As the ocean development process speeds up, the technical means of ocean exploration are being upgraded. Due to the characteristics of seawater and the complex underwater environment, conventional measurement and sensing methods used for land are difficult to apply in the underwater environment directly. Especially for the seabed topography, it is impossible to carry out long-distance and accurate detection via electromagnetic waves. Therefore, various types of acoustic and even optical sensing devices for underwater applications have come into use. Equipped by submersibles, those underwater sensors can sense underwater wide-range and accurately. Moreover, the development of sensor technology will be modified and optimized according to the needs of ocean exploitation. This paper has made a summary of the ocean sensing technologies applied in some critical underwater scenarios, including geological surveys, navigation and communication, marine environmental parameters, and underwater inspections. In order to contain as many submersible-based sensors as possible, we have to make a trade-off on breadth and depth. In the end, the authors predict the development trend of underwater sensor technology based on the future ocean exploration requirements.
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