Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Sensors, Volume 17, Issue 1 (January 2017)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Autonomous driving sets a disruptive paradigm of mobility which relies on different technological [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-216
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Diaphragm Based Fiber Bragg Grating Acceleration Sensor with Temperature Compensation
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010218
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 14 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2408 | PDF Full-text (5603 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing-based acceleration sensor has been proposed to simultaneously decouple and measure temperature and acceleration in real-time. This design applied a diaphragm structure and utilized the axial property of a tightly suspended optical fiber, enabling improvement in its [...] Read more.
A novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing-based acceleration sensor has been proposed to simultaneously decouple and measure temperature and acceleration in real-time. This design applied a diaphragm structure and utilized the axial property of a tightly suspended optical fiber, enabling improvement in its sensitivity and resonant frequency and achieve a low cross-sensitivity. The theoretical vibrational model of the sensor has been built, and its design parameters and sensing properties have been analyzed through the numerical analysis. A decoupling method has been presented with consideration of the thermal expansion of the sensor structure to realize temperature compensation. Experimental results show that the temperature sensitivity is 8.66 pm/°C within the range of 30–90 °C. The acceleration sensitivity is 20.189 pm/g with a linearity of 0.764% within the range of 5~65 m/s2. The corresponding working bandwidth is 10~200 Hz and its resonant frequency is 600 Hz. This sensor possesses an excellent impact resistance for the cross direction, and the cross-axis sensitivity is below 3.31%. This implementation can avoid the FBG-pasting procedure and overcome its associated shortcomings. The performance of the proposed acceleration sensor can be easily adjusted by modifying their corresponding physical parameters to satisfy requirements from different vibration measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Hierarchical NiCo2O4 Hollow Sphere as a Peroxidase Mimetic for Colorimetric Detection of H2O2 and Glucose
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010217
Received: 6 December 2016 / Revised: 9 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3060 | PDF Full-text (7034 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, the hierarchical NiCo2O4 hollow sphere synthesized via a “coordinating etching and precipitating” process was demonstrated to exhibit intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. The peroxidase-like activity of NiCo2O4, NiO, and Co3O4 hollow spheres [...] Read more.
In this work, the hierarchical NiCo2O4 hollow sphere synthesized via a “coordinating etching and precipitating” process was demonstrated to exhibit intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. The peroxidase-like activity of NiCo2O4, NiO, and Co3O4 hollow spheres were comparatively studied by the catalytic oxidation reaction of 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in presence of H2O2, and a superior peroxidase-like activity of NiCo2O4 was confirmed by stronger absorbance at 652 nm. Furthermore, the proposed sensing platform showed commendable response to H2O2 with a linear range from 10 μM to 400 μM, and a detection limit of 0.21 μM. Cooperated with GOx, the developed novel colorimetric and visual glucose-sensing platform exhibited high selectivity, favorable reproducibility, satisfactory applicability, wide linear range (from 0.1 mM to 4.5 mM), and a low detection limit of 5.31 μM. In addition, the concentration-dependent color change would offer a better and handier way for detection of H2O2 and glucose by naked eye. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorimetric and Fluorescent Sensor)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Adaptive Moving Target Imaging Method for Bistatic Forward-Looking SAR Using Keystone Transform and Optimization NLCS
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010216
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
Viewed by 1712 | PDF Full-text (18729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bistatic forward-looking SAR (BFSAR) is a kind of bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system that can image forward-looking terrain in the flight direction of an aircraft. Until now, BFSAR imaging theories and methods for a stationary scene have been researched thoroughly. However, for [...] Read more.
Bistatic forward-looking SAR (BFSAR) is a kind of bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system that can image forward-looking terrain in the flight direction of an aircraft. Until now, BFSAR imaging theories and methods for a stationary scene have been researched thoroughly. However, for moving-target imaging with BFSAR, the non-cooperative movement of the moving target induces some new issues: (I) large and unknown range cell migration (RCM) (including range walk and high-order RCM); (II) the spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters (including the Doppler centroid and high-order Doppler) are not only unknown, but also nonlinear for different point-scatterers. In this paper, we put forward an adaptive moving-target imaging method for BFSAR. First, the large and unknown range walk is corrected by applying keystone transform over the whole received echo, and then, the relationships among the unknown high-order RCM, the nonlinear spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters, and the speed of the mover, are established. After that, using an optimization nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS) technique, not only can the unknown high-order RCM be accurately corrected, but also the nonlinear spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters can be balanced. At last, a high-order polynomial filter is applied to compress the whole azimuth data of the moving target. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Measurement for Specular Reflection Surface Based on Reflection Component Separation and Priority Region Filling Theory
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010215
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2174 | PDF Full-text (23328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the strong reflection property of materials with smooth surfaces like ceramic and metal, it will cause saturation and the highlight phenomenon in the image when taking pictures of those materials. In order to solve this problem, a new algorithm which is [...] Read more.
