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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 17, Issue 8 (August 2016)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) We identified original tetrafluoro-4-[4-(aryl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamides as [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Patient-Derived Xenograft (PDX) of Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis in a Zebrafish Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081375
Received: 27 June 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2786 | PDF Full-text (3436 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone metastasis is a complex process that needs to be better understood in order to help clinicians prevent and treat it. Xenografts using patient-derived material (PDX) rather than cancer cell lines are a novel approach that guarantees more clinically realistic results. A primary [...] Read more.
Bone metastasis is a complex process that needs to be better understood in order to help clinicians prevent and treat it. Xenografts using patient-derived material (PDX) rather than cancer cell lines are a novel approach that guarantees more clinically realistic results. A primary culture of bone metastasis derived from a 67-year-old patient with breast cancer was cultured and then injected into zebrafish (ZF) embryos to study its metastatic potential. In vivo behavior and results of gene expression analyses of the primary culture were compared with those of cancer cell lines with different metastatic potential (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231). The MCF7 cell line, which has the same hormonal receptor status as the bone metastasis primary culture, did not survive in the in vivo model. Conversely, MDA-MB-231 disseminated and colonized different parts of the ZF, including caudal hematopoietic tissues (CHT), revealing a migratory phenotype. Primary culture cells disseminated and in later stages extravasated from the vessels, engrafting into ZF tissues and reaching the CHT. Primary cell behavior reflected the clinical course of the patient’s medical history. Our results underline the potential for using PDX models in bone metastasis research and outline new methods for the clinical application of this in vivo model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Metastasis)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Pulsed Electric Field on Membrane Lipids and Oxidative Injury of Salmonella typhimurium
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081374
Received: 17 May 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1549 | PDF Full-text (3264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Salmonella typhimurium cells were subjected to pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at 25 kV/cm for 0–4 ms to investigate the effect of PEF on the cytoplasmic membrane lipids and oxidative injury of cells. Results indicated that PEF treatment induced a decrease of membrane [...] Read more.
Salmonella typhimurium cells were subjected to pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at 25 kV/cm for 0–4 ms to investigate the effect of PEF on the cytoplasmic membrane lipids and oxidative injury of cells. Results indicated that PEF treatment induced a decrease of membrane fluidity of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimuriumi), possibly due to the alterations of fatty acid biosynthesis-associated gene expressions (down-regulation of cfa and fabA gene expressions and the up-regulation of fabD gene expression), which, in turn, modified the composition of membrane lipid (decrease in the content ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids). In addition, oxidative injury induced by PEF treatment was associated with an increase in the content of malondialdehyde. The up-regulation of cytochrome bo oxidase gene expressions (cyoA, cyoB, and cyoC) indicated that membrane damage was induced by PEF treatment, which was related to the repairing mechanism of alleviating the oxidative injury caused by PEF treatment. Based on these results, we achieved better understanding of microbial injury induced by PEF, suggesting that micro-organisms tend to decrease membrane fluidity in response to PEF treatment and, thus, a greater membrane fluidity might improve the efficiency of PEF treatment to inactivate micro-organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle
Expression and Critical Role of Interleukin Enhancer Binding Factor 2 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081373
Received: 6 April 2016 / Revised: 5 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1930 | PDF Full-text (9422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2), a transcription factor, regulates cell growth by inhibiting the stabilization of mRNA. Currently, its role has gained recognition as a factor in the tumorigenic process. However, until now, little has been known about the detailed role ILF2 [...] Read more.
Interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2), a transcription factor, regulates cell growth by inhibiting the stabilization of mRNA. Currently, its role has gained recognition as a factor in the tumorigenic process. However, until now, little has been known about the detailed role ILF2 plays in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the expression levels of ILF2 in HCC tissue with Western blot and immunohistochemical assays. To examine the effect of ILF2 on liver cancer cell growth and apoptosis, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting ILF2 were recombined to create lentiviral overexpression vectors. Our results showed higher expression levels of ILF2 mRNA and ILF2 protein in HCC tissue compared with matched peritumoral tissue. Expression of ILF2 may regulate cell growth and apoptosis in liver cancer cells via regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 related ovarian killer (Bok), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1). Moreover, we inoculated nude mice with liver cancer cells to investigate the effect of ILF2 on tumorigenesis in vivo. As expected, a rapid growth was observed in cancer cells inoculated with a lentiviral vector coding Flag-ILF2 (Lenti-ILF2) compared with the control cells. Hence, these results promote a better understanding of ILF2’s potential role as a therapeutic target in HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Mechanisms of Human Liver Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.)-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081368
Received: 24 May 2016 / Revised: 28 June 2016 / Accepted: 30 June 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1678 | PDF Full-text (7977 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Herbal-loaded drug delivery nanotechnological systems have been extensively studied recently. The antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants has shown better pharmacological action when such plants are loaded into a drug delivery system than when they are not loaded. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.) belongs to [...] Read more.
Herbal-loaded drug delivery nanotechnological systems have been extensively studied recently. The antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants has shown better pharmacological action when such plants are loaded into a drug delivery system than when they are not loaded. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.) belongs to the Eriocaulaceae family and presents antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Syngonanthus nitens (S. nitens) extract that was not loaded (E) or loaded (SE) into a liquid crystal precursor system (S) for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) with Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution technique. Additionally, we performed hyphae inhibition and biofilm tests. Finally, experimental candidiasis was evaluated in in vivo models with Wistar female rats. The results showed effective antifungal activity after incorporation into S for all strains tested, with MICs ranging from 31.2 to 62.5 μg/mL. Microscopic observation of SE revealed an absence of filamentous cells 24 h of exposure to a concentration of 31.2 μg/mL. E demonstrated no effective action against biofilms, though SE showed inhibition against biofilms of all strains. In the in vivo experiment, SE was effective in the treatment of infection after only two days of treatment and was more effective than E and amphotericin B. The S. nitens is active against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the antifungal potential is being enhanced after incorporation into liquid crystal precursor systems (LCPS). These findings represent a promising application of SE in the treatment of VVC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery and Antimicrobial Agents)
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma LncRNA-ATB, a Potential Biomarker for Diagnosis of Patients with Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis: A Case-Control Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081367
Received: 23 June 2016 / Revised: 30 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1942 | PDF Full-text (726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
LncRNA-ATB (lncRNA was activated by transforming growth factor-β) has been reported to be involved in specific physiological and pathological processes in human diseases, and could serve as biomarkers for cancers. However, the role of lncRNA-ATB in coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) is still unknown. [...] Read more.
LncRNA-ATB (lncRNA was activated by transforming growth factor-β) has been reported to be involved in specific physiological and pathological processes in human diseases, and could serve as biomarkers for cancers. However, the role of lncRNA-ATB in coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the association between lncRNA-ATB and CWP. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect plasma lncRNA-ATB expression in 137 CWP patients, 72 healthy coal miners and 168 healthy controls. LncRNA-ATB was significantly upregulated in CWP (p < 0.05). Compared with the healthy controls and healthy coal miners, the odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval (CI)) for CWP were 2.57 (1.52–4.33) and 2.17 (1.04–4.53), respectively. LncRNA-ATB was positively associated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) (r = 0.30, p = 0.003) and negative correlated with vital capacity (VC) (r = −0.18, p = 0.033) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = −0.18, p = 0.046) in CWP patients. Compared with healthy controls, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.84, resulting in a 71.17% sensitivity and 88.14% specificity. When compared with healthy coal miners, the AUC was 0.83, the sensitivity and specificity were 70.07% and 86.36%, respectively. LncRNA-ATB expression is commonly increased in CWP and significantly correlates with the TGF-β1 in CWP patients. Furthermore, elevated lncRNA-ATB was associated with CWP risk and may serve as a potential biomarker for CWP. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Oxyalkylated Derivatives of 2′,4′-Dihydroxychalcone as Anti-Oomycete Agents against Bronopol Resistant Strains of Saprolegnia sp.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081366
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 5 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1726 | PDF Full-text (899 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of novel oxyalkylchalcones substituted with alkyl groups were designed and synthesized, and the antioomycete activity of the series was evaluated in vitro against Saprolegnia strains. All tested O-alkylchalcones were synthesized by means of nucleophilic substitution from the natural compound 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone [...] Read more.
