prevalence increases with age. Although there is a large amount of scientific literature focusing on Alzheimer's disease cardinal cognitive features, autonomic nervous system dysfunction remains understudied despite being common in the elderly. In this article, we reviewed the evidence for autonomic nervous system involvement in Alzheimer's disease. We identified four major potential causes for dysautonomia in Alzheimer's disease, out of which two are well-studied (comorbidities and medication) and two are rather hypothetical (Alzheimer's pathology and brain co-pathology). Although there appears to be some evidence linking Alzheimer's disease pathology to autonomic nervous system dysfunction, there is an important gap between two types of studies; histopathologic studies do not address dysautonomia manifestations, whereas clinical studies do not employ histopathologic diagnostic confirmation. Moreover, brain co-pathology is emerging as an important confounding factor. Therefore, we consider the correlation between dysautonomia and Alzheimer's disease to be an open question that needs further study. Nevertheless, given its impact on morbidity and mortality, we emphasize the importance of assessing autonomic dysfunction in patients with Alzheimer clinical syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease)
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19 pages, 1304 KiB  
Review
Properties, Extraction Methods, and Delivery Systems for Curcumin as a Natural Source of Beneficial Health Effects
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070336 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 58 | Viewed by 7766
Abstract
This review discusses the impact of curcumin—an aromatic phytoextract from the turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizome—as an effective therapeutic agent. Despite all of the beneficial health properties ensured by curcumin application, its pharmacological efficacy is compromised in vivo due to poor aqueous [...] Read more.
This review discusses the impact of curcumin—an aromatic phytoextract from the turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizome—as an effective therapeutic agent. Despite all of the beneficial health properties ensured by curcumin application, its pharmacological efficacy is compromised in vivo due to poor aqueous solubility, high metabolism, and rapid excretion that may result in poor systemic bioavailability. To overcome these problems, novel nanosystems have been proposed to enhance its bioavailability and bioactivity by reducing the particle size, the modification of surfaces, and the encapsulation efficiency of curcumin with different nanocarriers. The solutions based on nanotechnology can improve the perspective for medical patients with serious illnesses. In this review, we discuss commonly used curcumin-loaded bio-based nanoparticles that should be implemented for overcoming the innate constraints of this natural ingredient. Furthermore, the associated challenges regarding the potential applications in combination therapies are discussed as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What Makes a Healthy Diet? From Old Questions to New Perspectives)
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9 pages, 1454 KiB  
Article
Bilateral Comparisons of Quadriceps Thickness after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Medicina 2020, 56(7), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56070335 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2372
Abstract
Background and objectives: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) often results in quadricep atrophy. The purpose of this study was to compare the bilateral thickness of each quadricep component before and after ACLR. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study design. In 14 patients who [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) often results in quadricep atrophy. The purpose of this study was to compare the bilateral thickness of each quadricep component before and after ACLR. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study design. In 14 patients who underwent ACLR, bilateral quadricep muscle thicknesses were measured using a portable ultrasound device, 1 h before and 48–72 h after ACLR. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare muscle thickness pre- and post-ACLR between the limbs. Results: The primary finding was that the vastus intermedius (VI) muscle was significantly smaller in the reconstructed limb after ACLR compared to that in the healthy limb (Reconstructed limb; RCL = Pre-operated (PRE): 19.89 ± 6.91 mm, Post-operated(POST): 16.04 ± 6.13 mm, Healthy limb; HL = PRE: 22.88 ± 6.07, POST: 20.90 ± 5.78 mm, F = 9.325, p = 0.009, η2p = 0.418). Conclusions: The results represent a selective surgical influence on the quadricep muscle thickness. These findings highlight the need of advanced strengthening exercises in order to restore VI thickness after ACLR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound in Sports Medicine: Current Concepts and Advances)
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