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Sensors, Volume 12, Issue 7 (July 2012) , Pages 8438-9950

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Open AccessArticle A Logistic Regression Model for Predicting Axillary Lymph Node Metastases in Early Breast Carcinoma Patients
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9936-9950; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709936
Received: 25 May 2012 / Revised: 9 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3254 | PDF Full-text (263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nodal staging in breast cancer is a key predictor of prognosis. This paper presents the results of potential clinicopathological predictors of axillary lymph node involvement and develops an efficient prediction model to assist in predicting axillary lymph node metastases. Seventy patients with primary [...] Read more.
Nodal staging in breast cancer is a key predictor of prognosis. This paper presents the results of potential clinicopathological predictors of axillary lymph node involvement and develops an efficient prediction model to assist in predicting axillary lymph node metastases. Seventy patients with primary early breast cancer who underwent axillary dissection were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to evaluate the association between clinicopathological factors and lymph node metastatic status. A logistic regression predictive model was built from 50 randomly selected patients; the model was also applied to the remaining 20 patients to assess its validity. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between lymph node involvement and absence of nm-23 (p = 0.010) and Kiss-1 (p = 0.001) expression. Absence of Kiss-1 remained significantly associated with positive axillary node status in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.018). Seven clinicopathological factors were involved in the multivariate logistic regression model: menopausal status, tumor size, ER, PR, HER2, nm-23 and Kiss-1. The model was accurate and discriminating, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.702 when applied to the validation group. Moreover, there is a need discover more specific candidate proteins and molecular biology tools to select more variables which should improve predictive accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers and Nanosensors: New Approaches for Biology and Medicine)
Open AccessArticle User Localization During Human-Robot Interaction
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9913-9935; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709913
Received: 8 June 2012 / Revised: 6 July 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3012 | PDF Full-text (8065 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a user localization system based on the fusion of visual information and sound source localization, implemented on a social robot called Maggie. One of the main requisites to obtain a natural interaction between human-human and human-robot is an adequate spatial [...] Read more.
This paper presents a user localization system based on the fusion of visual information and sound source localization, implemented on a social robot called Maggie. One of the main requisites to obtain a natural interaction between human-human and human-robot is an adequate spatial situation between the interlocutors, that is, to be orientated and situated at the right distance during the conversation in order to have a satisfactory communicative process. Our social robot uses a complete multimodal dialog system which manages the user-robot interaction during the communicative process. One of its main components is the presented user localization system. To determine the most suitable allocation of the robot in relation to the user, a proxemic study of the human-robot interaction is required, which is described in this paper. The study has been made with two groups of users: children, aged between 8 and 17, and adults. Finally, at the end of the paper, experimental results with the proposed multimodal dialog system are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessReview Foot Plantar Pressure Measurement System: A Review
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9884-9912; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709884
Received: 15 May 2012 / Revised: 27 June 2012 / Accepted: 3 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 232 | Viewed by 13128 | PDF Full-text (1051 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Foot plantar pressure is the pressure field that acts between the foot and the support surface during everyday locomotor activities. Information derived from such pressure measures is important in gait and posture research for diagnosing lower limb problems, footwear design, sport biomechanics, injury [...] Read more.
Foot plantar pressure is the pressure field that acts between the foot and the support surface during everyday locomotor activities. Information derived from such pressure measures is important in gait and posture research for diagnosing lower limb problems, footwear design, sport biomechanics, injury prevention and other applications. This paper reviews foot plantar sensors characteristics as reported in the literature in addition to foot plantar pressure measurement systems applied to a variety of research problems. Strengths and limitations of current systems are discussed and a wireless foot plantar pressure system is proposed suitable for measuring high pressure distributions under the foot with high accuracy and reliability. The novel system is based on highly linear pressure sensors with no hysteresis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Body Area Networks Using the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain Method
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9862-9883; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709862
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 10 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3670 | PDF Full-text (2970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A rigorous full-wave solution, via the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) method, is performed in an attempt to obtain realistic communication channel models for on-body wireless transmission in Body-Area-Networks (BANs), which are local data networks using the human body as a propagation medium. The problem of [...] Read more.
A rigorous full-wave solution, via the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) method, is performed in an attempt to obtain realistic communication channel models for on-body wireless transmission in Body-Area-Networks (BANs), which are local data networks using the human body as a propagation medium. The problem of modeling the coupling between body mounted antennas is often not amenable to attack by hybrid techniques owing to the complex nature of the human body. For instance, the time-domain Green’s function approach becomes more involved when the antennas are not conformal. Furthermore, the human body is irregular in shape and has dispersion properties that are unique. One consequence of this is that we must resort to modeling the antenna network mounted on the body in its entirety, and the number of degrees of freedom (DoFs) can be on the order of billions. Even so, this type of problem can still be modeled by employing a parallel version of the FDTD algorithm running on a cluster. Lastly, we note that the results of rigorous simulation of BANs can serve as benchmarks for comparison with the abundance of measurement data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Open AccessArticle Characterizing the Moisture Content of Tea with Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy Using Wavelet Transform and Multivariate Analysis
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9847-9861; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709847
Received: 2 June 2012 / Revised: 26 June 2012 / Accepted: 9 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2999 | PDF Full-text (447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Effects of the moisture content (MC) of tea on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were investigated by integrated wavelet transform and multivariate analysis. A total of 738 representative samples, including fresh tea leaves, manufactured tea and partially processed tea were collected for spectral measurement in [...] Read more.