A series of novel oxyalkylchalcones substituted with alkyl groups were designed and synthesized, and the antioomycete activity of the series was evaluated in vitro against Saprolegnia strains. All tested O-alkylchalcones were synthesized by means of nucleophilic substitution from the natural compound 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone (1) and the respective alkyl bromide. The natural chalcone (1) and 10 synthetic oxyalkylchalcones (211) were tested against Saprolegnia parasitica and Saprolegnia australis. Among synthetic analogs, 2-hydroxy,4-farnesyloxychalcone (11) showed the most potent activity against Saprolegnia sp., with MIC and MOC values of 125 µg/mL (similar to bronopol at 150 µg/mL) and 175 µg/mL, respectively; however, 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone (1) was the strongest and most active molecule, with MIC and MOC values of 6.25 µg/mL and 12.5 µg/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Protection of Historical Wood against Microbial Degradation—Selection and Application of Microbiocides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081364
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2017 | PDF Full-text (4735 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to select effective and safe microbiocides for the disinfection and protection of historical wooden surfaces at the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp. We tested seven active compounds against bacteria and moulds, of which didecyldimethylammonium chloride [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to select effective and safe microbiocides for the disinfection and protection of historical wooden surfaces at the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp. We tested seven active compounds against bacteria and moulds, of which didecyldimethylammonium chloride and N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-dodecylpropane-1,3-diamine were effective even at 0.02%–2%. Subsequently, eight microbiocides containing the selected active ingredients were chosen and applied three times on the surface of wood samples colonized by bacteria and moulds. ABM-1 and ABM-2—6% solution; Rocima 101—8%; Preventol R 80—12%; Acticide 706 LV—15% and Boramon—30% were the most effective disinfectants. Under laboratory conditions, ABM-1, Boramon and Rocima 101 ensured antimicrobial protection of new wood samples for six months. In situ, 30% Boramon and 8% Rocima 101 applied by spraying effectively protected the historical wood from bacterial and mould growth for 12 and 3 months, respectively. Colour and luminance of the new wood were not altered after exposure to the biocides. Boramon and Rocima 101, applied by the spraying method, caused no significant change in the colour of the historical wood. Results from this study were used to develop a procedure for the protection of wood in historical buildings against biodeterioration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Materials 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Redox-Dependent Esterase Activity (EC 3.1.1.2) for DJ-1: Implications for Parkinson’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081346
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2701 | PDF Full-text (2509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mutations the in human DJ-1 (hDJ-1) gene are associated with early-onset autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). hDJ-1/parkinsonism associated deglycase (PARK7) is a cytoprotective multi-functional protein that contains a conserved cysteine-protease domain. Given that cysteine-proteases can act on both amide [...] Read more.
Mutations the in human DJ-1 (hDJ-1) gene are associated with early-onset autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). hDJ-1/parkinsonism associated deglycase (PARK7) is a cytoprotective multi-functional protein that contains a conserved cysteine-protease domain. Given that cysteine-proteases can act on both amide and ester substrates, we surmised that hDJ-1 possessed cysteine-mediated esterase activity. To test this hypothesis, hDJ-1 was overexpressed, purified and tested for activity towards 4-nitrophenyl acetate (pNPA) as µmol of pNPA hydrolyzed/min/mg·protein (U/mg protein). hDJ-1 showed maximum reaction velocity esterase activity (Vmax = 235.10 ± 12.00 U/mg protein), with a sigmoidal fit (S0.5 = 0.55 ± 0.040 mM) and apparent positive cooperativity (Hill coefficient of 2.05 ± 0.28). A PD-associated mutant of DJ-1 (M26I) lacked activity. Unlike its protease activity which is inactivated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), esterase activity of hDJ-1 is enhanced upon exposure to low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (<10 µM) and plateaus at elevated concentrations (>100 µM) suggesting that its activity is resistant to oxidative stress. Esterase activity of DJ-1 requires oxidation of catalytic cysteines, as chemically protecting cysteines blocked its activity whereas an oxido-mimetic mutant of DJ-1 (C106D) exhibited robust esterase activity. Molecular docking studies suggest that C106 and L126 within its catalytic site interact with esterase substrates. Overall, our data show that hDJ-1 contains intrinsic redox-sensitive esterase activity that is abolished in a PD-associated mutant form of the hDJ-1 protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuronal Protein Homeostasis in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Female Sexual Hormones on the Expression of Aquaporin 5 in the Late-Pregnant Rat Uterus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081300
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 2 August 2016 / Accepted: 3 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1487 | PDF Full-text (3161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thirteen mammalian aquaporin (AQP) water channels are known, and few of them play a role in the mammalian reproductive system. In our earlier study, the predominance of AQP5 in the late-pregnant rat uterus was proven. Our current aim was to investigate the effect [...] Read more.
