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Microglial and Astrocytic Function in Physiological and Pathological Conditions: Estrogenic Modulation
Review

De Novo Synthesized Estradiol: A Role in Modulating the Cerebellar Function

1
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
2
Centre for Sensorimotor Performance, School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
3
Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Perugia, 06129 Perugia, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3316; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093316
Received: 23 March 2020 / Revised: 26 April 2020 / Accepted: 5 May 2020 / Published: 7 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steroids and the Nervous System)
The estrogen estradiol is a potent neuroactive steroid that may regulate brain structure and function. Although the effects of estradiol have been historically associated with gonadal secretion, the discovery that this steroid may be synthesized within the brain has expanded this traditional concept. Indeed, it is accepted that de novo synthesized estradiol in the nervous system (nE2) may modulate several aspects of neuronal physiology, including synaptic transmission and plasticity, thereby influencing a variety of behaviors. These modulations may be on a time scale of minutes via non-classical and often membrane-initiated mechanisms or hours and days by classical actions on gene transcription. Besides the high level, recent investigations in the cerebellum indicate that even a low aromatase expression can be related to the fast nE2 effect on brain functioning. These pieces of evidence point to the importance of an on-demand and localized nE2 synthesis to rapidly contribute to regulating the synaptic transmission. This review is geared at exploring a new scenario for the impact of estradiol on brain processes as it emerges from the nE2 action on cerebellar neurotransmission and cerebellum-dependent learning. View Full-Text
Keywords: neurosteroids; plasticity; cerebellum; Purkinje cell; vestibulo-ocular reflex; estradiol; aromatase; motor control; cerebellar-dependent behavior; synaptic transmission neurosteroids; plasticity; cerebellum; Purkinje cell; vestibulo-ocular reflex; estradiol; aromatase; motor control; cerebellar-dependent behavior; synaptic transmission
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dieni, C.V.; Contemori, S.; Biscarini, A.; Panichi, R. De Novo Synthesized Estradiol: A Role in Modulating the Cerebellar Function. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3316. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093316

AMA Style

Dieni CV, Contemori S, Biscarini A, Panichi R. De Novo Synthesized Estradiol: A Role in Modulating the Cerebellar Function. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(9):3316. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093316

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dieni, Cristina V., Samuele Contemori, Andrea Biscarini, and Roberto Panichi. 2020. "De Novo Synthesized Estradiol: A Role in Modulating the Cerebellar Function" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 9: 3316. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093316

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