Effects of the moisture content (MC) of tea on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were investigated by integrated wavelet transform and multivariate analysis. A total of 738 representative samples, including fresh tea leaves, manufactured tea and partially processed tea were collected for spectral measurement in the 325–1,075 nm range with a field portable spectroradiometer. Then wavelet transform (WT) and multivariate analysis were adopted for quantitative determination of the relationship between MC and spectral data. Three feature extraction methods including WT, principal component analysis (PCA) and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) were used to explore the internal structure of spectral data. Comparison of those three methods indicated that the variables generated by WT could efficiently discover structural information of spectral data. Calibration involving seeking the relationship between MC and spectral data was executed by using regression analysis, including partial least squares regression, multiple linear regression and least square support vector machine. Results showed that there was a significant correlation between MC and spectral data (r = 0.991, RMSEP = 0.034). Moreover, the effective wavelengths for MC measurement were detected at range of 888–1,007 nm by wavelet transform. The results indicated that the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of tea is highly correlated with MC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Harnessing the Interaction Continuum for Subtle Assisted Living
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9829-9846; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709829
Received: 19 March 2012 / Revised: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2968 | PDF Full-text (5124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
People interact with each other in many levels of attention, intention and meaning. This Interaction Continuum is used daily to deal with different contexts, adapting the interaction to communication needs and available resources. Nevertheless, computer-supported interaction has mainly focused on the most direct, [...] Read more.
People interact with each other in many levels of attention, intention and meaning. This Interaction Continuum is used daily to deal with different contexts, adapting the interaction to communication needs and available resources. Nevertheless, computer-supported interaction has mainly focused on the most direct, explicit and intrusive types of human to human Interaction such as phone calls, emails, or video conferences. This paper presents the results of exploring and exploiting the potentials of undemanding interaction mechanisms, paying special attention to subtle communication and background interaction. As we argue the benefits of this type of interaction for people with special needs, we present a theoretical framework to define it and propose a proof of concept based on Augmented Objects and a color codification mechanism. Finally, we evaluate and analyze the strengths and limitations of such approach with people with cognitive disabilities. Full article
Open AccessCommunication A Micro-Machined Gyroscope for Rotating Aircraft
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9823-9828; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709823
Received: 1 April 2012 / Revised: 23 May 2012 / Accepted: 1 June 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3032 | PDF Full-text (633 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we present recent work on the design, fabrication by silicon micromachining, and packaging of a new gyroscope for stabilizing the autopilot of rotating aircraft. It operates based on oscillation of the silicon pendulum between two torsion girders for detecting the [...] Read more.
In this paper we present recent work on the design, fabrication by silicon micromachining, and packaging of a new gyroscope for stabilizing the autopilot of rotating aircraft. It operates based on oscillation of the silicon pendulum between two torsion girders for detecting the Coriolis force. The oscillation of the pendulum is initiated by the rolling and deflecting motion of the rotating carrier. Therefore, the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation are proportional to the rolling frequency and deflecting angular rate of the rotating carrier, and are measured by the sensing electrodes. A modulated pulse with constant amplitude and unequal width is obtained by a linearizing process of the gyroscope output signal and used to control the deflection of the rotating aircraft. Experimental results show that the gyroscope has a resolution of 0.008 °/s and a bias of 56.18 °/h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Small Sensor Systems and Components)
Open AccessArticle Ubiquitous Geo-Sensing for Context-Aware Analysis: Exploring Relationships between Environmental and Human Dynamics
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9800-9822; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709800
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 12 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 18 July 2012
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4715 | PDF Full-text (805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ubiquitous geo-sensing enables context-aware analyses of physical and social phenomena, i.e., analyzing one phenomenon in the context of another. Although such context-aware analysis can potentially enable a more holistic understanding of spatio-temporal processes, it is rarely documented in the scientific literature yet. [...] Read more.