Thirteen mammalian aquaporin (AQP) water channels are known, and few of them play a role in the mammalian reproductive system. In our earlier study, the predominance of AQP5 in the late-pregnant rat uterus was proven. Our current aim was to investigate the effect of estrogen- and gestagen-related compounds on the expression of the AQP5 channel in the late-pregnant rat uterus. Furthermore, we examined the effect of hormonally-induced preterm delivery on the expression of AQP5 in the uterus. We treated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats subcutaneously with 17β-estradiol, clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen citrate, progesterone, levonorgestrel, and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Preterm delivery was induced by subcutaneous mifepristone and intravaginal prostaglandin E2. Reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot techniques were used for the detection of the changes in AQP5 mRNA and protein expressions. The amount of AQP5 significantly increased after progesterone and progesterone analogs treatment on 18 and 22 days of pregnancy. The 17β-estradiol and estrogen receptor agonists did not influence the AQP5 mRNA level; however, estradiol induced a significant increase in the AQP5 protein level on the investigated days of gestation. Tamoxifen increased the AQP5 protein expression on day 18, while clomiphene citrate was ineffective. The hormonally-induced preterm birth significantly decreased the AQP5 level similarly to the day of delivery. We proved that AQP5 expression is influenced by both estrogen and progesterone in the late-pregnant rat uterus. The influence of progesterone on AQP5 expression is more predominant as compared with estrogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaporin)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Different Ploidy and Parent–Offspring Genomic DNA Methylation in the Loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081299
Received: 6 June 2016 / Revised: 21 July 2016 / Accepted: 26 July 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1574 | PDF Full-text (626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we selected natural polyploidy loach (diploid, triploid and tetraploid) and hybrid F1 generation obverse cross (4 × 2) and inverse cross (2 × 4) by diploids and tetraploids as the research model. The MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism) reaction system [...] Read more.
In this study, we selected natural polyploidy loach (diploid, triploid and tetraploid) and hybrid F1 generation obverse cross (4 × 2) and inverse cross (2 × 4) by diploids and tetraploids as the research model. The MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism) reaction system was established by our laboratory to explore methylation levels and pattern diversification features at the whole genome level of the polyploidy loach. The results showed that the total methylation and full methylation rates decreased on increased ploidy individuals; moreover, the hemimethylation rate showed no consistent pattern. Compared with diploid loach, the methylation patterns of tetraploid sites changed 68.17%, and the methylation patterns of triploid sites changed 73.05%. The proportion of hypermethylation genes is significantly higher than the proportion of demethylation genes. The methylation level of reciprocal cross F1 generation is lower than the male diploid and higher than the female tetraploid. The hemimethylation and total methylation rate of the cross hybrid F1 generation is significantly higher than the orthogonal F1 generation (p < 0.01). After readjusting, the methylation pattern of genome DNA of reciprocal hybrids changed 69.59% and 72.83%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
The Study of Dynamic Potentials of Highly Excited Vibrational States of DCP: From Case Analysis to Comparative Study with HCP
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081280
Received: 17 July 2016 / Revised: 22 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 July 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1124 | PDF Full-text (13893 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The dynamic potentials of highly excited vibrational states of deuterated phosphaethyne (DCP) in the D–C and C–P stretching coordinates with anharmonicity and Fermi coupling are studied in this article and the results show that the D-C-P bending vibration mode has weak effects on [...] Read more.