Due to the strong reflection property of materials with smooth surfaces like ceramic and metal, it will cause saturation and the highlight phenomenon in the image when taking pictures of those materials. In order to solve this problem, a new algorithm which is based on reflection component separation (RCS) and priority region filling theory is designed. Firstly, the specular pixels in the image are found by comparing the pixel parameters. Then, the reflection components are separated and processed. However, for ceramic, metal and other objects with strong specular highlight, RCS theory will change color information of highlight pixels due to larger specular reflection component. In this situation, priority region filling theory was used to restore the color information. Finally, we implement 3D experiments on objects with strong reflecting surfaces like ceramic plate, ceramic bottle, marble pot and yellow plate. Experimental results show that, with the proposed method, the highlight caused by the strong reflecting surface can be well suppressed. The highlight pixel number of ceramic plate, ceramic bottle, marble pot and yellow plate, is decreased by 43.8 times, 41.4 times, 33.0 times, and 10.1 times. Three-dimensional reconstruction results show that highlight areas were significantly reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Vinobot and Vinoculer: Two Robotic Platforms for High-Throughput Field Phenotyping
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010214
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 26 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5340 | PDF Full-text (14910 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a new robotic architecture for plant phenotyping is being introduced. The architecture consists of two robotic platforms: an autonomous ground vehicle (Vinobot) and a mobile observation tower (Vinoculer). The ground vehicle collects data from individual plants, while the observation tower [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new robotic architecture for plant phenotyping is being introduced. The architecture consists of two robotic platforms: an autonomous ground vehicle (Vinobot) and a mobile observation tower (Vinoculer). The ground vehicle collects data from individual plants, while the observation tower oversees an entire field, identifying specific plants for further inspection by the Vinobot. The advantage of this architecture is threefold: first, it allows the system to inspect large areas of a field at any time, during the day and night, while identifying specific regions affected by biotic and/or abiotic stresses; second, it provides high-throughput plant phenotyping in the field by either comprehensive or selective acquisition of accurate and detailed data from groups or individual plants; and third, it eliminates the need for expensive and cumbersome aerial vehicles or similarly expensive and confined field platforms. As the preliminary results from our algorithms for data collection and 3D image processing, as well as the data analysis and comparison with phenotype data collected by hand demonstrate, the proposed architecture is cost effective, reliable, versatile, and extendable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vision-Based Sensors in Field Robotics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Opportunistic Sensor Data Collection with Bluetooth Low Energy
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010159
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 7 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2841 | PDF Full-text (12592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained very high momentum, as witnessed by its widespread presence in smartphones, wearables and other consumer electronics devices. This fact can be leveraged to carry out opportunistic sensor data collection (OSDC) in scenarios where a sensor node cannot [...] Read more.
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained very high momentum, as witnessed by its widespread presence in smartphones, wearables and other consumer electronics devices. This fact can be leveraged to carry out opportunistic sensor data collection (OSDC) in scenarios where a sensor node cannot communicate with infrastructure nodes. In such cases, a mobile entity (e.g., a pedestrian or a vehicle) equipped with a BLE-enabled device can collect the data obtained by the sensor node when both are within direct communication range. In this paper, we characterize, both analytically and experimentally, the performance and trade-offs of BLE as a technology for OSDC, for the two main identified approaches, and considering the impact of its most crucial configuration parameters. Results show that a BLE sensor node running on a coin cell battery can achieve a lifetime beyond one year while transferring around 10 Mbit/day, in realistic OSDC scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Gas Sensors Based on Polymer Field-Effect Transistors
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010213
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 2 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2576 | PDF Full-text (2601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review focuses on polymer field-effect transistor (PFET) based gas sensor with polymer as the sensing layer, which interacts with gas analyte and thus induces the change of source-drain current (ΔISD). Dependent on the sensing layer which can be semiconducting [...] Read more.
This review focuses on polymer field-effect transistor (PFET) based gas sensor with polymer as the sensing layer, which interacts with gas analyte and thus induces the change of source-drain current (ΔISD). Dependent on the sensing layer which can be semiconducting polymer, dielectric layer or conducting polymer gate, the PFET sensors can be subdivided into three types. For each type of sensor, we present the molecular structure of sensing polymer, the gas analyte and the sensing performance. Most importantly, we summarize various analyte–polymer interactions, which help to understand the sensing mechanism in the PFET sensors and can provide possible approaches for the sensor fabrication in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Nanosensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fabrication Technology and Characteristics of a Magnetic Sensitive Transistor with nc-Si:H/c-Si Heterojunction
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010212
Received: 10 December 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2034 | PDF Full-text (954 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a magnetically sensitive transistor using a nc-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction as an emitter junction. By adopting micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, the nc-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction silicon magnetically sensitive transistor (HSMST) chips were designed and fabricated on a [...] Read more.