Ubiquitous geo-sensing enables context-aware analyses of physical and social phenomena, i.e., analyzing one phenomenon in the context of another. Although such context-aware analysis can potentially enable a more holistic understanding of spatio-temporal processes, it is rarely documented in the scientific literature yet. In this paper we analyzed the collective human behavior in the context of the weather. We therefore explored the complex relationships between these two spatio-temporal phenomena to provide novel insights into the dynamics of urban systems. Aggregated mobile phone data, which served as a proxy for collective human behavior, was linked with the weather data from climate stations in the case study area, the city of Udine, Northern Italy. To identify and characterize potential patterns within the weather-human relationships, we developed a hybrid approach which integrates several spatio-temporal statistical analysis methods. Thereby we show that explanatory factor analysis, when applied to a number of meteorological variables, can be used to differentiate between normal and adverse weather conditions. Further, we measured the strength of the relationship between the ‘global’ adverse weather conditions and the spatially explicit effective variations in user-generated mobile network traffic for three distinct periods using the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC). The analyses result in three spatially referenced maps of MICs which reveal interesting insights into collective human dynamics in the context of weather, but also initiate several new scientific challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Sensitivity of a Label-Free Guided-Mode Resonant Optical Biosensor with Different Modes
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9791-9799; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709791
Received: 4 June 2012 / Revised: 26 June 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 18 July 2012
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3177 | PDF Full-text (388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sensitivity is a key factor in the performance of a sensor. To achieve maximum guided-mode resonant optical biosensor sensitivity, a comparison of biosensor sensitivity for Transverse Electric (TE) and Transverse Magnetic (TM) modes based on the distribution of electric fields is presented in [...] Read more.
Sensitivity is a key factor in the performance of a sensor. To achieve maximum guided-mode resonant optical biosensor sensitivity, a comparison of biosensor sensitivity for Transverse Electric (TE) and Transverse Magnetic (TM) modes based on the distribution of electric fields is presented in this article. A label-free guided-mode resonant optical biosensor is designed using the quarter-wave anti-reflection method to reflect only a narrow band of wavelengths modulated by the adsorption of a biochemical material on the sensor surface at the reflected frequency. With the distribution of electric fields simulated according to the Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) theory, it is found that the full width at half maximum of the TM mode is (~4 nm) narrower than that of the TE mode (~20 nm), and the surface sensitivity of the TE mode incident light is three times that of the TM mode. It is proposed in this article that the light mode plays an important role in the sensitivity of guided-mode resonant biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Correcting the Temperature Influence on Soil Capacitance Sensors Using Diurnal Temperature and Water Content Cycles
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9773-9790; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709773
Received: 24 May 2012 / Revised: 6 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 18 July 2012
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 7590 | PDF Full-text (1017 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of temperature on the dielectric permittivity of soil is the result of counteracting effect that depends on the soil’s composition and mineralogy. In this paper, laboratory experiments showed that for a given water content, the soil dielectric permittivity was linearly related [...] Read more.
The influence of temperature on the dielectric permittivity of soil is the result of counteracting effect that depends on the soil’s composition and mineralogy. In this paper, laboratory experiments showed that for a given water content, the soil dielectric permittivity was linearly related to the temperature, with a slope (α) that varied between samples taken in the same soil. These variations are difficult to predict and therefore, a simple and straightforward algorithm was designed to estimate α based on the diurnal patterns of both the measured dielectric permittivity and the soil temperature. The underlying idea is to assume that soil water content variations can be known with a reasonable accuracy over an appropriate time window within a day. This allows determining the contribution of the soil water content to the dielectric permittivity variations and then, the difference with the observed measurements is attributed to the soil temperature. Implementation of the correction methods in a large number of experiments significantly improved the physical meaning of the temporal evolution of the soil water content as the daily cycles for probes located near the surface or the long-term variations for more deeply installed probes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Interactive Effects on Water Flow and Solute Transport in Sandy Loam Soil Using Time Domain Reflectometry
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9749-9772; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709749
Received: 5 June 2012 / Revised: 4 July 2012 / Accepted: 16 July 2012 / Published: 18 July 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2669 | PDF Full-text (620 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface-applied chemicals move through the unsaturated zone with complex flow and transport processes due to soil heterogeneity and reach the saturated zone, resulting in groundwater contamination. Such complex processes need to be studied by advanced measurement and modeling techniques to protect soil and [...] Read more.
Surface-applied chemicals move through the unsaturated zone with complex flow and transport processes due to soil heterogeneity and reach the saturated zone, resulting in groundwater contamination. Such complex processes need to be studied by advanced measurement and modeling techniques to protect soil and water resources from contamination. In this study, the interactive effects of factors like soil structure, initial soil water content (SWC), and application rate on preferential flow and transport were studied in a sandy loam field soil using measurement (by time domain reflectometry (TDR)) and modeling (by MACRO and VS2DTI) techniques. In addition, statistical analyses were performed to compare the means of the measured and modeled SWC and EC, and solute transport parameters (pore water velocity and dispersion coefficient) in 12 treatments. Research results showed that even though the effects of soil structural conditions on water and solute transport were not so clear, the applied solution moved lower depths in the profiles of wet versus dry initial SWC and high application rate versus low application rates. The effects of soil structure and initial SWC on water and solute movement could be differentiated under the interactive conditions, but the effects of the application rates were difficult to differentiate under different soil structural and initial SWC conditions. Modeling results showed that MACRO had somewhat better performance than VS2DTI in the estimation of SWC and EC with space and time, but overall both models had relatively low performances. The means of SWC, EC, and solute transport parameters of the 12 treatments were divided into some groups based on the statistical analyses, indicating different flow and transport characteristics or a certain degree nonuniform or preferential flow and transport in the soil. Conducting field experiments with more interactive factors and applying the models with different approaches may allow better understanding of flow and transport processes in addition to the simulations of them in the unsaturated zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle SEMAT — The Next Generation of Inexpensive Marine Environmental Monitoring and Measurement Systems
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9711-9748; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709711
Received: 23 April 2012 / Revised: 10 May 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 18 July 2012
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3954 | PDF Full-text (2807 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is an increasing need for environmental measurement systems to further science and thereby lead to improved policies for sustainable management. Marine environments are particularly hostile and extremely difficult for deploying sensitive measurement systems. As a consequence the need for data is greatest [...] Read more.
