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Article

Degradation Mechanism of 2,4-Dichlorophenol by Fungi Isolated from Marine Invertebrates

1
Industrial Biotechnology & Biocatalysis Group, Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Athens, Greece
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Division of Pharmacognosy and Chemistry of Natural Products, Department of Pharmacy, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15771 Athens, Greece
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Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, ICSN, CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
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Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
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School of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
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Biochemical and Chemical Process Engineering, Division of Sustainable Process Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3317; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093317
Received: 14 April 2020 / Revised: 3 May 2020 / Accepted: 4 May 2020 / Published: 7 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identification of Metabolites of Xenobiotics)
2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant categorized as a priority pollutant by the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency, posing adverse health effects on humans and wildlife. Bioremediation is proposed as an eco-friendly, cost-effective alternative to traditional physicochemical remediation techniques. In the present study, fungal strains were isolated from marine invertebrates and tested for their ability to biotransform 2,4-DCP at a concentration of 1 mM. The most competent strains were studied further for the expression of catechol dioxygenase activities and the produced metabolites. One strain, identified as Tritirachium sp., expressed high levels of extracellular catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity. The same strain also produced a dechlorinated cleavage product of the starting compound, indicating the assimilation of the xenobiotic by the fungus. This work also enriches the knowledge about the mechanisms employed by marine-derived fungi in order to defend themselves against chlorinated xenobiotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: 2,4-dichlorophenol; marine-derived fungi; invertebrate symbionts; catechol dioxygenase; DCP metabolites 2,4-dichlorophenol; marine-derived fungi; invertebrate symbionts; catechol dioxygenase; DCP metabolites
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nikolaivits, E.; Agrafiotis, A.; Baira, E.; Le Goff, G.; Tsafantakis, N.; Chavanich, S.A.; Benayahu, Y.; Ouazzani, J.; Fokialakis, N.; Topakas, E. Degradation Mechanism of 2,4-Dichlorophenol by Fungi Isolated from Marine Invertebrates. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3317. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093317

AMA Style

Nikolaivits E, Agrafiotis A, Baira E, Le Goff G, Tsafantakis N, Chavanich SA, Benayahu Y, Ouazzani J, Fokialakis N, Topakas E. Degradation Mechanism of 2,4-Dichlorophenol by Fungi Isolated from Marine Invertebrates. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(9):3317. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093317

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nikolaivits, Efstratios; Agrafiotis, Andreas; Baira, Eirini; Le Goff, Géraldine; Tsafantakis, Nikolaos; Chavanich, Suchana A.; Benayahu, Yehuda; Ouazzani, Jamal; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Topakas, Evangelos. 2020. "Degradation Mechanism of 2,4-Dichlorophenol by Fungi Isolated from Marine Invertebrates" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 9: 3317. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093317

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