This paper presents a magnetically sensitive transistor using a nc-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction as an emitter junction. By adopting micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, the nc-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction silicon magnetically sensitive transistor (HSMST) chips were designed and fabricated on a p-type <100> orientation double-side polished silicon wafer with high resistivity. In addition, a collector load resistor ( R L ) was integrated on the chip, and the resistor converted the collector current ( I C ) to a collector output voltage ( V out ). When I B = 8.0 mA, V DD = 10.0 V, and R L = 4.1 kΩ, the magnetic sensitivity ( S V ) at room temperature and temperature coefficient ( α C ) of the collector current for HSMST were 181 mV/T and −0.11%/°C, respectively. The experimental results show that the magnetic sensitivity and temperature characteristics of the proposed transistor can be obviously improved by the use of a nc-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction as an emitter junction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS and Nano-Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Commercial Self-Monitoring Devices for Clinical Purposes: Results from the Future Patient Trial, Phase I
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010211
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2925 | PDF Full-text (1944 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Commercial self-monitoring devices are becoming increasingly popular, and over the last decade, the use of self-monitoring technology has spread widely in both consumer and medical markets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate five commercially available self-monitoring devices for further testing in [...] Read more.
Commercial self-monitoring devices are becoming increasingly popular, and over the last decade, the use of self-monitoring technology has spread widely in both consumer and medical markets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate five commercially available self-monitoring devices for further testing in clinical applications. Four activity trackers and one sleep tracker were evaluated based on step count validity and heart rate validity. Methods: The study enrolled 22 healthy volunteers in a walking test. Volunteers walked a 100 m track at 2 km/h and 3.5 km/h. Steps were measured by four activity trackers and compared to gyroscope readings. Two trackers were also tested on nine subjects by comparing pulse readings to Holter monitoring. Results: The lowest average systematic error in the walking tests was −0.2%, recorded on the Garmin Vivofit 2 at 3.5 km/h; the highest error was the Fitbit Charge HR at 2 km/h with an error margin of 26.8%. Comparisons of pulse measurements from the Fitbit Charge HR revealed a margin error of −3.42% ± 7.99% compared to the electrocardiogram. The Beddit sleep tracker measured a systematic error of −3.27% ± 4.60%. Conclusion: The measured results revealed the current functionality and limitations of the five self-tracking devices, and point towards a need for future research in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing Technology for Healthcare System)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Competitive Swarm Optimizer Based Gateway Deployment Algorithm in Cyber-Physical Systems
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010209
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1960 | PDF Full-text (590 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless sensor network topology optimization is a highly important issue, and topology control through node selection can improve the efficiency of data forwarding, while saving energy and prolonging lifetime of the network. To address the problem of connecting a wireless sensor network to [...] Read more.
Wireless sensor network topology optimization is a highly important issue, and topology control through node selection can improve the efficiency of data forwarding, while saving energy and prolonging lifetime of the network. To address the problem of connecting a wireless sensor network to the Internet in cyber-physical systems, here we propose a geometric gateway deployment based on a competitive swarm optimizer algorithm. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm has a continuous search feature in the solution space, which makes it suitable for finding the geometric center of gateway deployment; however, its search mechanism is limited to the individual optimum (pbest) and the population optimum (gbest); thus, it easily falls into local optima. In order to improve the particle search mechanism and enhance the search efficiency of the algorithm, we introduce a new competitive swarm optimizer (CSO) algorithm. The CSO search algorithm is based on an inter-particle competition mechanism and can effectively avoid trapping of the population falling into a local optimum. With the improvement of an adaptive opposition-based search and its ability to dynamically parameter adjustments, this algorithm can maintain the diversity of the entire swarm to solve geometric K-center gateway deployment problems. The simulation results show that this CSO algorithm has a good global explorative ability as well as convergence speed and can improve the network quality of service (QoS) level of cyber-physical systems by obtaining a minimum network coverage radius. We also find that the CSO algorithm is more stable, robust and effective in solving the problem of geometric gateway deployment as compared to the PSO or Kmedoids algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Paradigms in Cyber-Physical Social Sensing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Object Detection and Classification by Decision-Level Fusion for Intelligent Vehicle Systems
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010207
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2670 | PDF Full-text (917 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To understand driving environments effectively, it is important to achieve accurate detection and classification of objects detected by sensor-based intelligent vehicle systems, which are significantly important tasks. Object detection is performed for the localization of objects, whereas object classification recognizes object classes from [...] Read more.