There is an increasing need for environmental measurement systems to further science and thereby lead to improved policies for sustainable management. Marine environments are particularly hostile and extremely difficult for deploying sensitive measurement systems. As a consequence the need for data is greatest in marine environments, particularly in the developing economies/regions. Expense is typically the most significant limiting factor in the number of measurement systems that can be deployed, although technical complexity and the consequent high level of technical skill required for deployment and servicing runs a close second. This paper describes the Smart Environmental Monitoring and Analysis Technologies (SEMAT) project and the present development of the SEMAT technology. SEMAT is a “smart” wireless sensor network that uses a commodity-based approach for selecting technologies most appropriate to the scientifically driven marine research and monitoring domain/field. This approach allows for significantly cheaper environmental observation systems that cover a larger geographical area and can therefore collect more representative data. We describe SEMAT’s goals, which include: (1) The ability to adapt and evolve; (2) Underwater wireless communications; (3) Short-range wireless power transmission; (4) Plug and play components; (5) Minimal deployment expertise; (6) Near real-time analysis tools; and (7) Intelligent sensors. This paper illustrates how the capacity of the system has been improved over three iterations towards realising these goals. The result is an inexpensive and flexible system that is ideal for short-term deployments in shallow coastal and other aquatic environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Design and Analysis of a Compact Precision Positioning Platform Integrating Strain Gauges and the Piezoactuator
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9697-9710; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709697
Received: 14 May 2012 / Revised: 7 June 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 17 July 2012
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3559 | PDF Full-text (1201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Miniaturization precision positioning platforms are needed for in situ nanomechanical test applications. This paper proposes a compact precision positioning platform integrating strain gauges and the piezoactuator. Effects of geometric parameters of two parallel plates on Von Mises stress distribution as well as static [...] Read more.
Miniaturization precision positioning platforms are needed for in situ nanomechanical test applications. This paper proposes a compact precision positioning platform integrating strain gauges and the piezoactuator. Effects of geometric parameters of two parallel plates on Von Mises stress distribution as well as static and dynamic characteristics of the platform were studied by the finite element method. Results of the calibration experiment indicate that the strain gauge sensor has good linearity and its sensitivity is about 0.0468 mV/μm. A closed-loop control system was established to solve the problem of nonlinearity of the platform. Experimental results demonstrate that for the displacement control process, both the displacement increasing portion and the decreasing portion have good linearity, verifying that the control system is available. The developed platform has a compact structure but can realize displacement measurement with the embedded strain gauges, which is useful for the closed-loop control and structure miniaturization of piezo devices. It has potential applications in nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests, especially in the field of in situ nanomechanical testing which requires compact structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Small Sensor Systems and Components)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Instrumentation Circuit for Electrochemical Measurements
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9687-9696; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709687
Received: 27 April 2012 / Revised: 9 June 2012 / Accepted: 9 July 2012 / Published: 17 July 2012
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2791 | PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a novel signal processing circuit which can be used for the measurement of H+ ion and urea concentration is presented. A potentiometric method is used to detect the concentrations of H+ ions and urea by using H+ [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel signal processing circuit which can be used for the measurement of H+ ion and urea concentration is presented. A potentiometric method is used to detect the concentrations of H+ ions and urea by using H+ ion-selective electrodes and urea electrodes, respectively. The experimental data shows that this measuring structure has a linear pH response for the concentration range within pH 2 and 12, and the dynamic range for urea concentration measurement is in the range of 0.25 to 64 mg/dL. The designed instrumentation circuit possesses a calibration function and it can be applied to different sensing electrodes for electrochemical analysis. It possesses the advantageous properties of being multi-purpose, easy calibration and low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle A Simplified Baseband Prefilter Model with Adaptive Kalman Filter for Ultra-Tight COMPASS/INS Integration
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9666-9686; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709666
Received: 18 May 2012 / Revised: 19 June 2012 / Accepted: 27 June 2012 / Published: 17 July 2012
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3422 | PDF Full-text (1201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
COMPASS is an indigenously developed Chinese global navigation satellite system and will share many features in common with GPS (Global Positioning System). Since the ultra-tight GPS/INS (Inertial Navigation System) integration shows its advantage over independent GPS receivers in many scenarios, the federated ultra-tight [...] Read more.