The dynamic potentials of highly excited vibrational states of deuterated phosphaethyne (DCP) in the D–C and C–P stretching coordinates with anharmonicity and Fermi coupling are studied in this article and the results show that the D-C-P bending vibration mode has weak effects on D–C and C–P stretching modes under different Polyad numbers (P number). Furthermore, the dynamic potentials and the corresponding phase space trajectories of DCP are given, as an example, in the case of P = 30. In the end, a comparative study between deuterated phosphaethyne (DCP) and phosphaethyne (HCP) with dynamic potential is done, and it is elucidated that the uncoupled mode makes the original horizontal reversed symmetry breaking between the dynamic potential of HCP ( q 3 ) and DCP ( q 1 ), but has little effect on the vertical reversed symmetry, between the dynamic potential of HCP ( q 2 ) and DCP ( q 3 ). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
How Many Conformations of Enzymes Should Be Sampled for DFT/MM Calculations? A Case Study of Fluoroacetate Dehalogenase
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081372
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1998 | PDF Full-text (1010 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method (e.g., density functional theory (DFT)/MM) is important in elucidating enzymatic mechanisms. It is indispensable to study “multiple” conformations of enzymes to get unbiased energetic and structural results. One challenging problem, however, is to determine the minimum number [...] Read more.
The quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method (e.g., density functional theory (DFT)/MM) is important in elucidating enzymatic mechanisms. It is indispensable to study “multiple” conformations of enzymes to get unbiased energetic and structural results. One challenging problem, however, is to determine the minimum number of conformations for DFT/MM calculations. Here, we propose two convergence criteria, namely the Boltzmann-weighted average barrier and the disproportionate effect, to tentatively address this issue. The criteria were tested by defluorination reaction catalyzed by fluoroacetate dehalogenase. The results suggest that at least 20 conformations of enzymatic residues are required for convergence using DFT/MM calculations. We also tested the correlation of energy barriers between small QM regions and big QM regions. A roughly positive correlation was found. This kind of correlation has not been reported in the literature. The correlation inspires us to propose a protocol for more efficient sampling. This saves 50% of the computational cost in our current case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibitory Effect of 2,3,5,6-Tetrafluoro-4-[4-(aryl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamide Derivatives on HIV Reverse Transcriptase Associated RNase H Activities
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081371
Received: 28 June 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3478 | PDF Full-text (2121 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The HIV-1 ribonuclease H (RNase H) function of the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme catalyzes the selective hydrolysis of the RNA strand of the RNA:DNA heteroduplex replication intermediate, and represents a suitable target for drug development. A particularly attractive approach is constituted by the [...] Read more.
The HIV-1 ribonuclease H (RNase H) function of the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme catalyzes the selective hydrolysis of the RNA strand of the RNA:DNA heteroduplex replication intermediate, and represents a suitable target for drug development. A particularly attractive approach is constituted by the interference with the RNase H metal-dependent catalytic activity, which resides in the active site located at the C-terminus p66 subunit of RT. Herein, we report results of an in-house screening campaign that allowed us to identify 4-[4-(aryl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamides, prepared by the “click chemistry” approach, as novel potential HIV-1 RNase H inhibitors. Three compounds (9d, 10c, and 10d) demonstrated a selective inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 RNase H enzyme at micromolar concentrations. Drug-likeness, predicted by the calculation of a panel of physicochemical and ADME properties, putative binding modes for the active compounds, assessed by computational molecular docking, as well as a mechanistic hypothesis for this novel chemotype are reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme-Inhibitor Interaction as Examples of Molecular Recognition)
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Open AccessArticle
MiR-132-3p Regulates the Osteogenic Differentiation of Thoracic Ligamentum Flavum Cells by Inhibiting Multiple Osteogenesis-Related Genes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081370
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1792 | PDF Full-text (4327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) is a disorder of heterotopic ossification of spinal ligaments and is the main cause of thoracic spinal canal stenosis. Previous studies suggested that miR-132-3p negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation. However, whether miR-132-3p is involved in the process of [...] Read more.
Ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) is a disorder of heterotopic ossification of spinal ligaments and is the main cause of thoracic spinal canal stenosis. Previous studies suggested that miR-132-3p negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation. However, whether miR-132-3p is involved in the process of OLF has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of miR-132-3p and its target genes forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) and SRY-box 6 (SOX6) on the osteogenic differentiation of ligamentum flavum (LF) cells. We demonstrated that miR-132-3p was down-regulated during the osteogenic differentiation of LF cells and negatively regulated the osteoblast differentiation. Further, miR-132-3p targeted FOXO1, GDF5 and SOX6 and down-regulated the protein expression of these genes. Meanwhile, FOXO1, GDF5 and SOX6 were up-regulated after osteogenic differentiation and the down-regulation of endogenous FOXO1, GDF5 or SOX6 suppressed the osteogenic differentiation of LF cells. In addition, we also found FOXO1, GDF5 and SOX6 expression in the ossification front of OLF samples. Overall, these results suggest that miR-132-3p inhibits the osteogenic differentiation of LF cells by targeting FOXO1, GDF5 and SOX6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
TNFSF4 Gene Variations Are Related to Early-Onset Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases and Hypothyroidism of Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081369
Received: 10 July 2016 / Revised: 14 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1798 | PDF Full-text (392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the current study was to examine whether the polymorphism loci of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 4 (TNFSF4) gene increase the risk of susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) in the Han Chinese population, and a case-control [...] Read more.
The aim of the current study was to examine whether the polymorphism loci of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 4 (TNFSF4) gene increase the risk of susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) in the Han Chinese population, and a case-control study was performed in a set of 1,048 AITDs patients and 909 normal healthy controls in the study. A total of four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNFSF4 region, including rs7514229, rs1234313, rs16845607 and rs3850641, were genotyped using the method of ligase detection reaction. An association between GG genotype of rs3850641 in TNFSF4 gene and AITDs was found (p = 0.046). Additionally, the clinical sub-phenotype analysis revealed a significant association between GG genotype in rs7514229 and AITDs patients who were ≤18 years of age. Furthermore, rs3850641 variant allele G was in strong association with hypothyroidism in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) (p = 0.018). The polymorphisms of the TNFSF4 gene may contribute to the susceptibility to AITDs pathogenesis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Melatonin Alleviates Liver Apoptosis in Bile Duct Ligation Young Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081365
Received: 6 June 2016 / Revised: 1 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2344 | PDF Full-text (6107 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bile duct ligation (BDL)-treated rats display cholestasis and liver damages. The potential protective activity of melatonin in young BDL rats in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis has not yet been evaluated. Three groups of young male Sprague-Dawley rats [...] Read more.
Bile duct ligation (BDL)-treated rats display cholestasis and liver damages. The potential protective activity of melatonin in young BDL rats in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis has not yet been evaluated. Three groups of young male Sprague-Dawley rats were used: one group received laparotomy (Sham), a second group received BDL for two weeks (BDL), and a third group received BDL and intraperitoneal melatonin (100 mg/day) for two weeks (BDL + M). BDL group rats showed liver apoptosis, increased pro-inflamamtory mediators, caspases alterations, anti-apoptotic factors changes, and dysfunction of ER homeostasis. Melatonin effectively reversed apoptosis, mainly through intrinsic pathway and reversed ER stress. In addition, in vitro study showed melatonin exerted its effect mainly through the melatonin 2 receptor (MT2) in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, BDL in young rats caused liver apoptosis. Melatonin rescued the apoptotic changes via the intrinsic pathway, and possibly through the MT2 receptor. Melatonin also reversed ER stress induced by BDL. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Protein Candidates from the Thermophilic Geobacillus sp. Strain ZGt-1: Production, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081363
Received: 17 June 2016 / Revised: 1 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2340 | PDF Full-text (1802 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A thermophilic bacterial strain, Geobacillus sp. ZGt-1, isolated from Zara hot spring in Jordan, was capable of inhibiting the growth of the thermophilic G. stearothermophilus and the mesophilic Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhimurium on a solid cultivation medium. Antibacterial activity was not observed [...] Read more.