To understand driving environments effectively, it is important to achieve accurate detection and classification of objects detected by sensor-based intelligent vehicle systems, which are significantly important tasks. Object detection is performed for the localization of objects, whereas object classification recognizes object classes from detected object regions. For accurate object detection and classification, fusing multiple sensor information into a key component of the representation and perception processes is necessary. In this paper, we propose a new object-detection and classification method using decision-level fusion. We fuse the classification outputs from independent unary classifiers, such as 3D point clouds and image data using a convolutional neural network (CNN). The unary classifiers for the two sensors are the CNN with five layers, which use more than two pre-trained convolutional layers to consider local to global features as data representation. To represent data using convolutional layers, we apply region of interest (ROI) pooling to the outputs of each layer on the object candidate regions generated using object proposal generation to realize color flattening and semantic grouping for charge-coupled device and Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) sensors. We evaluate our proposed method on a KITTI benchmark dataset to detect and classify three object classes: cars, pedestrians and cyclists. The evaluation results show that the proposed method achieves better performance than the previous methods. Our proposed method extracted approximately 500 proposals on a 1226 × 370 image, whereas the original selective search method extracted approximately 10 6 × n proposals. We obtained classification performance with 77.72% mean average precision over the entirety of the classes in the moderate detection level of the KITTI benchmark dataset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Transportation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Low Frequency FBG Accelerometer with Symmetrical Bended Spring Plates
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010206
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 13 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1926 | PDF Full-text (3526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To meet the requirements for low-frequency vibration monitoring, a new type of FBG (fiber Bragg grating) accelerometer with a bended spring plate is proposed. Two symmetrical bended spring plates are used as elastic elements, which drive the FBG to produce axial strains equal [...] Read more.
To meet the requirements for low-frequency vibration monitoring, a new type of FBG (fiber Bragg grating) accelerometer with a bended spring plate is proposed. Two symmetrical bended spring plates are used as elastic elements, which drive the FBG to produce axial strains equal in magnitude but opposite in direction when exciting vibrations exist, leading to doubling the wavelength shift of the FBG. The mechanics model and a numerical method are presented in this paper, with which the influence of the structural parameters on the sensitivity and the eigenfrequency are discussed. The test results show that the sensitivity of the accelerometer is more than 1000 pm/g when the frequency is within the 0.7–20 Hz range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation on Radiometric Capability of Chinese Optical Satellite Sensors
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010204
Received: 18 December 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1550 | PDF Full-text (6983 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The radiometric capability of on-orbit sensors should be updated on time due to changes induced by space environmental factors and instrument aging. Some sensors, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), have onboard calibrators, which enable real-time calibration. However, most Chinese remote sensing [...] Read more.
The radiometric capability of on-orbit sensors should be updated on time due to changes induced by space environmental factors and instrument aging. Some sensors, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), have onboard calibrators, which enable real-time calibration. However, most Chinese remote sensing satellite sensors lack onboard calibrators. Their radiometric calibrations have been updated once a year based on a vicarious calibration procedure, which has affected the applications of the data. Therefore, a full evaluation of the sensors’ radiometric capabilities is essential before quantitative applications can be made. In this study, a comprehensive procedure for evaluating the radiometric capability of several Chinese optical satellite sensors is proposed. In this procedure, long-term radiometric stability and radiometric accuracy are the two major indicators for radiometric evaluation. The radiometric temporal stability is analyzed by the tendency of long-term top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance variation; the radiometric accuracy is determined by comparison with the TOA reflectance from MODIS after spectrally matching. Three Chinese sensors including the Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera onboard Huan Jing 1 satellite (HJ-1), as well as the Visible and Infrared Radiometer (VIRR) and Medium-Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) onboard the Feng Yun 3 satellite (FY-3) are evaluated in reflective bands based on this procedure. The results are reasonable, and thus can provide reliable reference for the sensors’ application, and as such will promote the development of Chinese satellite data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Smart Sensing of Agricultural Land Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Imaging and Force Recognition of Single Molecular Behaviors Using Atomic Force Microscopy
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010200
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2387 | PDF Full-text (3559 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has provided a powerful tool for investigating the behaviors of single native biological molecules under physiological conditions. AFM can not only image the conformational changes of single biological molecules at work with sub-nanometer resolution, but also [...] Read more.