COMPASS is an indigenously developed Chinese global navigation satellite system and will share many features in common with GPS (Global Positioning System). Since the ultra-tight GPS/INS (Inertial Navigation System) integration shows its advantage over independent GPS receivers in many scenarios, the federated ultra-tight COMPASS/INS integration has been investigated in this paper, particularly, by proposing a simplified prefilter model. Compared with a traditional prefilter model, the state space of this simplified system contains only carrier phase, carrier frequency and carrier frequency rate tracking errors. A two-quadrant arctangent discriminator output is used as a measurement. Since the code tracking error related parameters were excluded from the state space of traditional prefilter models, the code/carrier divergence would destroy the carrier tracking process, and therefore an adaptive Kalman filter algorithm tuning process noise covariance matrix based on state correction sequence was incorporated to compensate for the divergence. The federated ultra-tight COMPASS/INS integration was implemented with a hardware COMPASS intermediate frequency (IF), and INS’s accelerometers and gyroscopes signal sampling system. Field and simulation test results showed almost similar tracking and navigation performances for both the traditional prefilter model and the proposed system; however, the latter largely decreased the computational load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessReview A Survey on Gas Sensing Technology
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9635-9665; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709635
Received: 16 April 2012 / Revised: 18 June 2012 / Accepted: 13 July 2012 / Published: 16 July 2012
Cited by 424 | Viewed by 10353 | PDF Full-text (384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sensing technology has been widely investigated and utilized for gas detection. Due to the different applicability and inherent limitations of different gas sensing technologies, researchers have been working on different scenarios with enhanced gas sensor calibration. This paper reviews the descriptions, evaluation, comparison [...] Read more.
Sensing technology has been widely investigated and utilized for gas detection. Due to the different applicability and inherent limitations of different gas sensing technologies, researchers have been working on different scenarios with enhanced gas sensor calibration. This paper reviews the descriptions, evaluation, comparison and recent developments in existing gas sensing technologies. A classification of sensing technologies is given, based on the variation of electrical and other properties. Detailed introduction to sensing methods based on electrical variation is discussed through further classification according to sensing materials, including metal oxide semiconductors, polymers, carbon nanotubes, and moisture absorbing materials. Methods based on other kinds of variations such as optical, calorimetric, acoustic and gas-chromatographic, are presented in a general way. Several suggestions related to future development are also discussed. Furthermore, this paper focuses on sensitivity and selectivity for performance indicators to compare different sensing technologies, analyzes the factors that influence these two indicators, and lists several corresponding improved approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Low-Cost Sensor Buoy System for Monitoring Shallow Marine Environments
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9613-9634; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709613
Received: 11 May 2012 / Revised: 4 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 July 2012 / Published: 16 July 2012
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4957 | PDF Full-text (2278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Monitoring of marine ecosystems is essential to identify the parameters that determine their condition. The data derived from the sensors used to monitor them are a fundamental source for the development of mathematical models with which to predict the behaviour of conditions of [...] Read more.
Monitoring of marine ecosystems is essential to identify the parameters that determine their condition. The data derived from the sensors used to monitor them are a fundamental source for the development of mathematical models with which to predict the behaviour of conditions of the water, the sea bed and the living creatures inhabiting it. This paper is intended to explain and illustrate a design and implementation for a new multisensor monitoring buoy system. The system design is based on a number of fundamental requirements that set it apart from other recent proposals: low cost of implementation, the possibility of application in coastal shallow-water marine environments, suitable dimensions for deployment and stability of the sensor system in a shifting environment like the sea bed, and total autonomy of power supply and data recording. The buoy system has successfully performed remote monitoring of temperature and marine pressure (SBE 39 sensor), temperature (MCP9700 sensor) and atmospheric pressure (YOUNG 61302L sensor). The above requirements have been satisfactorily validated by operational trials in a marine environment. The proposed buoy sensor system thus seems to offer a broad range of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Screening of Stepping Forces in an Arthritic Rat Model Using a Novel Analgesic Meter and Data Acquisition System
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9603-9612; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709603
Received: 15 June 2012 / Revised: 5 July 2012 / Accepted: 5 July 2012 / Published: 16 July 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2640 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The stepping forces of normal and Freund Complete Adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritic rats were studied in vivo using a proposed novel analgesic meter. An infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a data acquisition system were incorporated into the analgesic meter to determine and measure [...] Read more.
The stepping forces of normal and Freund Complete Adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritic rats were studied in vivo using a proposed novel analgesic meter. An infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a data acquisition system were incorporated into the analgesic meter to determine and measure the weight of loads on the right hind paw before and after induction of arthritis by FCA injection into the paw cavity. FCA injection resulted in a significant reduction in the stepping force of the affected hind paw. The stepping force decreased to the minimum level on day 4 after the injection and then gradually increased up to day 25. Oral administration of prednisolone significantly increased the stepping forces of FCA-induced arthritic rats on days 14 and 21. These results suggest that the novel device is an effective tool for measuring the arthritic pain in in vivo studies even though walking is a dynamic condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Study on Elastic Helical TDR Sensing Cable for Distributed Deformation Detection
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9586-9602; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709586
Received: 31 May 2012 / Revised: 30 June 2012 / Accepted: 9 July 2012 / Published: 13 July 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2879 | PDF Full-text (765 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to detect distributed ground surface deformation, an elastic helical structure Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) sensing cable is shown in this paper. This special sensing cable consists of three parts: a silicone rubber rope in the center; a couple of parallel wires [...] Read more.