A thermophilic bacterial strain, Geobacillus sp. ZGt-1, isolated from Zara hot spring in Jordan, was capable of inhibiting the growth of the thermophilic G. stearothermophilus and the mesophilic Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhimurium on a solid cultivation medium. Antibacterial activity was not observed when ZGt-1 was cultivated in a liquid medium; however, immobilization of the cells in agar beads that were subjected to sequential batch cultivation in the liquid medium at 60 °C showed increasing antibacterial activity up to 14 cycles. The antibacterial activity was lost on protease treatment of the culture supernatant. Concentration of the protein fraction by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separation and analysis of the gel for antibacterial activity against G. stearothermophilus showed a distinct inhibition zone in 15–20 kDa range, suggesting that the active molecule(s) are resistant to denaturation by SDS. Mass spectrometric analysis of the protein bands around the active region resulted in identification of 22 proteins with molecular weight in the range of interest, three of which were new and are here proposed as potential antimicrobial protein candidates by in silico analysis of their amino acid sequences. Mass spectrometric analysis also indicated the presence of partial sequences of antimicrobial enzymes, amidase and dd-carboxypeptidase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery and Antimicrobial Agents)
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Open AccessArticle
Inflammatory Cutaneous Diseases in Renal Transplant Recipients
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1362; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081362
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 9 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
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Abstract
Kidney transplant recipients frequently suffer from skin infections and malignancies, possibly due to the effects of long-term immunosuppressive therapy. While the relationships between immunosuppression and these pathological conditions have been widely investigated, little is known about the relative incidence and characteristics of inflammatory [...] Read more.
Kidney transplant recipients frequently suffer from skin infections and malignancies, possibly due to the effects of long-term immunosuppressive therapy. While the relationships between immunosuppression and these pathological conditions have been widely investigated, little is known about the relative incidence and characteristics of inflammatory skin diseases in this type of patient. In this study, we analyze the incidence of a number of inflammatory cutaneous diseases in a cohort of patients who underwent kidney transplantation. Although our study shows a relatively low incidence of these pathologies in transplanted patients—in agreement with the general action of immunosuppressant therapies in reducing inflammation—we scored a different efficacy of the various immunosuppressive regimens on inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. This information can be key for designing immunosuppressive regimens and devising accurate follow-up protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammatory Skin Conditions)
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Open AccessArticle
Involvement of Three Esterase Genes from Panonychus citri (McGregor) in Fenpropathrin Resistance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081361
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 6 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1513 | PDF Full-text (1325 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is a major citrus pest with a worldwide distribution and an extensive record of pesticide resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanism associated with fenpropathrin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, [...] Read more.
The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is a major citrus pest with a worldwide distribution and an extensive record of pesticide resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanism associated with fenpropathrin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, synergist triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dramatically increased the toxicity of fenpropathrin, suggesting involvement of carboxylesterases (CarEs) in the metabolic detoxification of this insecticide. The subsequent spatiotemporal expression pattern analysis of PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 showed that three CarEs genes were all over-expressed after insecticide exposure and higher transcripts levels were observed in different field resistant strains of P. citri. Heterologous expression combined with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra-zolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells revealed that PcE1-, PcE7- or PcE9-expressing cells showed significantly higher cytoprotective capability than parental Sf9 cells against fenpropathrin, demonstrating that PcEs probably detoxify fenpropathrin. Moreover, gene silencing through the method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding followed by insecticide bioassay increased the mortalities of fenpropathrin-treated mites by 31% (PcE1), 27% (PcE7) and 22% (PcE9), respectively, after individual PcE gene dsRNA treatment. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 are functional genes mediated in fenpropathrin resistance in P. citri and enrich molecular understanding of CarEs during the resistance development of the mite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Isolation and Characterization of a Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 16 β-Agarase from a Mangrove Soil Metagenomic Library
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1360; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081360
Received: 17 June 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1472 | PDF Full-text (5563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A mangrove soil metagenomic library was constructed and a β-agarase gene designated as AgaML was isolated by functional screening. The gene encoded for a 659-amino-acids polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 71.6 kDa. The deduced polypeptide sequences of AgaML showed the highest [...] Read more.