The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has provided a powerful tool for investigating the behaviors of single native biological molecules under physiological conditions. AFM can not only image the conformational changes of single biological molecules at work with sub-nanometer resolution, but also sense the specific interactions of individual molecular pair with piconewton force sensitivity. In the past decade, the performance of AFM has been greatly improved, which makes it widely used in biology to address diverse biomedical issues. Characterizing the behaviors of single molecules by AFM provides considerable novel insights into the underlying mechanisms guiding life activities, contributing much to cell and molecular biology. In this article, we review the recent developments of AFM studies in single-molecule assay. The related techniques involved in AFM single-molecule assay were firstly presented, and then the progress in several aspects (including molecular imaging, molecular mechanics, molecular recognition, and molecular activities on cell surface) was summarized. The challenges and future directions were also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Molecule Sensing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for the Determination of Lung Cancer Biomarkers—A Preliminary Investigation
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010210
Received: 21 November 2016 / Revised: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3156 | PDF Full-text (1123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With 1.6 million deaths per year, lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. One reason for this high number is the absence of a preventive medical examination method. Many diagnoses occur in a late cancer stage with a low [...] Read more.
With 1.6 million deaths per year, lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. One reason for this high number is the absence of a preventive medical examination method. Many diagnoses occur in a late cancer stage with a low survival rate. An early detection could significantly decrease the mortality. In recent decades, certain substances in human breath have been linked to certain diseases. Different studies show that it is possible to distinguish between lung cancer patients and a healthy control group by analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their breath. We developed a sensor based on photoacoustic spectroscopy for six of the most relevant VOCs linked to lung cancer. As a radiation source, the sensor uses an optical-parametric oscillator (OPO) in a wavelength region from 3.2 µm to 3.5 µm. The limits of detection for a single substance range between 5 ppb and 142 ppb. We also measured high resolution absorption spectra of the biomarkers compared to the data currently available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) database, which is the basis of any selective spectroscopic detection. Future lung cancer screening devices could be based on the further development of this sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors for Health Care and Medical Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effective Calibration of Low-Cost Soil Water Content Sensors
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010208
Received: 27 November 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3334 | PDF Full-text (2359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soil water content is a key variable for understanding and modelling ecohydrological processes. Low-cost electromagnetic sensors are increasingly being used to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil water content, despite the reduced accuracy of such sensors as compared to reference electromagnetic soil water [...] Read more.
Soil water content is a key variable for understanding and modelling ecohydrological processes. Low-cost electromagnetic sensors are increasingly being used to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil water content, despite the reduced accuracy of such sensors as compared to reference electromagnetic soil water content sensing methods such as time domain reflectometry. Here, we present an effective calibration method to improve the measurement accuracy of low-cost soil water content sensors taking the recently developed SMT100 sensor (Truebner GmbH, Neustadt, Germany) as an example. We calibrated the sensor output of more than 700 SMT100 sensors to permittivity using a standard procedure based on five reference media with a known apparent dielectric permittivity (1 < Ka < 34.8). Our results showed that a sensor-specific calibration improved the accuracy of the calibration compared to single “universal” calibration. The associated additional effort in calibrating each sensor individually is relaxed by a dedicated calibration setup that enables the calibration of large numbers of sensors in limited time while minimizing errors in the calibration process. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Sensors in Agriculture and Forestry)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Ubiquitous Emergency Medical Service System Based on Wireless Biosensors, Traffic Information, and Wireless Communication Technologies: Development and Evaluation
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010202
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2541 | PDF Full-text (7094 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents a new ubiquitous emergency medical service system (UEMS) that consists of a ubiquitous tele-diagnosis interface and a traffic guiding subsystem. The UEMS addresses unresolved issues of emergency medical services by managing the sensor wires for eliminating inconvenience for both patients [...] Read more.
This study presents a new ubiquitous emergency medical service system (UEMS) that consists of a ubiquitous tele-diagnosis interface and a traffic guiding subsystem. The UEMS addresses unresolved issues of emergency medical services by managing the sensor wires for eliminating inconvenience for both patients and paramedics in an ambulance, providing ubiquitous accessibility of patients’ biosignals in remote areas where the ambulance cannot arrive directly, and offering availability of real-time traffic information which can make the ambulance reach the destination within the shortest time. In the proposed system, patient’s biosignals and real-time video, acquired by wireless biosensors and a webcam, can be simultaneously transmitted to an emergency room for pre-hospital treatment via WiMax/3.5 G networks. Performances of WiMax and 3.5 G, in terms of initialization time, data rate, and average end-to-end delay are evaluated and compared. A driver can choose the route of the shortest time among the suggested routes by Google Maps after inspecting the current traffic conditions based on real-time CCTV camera streams and traffic information. The destination address can be inputted vocally for easiness and safety in driving. A series of field test results validates the feasibility of the proposed system for application in real-life scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Sensors for Globalized Healthy Living and Wellbeing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010201
Received: 17 December 2016 / Revised: 14 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2941 | PDF Full-text (7109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage) inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, [...] Read more.