In order to detect distributed ground surface deformation, an elastic helical structure Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) sensing cable is shown in this paper. This special sensing cable consists of three parts: a silicone rubber rope in the center; a couple of parallel wires coiling around the rope; a silicone rubber pipe covering the sensing cable. By analyzing the relationship between the impedance and the structure of the sensing cable, the impedance model shows that the sensing cable impedance will increase when the cable is stretched. This specific characteristic is verified in the cable stretching experiment which is the base of TDR sensing technology. The TDR experiment shows that a positive reflected signal is created at the stretching deformation point on the sensing cable. The results show that the deformation section length and the stretching elongation will both affect the amplitude of the reflected signal. Finally, the deformation locating experiments show that the sensing cable can accurately detect the deformation point position on the sensing cable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Adaptive UAV Attitude Estimation Employing Unscented Kalman Filter, FOAM and Low-Cost MEMS Sensors
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9566-9585; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709566
Received: 21 May 2012 / Revised: 2 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 July 2012 / Published: 13 July 2012
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4496 | PDF Full-text (5709 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Navigation employing low cost MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is an uprising challenge. One important part of this navigation is the right estimation of the attitude angles. Most of the existent algorithms handle the sensor readings in a fixed [...] Read more.
Navigation employing low cost MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is an uprising challenge. One important part of this navigation is the right estimation of the attitude angles. Most of the existent algorithms handle the sensor readings in a fixed way, leading to large errors in different mission stages like take-off aerobatic maneuvers. This paper presents an adaptive method to estimate these angles using off-the-shelf components. This paper introduces an Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) based on the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) using the Fast Optimal Attitude Matrix (FOAM) algorithm as the observation model. The performance of the method is assessed through simulations. Moreover, field experiments are presented using a real fixed-wing UAV. The proposed low cost solution, implemented in a microcontroller, shows a satisfactory real time performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transducer Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Carriage Error Identification Based on Cross-Correlation Analysis and Wavelet Transformation
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9551-9565; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709551
Received: 24 May 2012 / Revised: 28 June 2012 / Accepted: 3 July 2012 / Published: 12 July 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2791 | PDF Full-text (1349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel method for identifying carriage errors. A general mathematical model of a guideway system is developed, based on the multi-body system method. Based on the proposed model, most error sources in the guideway system can be measured. The flatness [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel method for identifying carriage errors. A general mathematical model of a guideway system is developed, based on the multi-body system method. Based on the proposed model, most error sources in the guideway system can be measured. The flatness of a workpiece measured by the PGI1240 profilometer is represented by a wavelet. Cross-correlation analysis performed to identify the error source of the carriage. The error model is developed based on experimental results on the low frequency components of the signals. With the use of wavelets, the identification precision of test signals is very high. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessReview Synthetic Biomimetic Membranes and Their Sensor Applications
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9530-9550; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709530
Received: 9 May 2012 / Revised: 5 June 2012 / Accepted: 16 June 2012 / Published: 11 July 2012
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 4829 | PDF Full-text (1044 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Synthetic biomimetic membranes provide biological environments to membrane proteins. By exploiting the central roles of biological membranes, it is possible to devise biosensors, drug delivery systems, and nanocontainers using a biomimetic membrane system integrated with functional proteins. Biomimetic membranes can be created with [...] Read more.
Synthetic biomimetic membranes provide biological environments to membrane proteins. By exploiting the central roles of biological membranes, it is possible to devise biosensors, drug delivery systems, and nanocontainers using a biomimetic membrane system integrated with functional proteins. Biomimetic membranes can be created with synthetic lipids or block copolymers. These amphiphilic lipids and polymers self-assemble in an aqueous solution either into planar membranes or into vesicles. Using various techniques developed to date, both planar membranes and vesicles can provide versatile and robust platforms for a number of applications. In particular, biomimetic membranes with modified lipids or functional proteins are promising platforms for biosensors. We review recent technologies used to create synthetic biomimetic membranes and their engineered sensors applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochips)
Open AccessReview Screening of Aptamers on Microfluidic Systems for Clinical Applications
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9514-9529; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709514
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 2 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 July 2012 / Published: 11 July 2012
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 4313 | PDF Full-text (501 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of microfluidic systems for screening of aptamers and their biomedical applications are reviewed in this paper. Aptamers with different nucleic acid sequences have been extensively studied and the results demonstrated a strong binding affinity to target molecules such that they can [...] Read more.
