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Review

Pulmonary Delivery of Fenretinide: A Possible Adjuvant Treatment in COVID-19

1
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, Via S. Donato 19/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy
2
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy
3
Unit of Microbiology, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40138 Bologna, Italy
4
Biostructures and Biosystems National Institute (BBNI), 00136 Roma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 3812; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113812
Received: 3 May 2020 / Revised: 18 May 2020 / Accepted: 26 May 2020 / Published: 27 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Molecular Studies in Biology and Chemistry)
At present, there is no vaccine or effective standard treatment for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (or coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)), which frequently leads to lethal pulmonary inflammatory responses. COVID-19 pathology is characterized by extreme inflammation and amplified immune response with activation of a cytokine storm. A subsequent progression to acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can take place, which is often followed by death. The causes of these strong inflammatory responses in SARS-CoV-2 infection are still unknown. As uncontrolled pulmonary inflammation is likely the main cause of death in SARS-CoV-2 infection, anti-inflammatory therapeutic interventions are particularly important. Fenretinide N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide is a bioactive molecule characterized by poly-pharmacological properties and a low toxicity profile. Fenretinide is endowed with antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and immunomodulating properties other than efficacy in obesity/diabetic pathologies. Its anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities, in particular, could likely have utility in multimodal therapies for the treatment of ALI/ARDS in COVID-19 patients. Moreover, fenretinide administration by pulmonary delivery systems could further increase its therapeutic value by carrying high drug concentrations to the lungs and triggering a rapid onset of activity. This is particularly important in SARS-CoV-2 infection, where only a narrow time window exists for therapeutic intervention. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; fenretinide; anti-inflammatory; antiviral environment; pulmonary delivery; adjuvant treatment COVID-19; fenretinide; anti-inflammatory; antiviral environment; pulmonary delivery; adjuvant treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Orienti, I.; Gentilomi, G.A.; Farruggia, G. Pulmonary Delivery of Fenretinide: A Possible Adjuvant Treatment in COVID-19. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3812. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113812

AMA Style

Orienti I, Gentilomi GA, Farruggia G. Pulmonary Delivery of Fenretinide: A Possible Adjuvant Treatment in COVID-19. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(11):3812. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113812

Chicago/Turabian Style

Orienti, Isabella, Giovanna Angela Gentilomi, and Giovanna Farruggia. 2020. "Pulmonary Delivery of Fenretinide: A Possible Adjuvant Treatment in COVID-19" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 11: 3812. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113812

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