To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage) inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatability MFL probing system is designed and manufactured, which was embedded with the developed sensors. It can track the swing movement of drill pipes and allow the pipe ends to pass smoothly. Finally, the developed system is employed in a drilling field for drill pipe inspection. Test results show that the proposed method can fulfill the requirements for drill pipe inspection at wellheads, which is of great importance in drill pipe safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Efficient Wideband Spectrum Sensing with Maximal Spectral Efficiency for LEO Mobile Satellite Systems
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010193
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 8 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1990 | PDF Full-text (11346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The usable satellite spectrum is becoming scarce due to static spectrum allocation policies. Cognitive radio approaches have already demonstrated their potential towards spectral efficiency for providing more spectrum access opportunities to secondary user (SU) with sufficient protection to licensed primary user (PU). Hence, [...] Read more.
The usable satellite spectrum is becoming scarce due to static spectrum allocation policies. Cognitive radio approaches have already demonstrated their potential towards spectral efficiency for providing more spectrum access opportunities to secondary user (SU) with sufficient protection to licensed primary user (PU). Hence, recent scientific literature has been focused on the tradeoff between spectrum reuse and PU protection within narrowband spectrum sensing (SS) in terrestrial wireless sensing networks. However, those narrowband SS techniques investigated in the context of terrestrial CR may not be applicable for detecting wideband satellite signals. In this paper, we mainly investigate the problem of joint designing sensing time and hard fusion scheme to maximize SU spectral efficiency in the scenario of low earth orbit (LEO) mobile satellite services based on wideband spectrum sensing. Compressed detection model is established to prove that there indeed exists one optimal sensing time achieving maximal spectral efficiency. Moreover, we propose novel wideband cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) framework where each SU reporting duration can be utilized for its following SU sensing. The sensing performance benefits from the novel CSS framework because the equivalent sensing time is extended by making full use of reporting slot. Furthermore, in respect of time-varying channel, the spatiotemporal CSS (ST-CSS) is presented to attain space and time diversity gain simultaneously under hard decision fusion rule. Computer simulations show that the optimal sensing settings algorithm of joint optimization of sensing time, hard fusion rule and scheduling strategy achieves significant improvement in spectral efficiency. Additionally, the novel ST-CSS scheme performs much higher spectral efficiency than that of general CSS framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Novel Isoprene Sensor for a Flu Virus Breath Monitor
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010199
Received: 23 October 2016 / Revised: 9 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 7206 | PDF Full-text (9881 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A common feature of the inflammatory response in patients who have actually contracted influenza is the generation of a number of volatile products of the alveolar and airway epithelium. These products include a number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitric oxide (NO). [...] Read more.
A common feature of the inflammatory response in patients who have actually contracted influenza is the generation of a number of volatile products of the alveolar and airway epithelium. These products include a number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitric oxide (NO). These may be used as biomarkers to detect the disease. A portable 3-sensor array microsystem-based tool that can potentially detect flu infection biomarkers is described here. Whether used in connection with in-vitro cell culture studies or as a single exhale breathalyzer, this device may be used to provide a rapid and non-invasive screening method for flu and other virus-based epidemics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors for Health Care and Medical Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
SisFall: A Fall and Movement Dataset
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010198
Received: 22 October 2016 / Revised: 24 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3458 | PDF Full-text (694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Research on fall and movement detection with wearable devices has witnessed promising growth. However, there are few publicly available datasets, all recorded with smartphones, which are insufficient for testing new proposals due to their absence of objective population, lack of performed activities, and [...] Read more.
Research on fall and movement detection with wearable devices has witnessed promising growth. However, there are few publicly available datasets, all recorded with smartphones, which are insufficient for testing new proposals due to their absence of objective population, lack of performed activities, and limited information. Here, we present a dataset of falls and activities of daily living (ADLs) acquired with a self-developed device composed of two types of accelerometer and one gyroscope. It consists of 19 ADLs and 15 fall types performed by 23 young adults, 15 ADL types performed by 14 healthy and independent participants over 62 years old, and data from one participant of 60 years old that performed all ADLs and falls. These activities were selected based on a survey and a literature analysis. We test the dataset with widely used feature extraction and a simple to implement threshold based classification, achieving up to 96% of accuracy in fall detection. An individual activity analysis demonstrates that most errors coincide in a few number of activities where new approaches could be focused. Finally, validation tests with elderly people significantly reduced the fall detection performance of the tested features. This validates findings of other authors and encourages developing new strategies with this new dataset as the benchmark. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Biomedical Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Entropy-Based Registration of Point Clouds Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Smartphone GPS
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010197
Received: 22 November 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2078 | PDF Full-text (9399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Automatic registration of terrestrial laser scanning point clouds is a crucial but unresolved topic that is of great interest in many domains. This study combines terrestrial laser scanner with a smartphone for the coarse registration of leveled point clouds with small roll and [...] Read more.