The use of microfluidic systems for screening of aptamers and their biomedical applications are reviewed in this paper. Aptamers with different nucleic acid sequences have been extensively studied and the results demonstrated a strong binding affinity to target molecules such that they can be used as promising candidate biomarkers for diagnosis and therapeutics. Recently, the aptamer screening protocol has been conducted with microfluidic-based devices. Furthermore, aptamer affinity screening by a microfluidic-based method has demonstrated remarkable advantages over competing traditional methods. In this paper, we first reviewed microfluidic systems which demonstrated efficient and rapid screening of a specific aptamer. Then, the clinical applications of screened aptamers, also performed by microfluidic systems, are further reviewed. These automated microfluidic systems can provide advantages over their conventional counterparts including more compactness, faster analysis, less sample/reagent consumption and automation. An aptamer-based compact microfluidic system for diagnosis may even lead to a point-of-care device. The use of microfluidic systems for aptamer screening and diagnosis is expected to continue growing in the near future and may make a substantial impact on biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nano Technologies for Point-of-Care Diagnosis)
Open AccessArticle Monitoring of Temperature Fatigue Failure Mechanism for Polyvinyl Alcohol Fiber Concrete Using Acoustic Emission Sensors
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9502-9513; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709502
Received: 7 June 2012 / Revised: 2 July 2012 / Accepted: 3 July 2012 / Published: 11 July 2012
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2850 | PDF Full-text (580 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) techniques to monitor the mechanism of evolution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber concrete damage under temperature fatigue loading is investigated. Using the temperature fatigue test, real-time AE monitoring data of PVA fiber concrete is achieved. Based on [...] Read more.
The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) techniques to monitor the mechanism of evolution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber concrete damage under temperature fatigue loading is investigated. Using the temperature fatigue test, real-time AE monitoring data of PVA fiber concrete is achieved. Based on the AE signal characteristics of the whole test process and comparison of AE signals of PVA fiber concretes with different fiber contents, the damage evolution process of PVA fiber concrete is analyzed. Finally, a qualitative evaluation of the damage degree is obtained using the kurtosis index and b-value of AE characteristic parameters. The results obtained using both methods are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Bayesian Framework for the Automated Online Assessment of Sensor Data Quality
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9476-9501; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709476
Received: 2 March 2012 / Revised: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 4 July 2012 / Published: 11 July 2012
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3214 | PDF Full-text (400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Online automated quality assessment is critical to determine a sensor’s fitness for purpose in real-time applications. A Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) framework is proposed to produce probabilistic quality assessments and represent the uncertainty of sequentially correlated sensor readings. This is a novel framework [...] Read more.
Online automated quality assessment is critical to determine a sensor’s fitness for purpose in real-time applications. A Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) framework is proposed to produce probabilistic quality assessments and represent the uncertainty of sequentially correlated sensor readings. This is a novel framework to represent the causes, quality state and observed effects of individual sensor errors without imposing any constraints upon the physical deployment or measured phenomenon. It represents the casual relationship between quality tests and combines them in a way to generate uncertainty estimates of samples. The DBN was implemented for a particular marine deployment of temperature and conductivity sensors in Hobart, Australia. The DBN was shown to offer a substantial average improvement (34%) in replicating the error bars that were generated by experts when compared to a fuzzy logic approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Portable and Power-Free Microfluidic Device for Rapid and Sensitive Lead (Pb2+) Detection
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9467-9475; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709467
Received: 29 May 2012 / Revised: 6 June 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 10 July 2012
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3261 | PDF Full-text (312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A portable and power-free microfluidic device was designed for rapid and sensitive detection of lead (Pb2+). 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA)-functionalized gold nanoparticles (MUA-AuNPs) aggregated in the presence of Pb2+ for the chelation mechanism. When we performed this analysis on a polydimethylsiloxane [...] Read more.
A portable and power-free microfluidic device was designed for rapid and sensitive detection of lead (Pb2+). 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA)-functionalized gold nanoparticles (MUA-AuNPs) aggregated in the presence of Pb2+ for the chelation mechanism. When we performed this analysis on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip, the aggregations deposited onto the surface of chip and formed dark lines along the laminar flows in the zigzag microchannels. This visual result can be observed by the naked eye through a microscope or just a drop of water as a magnifier. Ten μM Pb2+ was successfully detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle An Enhanced MEMS Error Modeling Approach Based on Nu-Support Vector Regression
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9448-9466; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709448
Received: 28 May 2012 / Revised: 25 June 2012 / Accepted: 26 June 2012 / Published: 9 July 2012
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3819 | PDF Full-text (642 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS)-based inertial sensors have made possible the development of a civilian land vehicle navigation system by offering a low-cost solution. However, the accurate modeling of the MEMS sensor errors is one of the most challenging tasks in the design [...] Read more.
Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS)-based inertial sensors have made possible the development of a civilian land vehicle navigation system by offering a low-cost solution. However, the accurate modeling of the MEMS sensor errors is one of the most challenging tasks in the design of low-cost navigation systems. These sensors exhibit significant errors like biases, drift, noises; which are negligible for higher grade units. Different conventional techniques utilizing the Gauss Markov model and neural network method have been previously utilized to model the errors. However, Gauss Markov model works unsatisfactorily in the case of MEMS units due to the presence of high inherent sensor errors. On the other hand, modeling the random drift utilizing Neural Network (NN) is time consuming, thereby affecting its real-time implementation. We overcome these existing drawbacks by developing an enhanced Support Vector Machine (SVM) based error model. Unlike NN, SVMs do not suffer from local minimisation or over-fitting problems and delivers a reliable global solution. Experimental results proved that the proposed SVM approach reduced the noise standard deviation by 10–35% for gyroscopes and 61–76% for accelerometers. Further, positional error drifts under static conditions improved by 41% and 80% in comparison to NN and GM approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Fully Sensorized Cooperative Robotic System for Surgical Interventions
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9423-9447; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709423
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 3 July 2012 / Published: 9 July 2012
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4114 | PDF Full-text (4047 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this research a fully sensorized cooperative robot system for manipulation of needles is presented. The setup consists of a DLR/KUKA Light Weight Robot III especially designed for safe human/robot interaction, a FD-CT robot-driven angiographic C-arm system, and a navigation camera. Also, new [...] Read more.
In this research a fully sensorized cooperative robot system for manipulation of needles is presented. The setup consists of a DLR/KUKA Light Weight Robot III especially designed for safe human/robot interaction, a FD-CT robot-driven angiographic C-arm system, and a navigation camera. Also, new control strategies for robot manipulation in the clinical environment are introduced. A method for fast calibration of the involved components and the preliminary accuracy tests of the whole possible errors chain are presented. Calibration of the robot with the navigation system has a residual error of 0.81 mm (rms) with a standard deviation of ±0.41 mm. The accuracy of the robotic system while targeting fixed points at different positions within the workspace is of 1.2 mm (rms) with a standard deviation of ±0.4 mm. After calibration, and due to close loop control, the absolute positioning accuracy was reduced to the navigation camera accuracy which is of 0.35 mm (rms). The implemented control allows the robot to compensate for small patient movements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Dynamics of Ras Complexes Observed in Living Cells
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9411-9422; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709411
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 29 June 2012 / Accepted: 4 July 2012 / Published: 9 July 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2822 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
K-Ras works as a switch in many important intracellular signaling pathways and plays important roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and carcinogenesis. For signal transduction from K-Ras to Raf1, the best-characterized effector of K-Ras, the general view is that Ras recruits Raf1 from [...] Read more.
K-Ras works as a switch in many important intracellular signaling pathways and plays important roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and carcinogenesis. For signal transduction from K-Ras to Raf1, the best-characterized effector of K-Ras, the general view is that Ras recruits Raf1 from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane. To elucidate this process, we constructed a series of fusion proteins (including Raf1 and K-Ras fused with either fluorescent proteins or fluorescent protein fragments) to compare subcellular localizations of these proteins. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and a co-transfection system were used. In the BiFC system, the K-Ras/Raf1 complexes were mainly located in the cell membrane, while the Raf1 control was uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. However, the complexes of Raf1 and K-RasC185S, a K-Ras mutant which loses membrane-localization, were also able to accumulate in the cell membrane. In contrast, an apparent cytosolic distribution pattern was observed in cells co-transfected with mcerulean-Raf1 and EGFP-K-RasC185S, suggesting that the membrane localization of K-Ras/Raf1 complexes is not entirely dependent on K-Ras, and that other factors, such as the irreversible conformation formed between K-Ras and Raf1 may play a role. This study sheds light on the interaction between K-Ras and Raf1 and provides a practical method to elucidate the mechanism underlying K-Ras and Raf1 binding to the cell membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Live Cell-Based Sensors)
Open AccessArticle AUV SLAM and Experiments Using a Mechanical Scanning Forward-Looking Sonar
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9386-9410; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709386
Received: 18 May 2012 / Revised: 27 June 2012 / Accepted: 28 June 2012 / Published: 9 July 2012
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4718 | PDF Full-text (2047 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Navigation technology is one of the most important challenges in the applications of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) which navigate in the complex undersea environment. The ability of localizing a robot and accurately mapping its surroundings simultaneously, namely the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) [...] Read more.
Navigation technology is one of the most important challenges in the applications of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) which navigate in the complex undersea environment. The ability of localizing a robot and accurately mapping its surroundings simultaneously, namely the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem, is a key prerequisite of truly autonomous robots. In this paper, a modified-FastSLAM algorithm is proposed and used in the navigation for our C-Ranger research platform, an open-frame AUV. A mechanical scanning imaging sonar is chosen as the active sensor for the AUV. The modified-FastSLAM implements the update relying on the on-board sensors of C-Ranger. On the other hand, the algorithm employs the data association which combines the single particle maximum likelihood method with modified negative evidence method, and uses the rank-based resampling to overcome the particle depletion problem. In order to verify the feasibility of the proposed methods, both simulation experiments and sea trials for C-Ranger are conducted. The experimental results show the modified-FastSLAM employed for the navigation of the C-Ranger AUV is much more effective and accurate compared with the traditional methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends towards Automatic Vehicle Control and Perception Systems)
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