Automatic registration of terrestrial laser scanning point clouds is a crucial but unresolved topic that is of great interest in many domains. This study combines terrestrial laser scanner with a smartphone for the coarse registration of leveled point clouds with small roll and pitch angles and height differences, which is a novel sensor combination mode for terrestrial laser scanning. The approximate distance between two neighboring scan positions is firstly calculated with smartphone GPS coordinates. Then, 2D distribution entropy is used to measure the distribution coherence between the two scans and search for the optimal initial transformation parameters. To this end, we propose a method called Iterative Minimum Entropy (IME) to correct initial transformation parameters based on two criteria: the difference between the average and minimum entropy and the deviation from the minimum entropy to the expected entropy. Finally, the presented method is evaluated using two data sets that contain tens of millions of points from panoramic and non-panoramic, vegetation-dominated and building-dominated cases and can achieve high accuracy and efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Wide-Range Displacement Sensor Based on Plastic Fiber Macro-Bend Coupling
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010196
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1722 | PDF Full-text (5432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes the strategy of fabricating an all fiber wide-range displacement sensor based on the macro-bend coupling effect which causes power transmission between two twisted bending plastic optical fibers (POF), where the coupling power changes with the bending radius of the fibers. [...] Read more.
This paper proposes the strategy of fabricating an all fiber wide-range displacement sensor based on the macro-bend coupling effect which causes power transmission between two twisted bending plastic optical fibers (POF), where the coupling power changes with the bending radius of the fibers. For the sensor, a structure of two twisted plastic fibers is designed with the experimental platform that we constructed. The influence of external temperature and displacement speed shifts are reported. The displacement sensor performance is the sensor test at different temperatures and speeds. The sensor was found to be satisfactory at both room temperature and 70 °C when the displacement is up to 140 mm. The output power is approximately linear to a displacement of 110 mm–140 mm under room temperature and 2 mm/s speed at 19.805 nW/mm sensitivity and 0.12 mm resolution. The simple structure of the sensor makes it reliable for other applications and further utilizations, promising a bright future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Liu, B., et al. Quantitative Evaluation of Pulsed Thermography, Lock-In Thermography and Vibrothermography on Foreign Object Defect (FOD) in CFRP. Sensors 2016, 16, doi:10.3390/s16050743
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010195
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
Viewed by 1515 | PDF Full-text (533 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infrared and THz Sensing and Imaging)
Open AccessArticle
1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate Film as a Highly Selective Sensing Material for Non-Invasive Detection of Acetone Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010194
Received: 4 December 2016 / Revised: 8 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1935 | PDF Full-text (1776 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Breath acetone serves as a biomarker for diabetes. This article reports 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]), a type of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), as a selective sensing material for acetone. The RTIL sensing layer was coated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) [...] Read more.
Breath acetone serves as a biomarker for diabetes. This article reports 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]), a type of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), as a selective sensing material for acetone. The RTIL sensing layer was coated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for detection. The sensing mechanism is based on a decrease in viscosity and density of the [bmim][BF4] film due to the solubilization of acetone leading to a positive frequency shift in the QCM. Acetone was detected with a linear range from 7.05 to 750 ppmv. Sensitivity and limit of detection were found to be 3.49 Hz/ppmv and 5.0 ppmv, respectively. The [bmim][BF4]-modified QCM sensor demonstrated anti-interference ability to commonly found volatile organic compounds in breath, e.g., isoprene, 1,2-pentadiene, d-limonene, and dl-limonene. This technology is useful for applications in non-invasive early diabetic diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Synthetic Aperture Radar Target Recognition with Feature Fusion Based on a Stacked Autoencoder
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010192
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2846 | PDF Full-text (2942 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Feature extraction is a crucial step for any automatic target recognition process, especially in the interpretation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In order to obtain distinctive features, this paper proposes a feature fusion algorithm for SAR target recognition based on a stacked [...] Read more.
Feature extraction is a crucial step for any automatic target recognition process, especially in the interpretation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In order to obtain distinctive features, this paper proposes a feature fusion algorithm for SAR target recognition based on a stacked autoencoder (SAE). The detailed procedure presented in this paper can be summarized as follows: firstly, 23 baseline features and Three-Patch Local Binary Pattern (TPLBP) features are extracted. These features can describe the global and local aspects of the image with less redundancy and more complementarity, providing richer information for feature fusion. Secondly, an effective feature fusion network is designed. Baseline and TPLBP features are cascaded and fed into a SAE. Then, with an unsupervised learning algorithm, the SAE is pre-trained by greedy layer-wise training method. Capable of feature expression, SAE makes the fused features more distinguishable. Finally, the model is fine-tuned by a softmax classifier and applied to the classification of targets. 10-class SAR targets based on Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) dataset got a classification accuracy up to 95.43%, which verifies the effectiveness of the presented algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010184
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2880 | PDF Full-text (9259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter) [...] Read more.
This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter) dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF) technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Au-Graphene Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructure Sensor Based on Intensity Shift
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010191
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 13 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2310 | PDF Full-text (3201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Integrating plasmonic materials, like gold with a two-dimensional material (e.g., graphene) enhances the light-material interaction and, hence, plasmonic properties of the metallic nanostructure. A localized surface plasmon resonance sensor is an effective platform for biomarker detection. They offer a better bulk surface (local) [...] Read more.
Integrating plasmonic materials, like gold with a two-dimensional material (e.g., graphene) enhances the light-material interaction and, hence, plasmonic properties of the metallic nanostructure. A localized surface plasmon resonance sensor is an effective platform for biomarker detection. They offer a better bulk surface (local) sensitivity than a regular surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor; however, they suffer from a lower figure of merit compared to that one in a propagating surface plasmon resonance sensors. In this work, a decorated multilayer graphene film with an Au nanostructures was proposed as a liquid sensor. The results showed a significant improvement in the figure of merit compared with other reported localized surface plasmon resonance sensors. The maximum figure of merit and intensity sensitivity of 240 and 55 RIU−1 (refractive index unit) at refractive index change of 0.001 were achieved which indicate the capability of the proposed sensor to detect a small change in concentration of liquids in the ng/mL level which is essential in early-stage cancer disease detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS and Nano-Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Low-Complexity Method for Two-Dimensional Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Using an L-Shaped Array
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010190
Received: 8 December 2016 / Revised: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1593 | PDF Full-text (855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a new low-complexity method for two-dimensional (2D) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation is proposed. Based on a cross-correlation matrix formed from the L-shaped array, the proposed algorithm obtains the automatic pairing elevation and azimuth angles without eigendecomposition, which can avoid high computational [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new low-complexity method for two-dimensional (2D) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation is proposed. Based on a cross-correlation matrix formed from the L-shaped array, the proposed algorithm obtains the automatic pairing elevation and azimuth angles without eigendecomposition, which can avoid high computational cost. In addition, the cross-correlation matrix eliminates the effect of noise, which can achieve better DOA performance. Then, the theoretical error of the algorithm is analyzed and the Cramer–Rao bound (CRB) for the direction of arrival estimation is derived . Simulation results demonstrate that, at low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and with a small number of snapshots, in contrast to Tayem’s algorithm and Kikuchi’s algorithm, the proposed algorithm achieves better DOA performance with lower complexity, while, for Gu’s algorithm, the proposed algorithm has slightly inferior DOA performance but with significantly lower complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks—Part I: Link Characterization
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010189
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2316 | PDF Full-text (4502 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) using electromagnetic (EM) technology in marine shallow waters are examined, not just for environmental monitoring but for further interesting applications. Particularly, the use of EM waves is reconsidered in shallow waters due to the benefits offered in this [...] Read more.
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) using electromagnetic (EM) technology in marine shallow waters are examined, not just for environmental monitoring but for further interesting applications. Particularly, the use of EM waves is reconsidered in shallow waters due to the benefits offered in this context, where acoustic and optical technologies have serious disadvantages. Sea water scenario is a harsh environment for radiocommunications, and there is no standard model for the underwater EM channel. The high conductivity of sea water, the effect of seabed and the surface make the behaviour of the channel hard to predict. This justifies the need of link characterization as the first step to approach the development of EM underwater sensor networks. To obtain a reliable link model, measurements and simulations are required. The measuring setup for this purpose is explained and described, as well as the procedures used. Several antennas have been designed and tested in low frequency bands. Agreement between attenuation measurements and simulations at different distances was analysed and made possible the validation of simulation setups and the design of different communications layers of the system. This leads to the second step of this work, where data and routing protocols for the sensor network are examined. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top