A mangrove soil metagenomic library was constructed and a β-agarase gene designated as AgaML was isolated by functional screening. The gene encoded for a 659-amino-acids polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 71.6 kDa. The deduced polypeptide sequences of AgaML showed the highest identity of 73% with the glycoside hydrolase family 16 β-agarase from Microbulbifer agarilyticus in the GenBank database. AgaML was cloned and highly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The purified recombinant protein, AgaML, showed optimal activity at 50 °C and pH 7.0. The kinetic parameters of Km and Vmax values toward agarose were 4.6 mg·mL−1 and 967.5 μM·min−1·mg−1, respectively. AgaML hydrolyzed the β-1,4-glycosidic linkages of agar to generate neoagarotetraose (NA4) and neoagarohexaose (NA6) as the main products. These characteristics suggest that AgaML has potential application in cosmetic, pharmaceuticals and food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 Attenuation of Protein Kinase C-Induced Inflammation in Human Ovarian Granulosa Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081359
Received: 27 June 2016 / Revised: 15 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2026 | PDF Full-text (8681 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are two important inflammatory mediators in ovulation. Ghrelin may modulate inflammatory signaling via growth hormone secretagogue receptors. We investigated the role of ghrelin in KGN human ovarian granulosa cells using protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate [...] Read more.
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are two important inflammatory mediators in ovulation. Ghrelin may modulate inflammatory signaling via growth hormone secretagogue receptors. We investigated the role of ghrelin in KGN human ovarian granulosa cells using protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate (PDD) and synthetic ghrelin analog growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2). GHRP-2 attenuated PDD-induced expression of protein and mRNA, the promoter activity of COX-2 and IL-8 genes, and the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-8. GHRP-2 promoted the degradation of PDD-induced COX-2 and IL-8 proteins with the involvement of proteasomal and lysosomal pathways. PDD-mediated COX-2 production acts via the p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathways; PDD-mediated IL-8 production acts via the p38, JNK and ERK pathways. GHRP-2 reduced the PDD-induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and activator protein 1 (AP-1) reporter activation and PDD-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and reporter activation. The inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A) reduced the inhibitory effect of GHRP-2 on PDD-induced COX-2 and IL-8 expression. Our findings demonstrate an anti-inflammatory role for ghrelin (GHRP-2) in PKC-mediated inflammation of granulosa cells, at least in part, due to its inhibitory effect on PKC-induced activation of p38, JNK and NF-κB, possibly by targeting to MKP-1 and PP2A. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gynecologic Oncology: From Molecular Mechanisms to Targeted Therapies)
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Open AccessBook Review
Quantum Nanochemistry: 5-Volume Set. By Mihai V. Putz
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1358; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081358
Received: 19 July 2016 / Revised: 9 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
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Abstract
This book, with its 2889 pages in five volumes, represents an impressive piece of work written by a single author.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessReview
Tamoxifen Resistance: Emerging Molecular Targets
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081357
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3739 | PDF Full-text (2850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
17β-Estradiol (E2) plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of breast cancer. As a result, blockade of the E2 signal through either tamoxifen (TAM) or aromatase inhibitors is an important therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast [...] Read more.
17β-Estradiol (E2) plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of breast cancer. As a result, blockade of the E2 signal through either tamoxifen (TAM) or aromatase inhibitors is an important therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer. However, resistance to TAM is the major obstacle in endocrine therapy. This resistance occurs either de novo or is acquired after an initial beneficial response. The underlying mechanisms for TAM resistance are probably multifactorial and remain largely unknown. Considering that breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease and patients respond differently to treatment, the molecular analysis of TAM’s biological activity could provide the necessary framework to understand the complex effects of this drug in target cells. Moreover, this could explain, at least in part, the development of resistance and indicate an optimal therapeutic option. This review highlights the implications of TAM in breast cancer as well as the role of receptors/signal pathways recently suggested to be involved in the development of TAM resistance. G protein—coupled estrogen receptor, Androgen Receptor and Hedgehog signaling pathways are emerging as novel therapeutic targets and prognostic indicators for breast cancer, based on their ability to mediate estrogenic signaling in ERα-positive or -negative breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Advances in Molecular Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Genomics of the Extreme Acidophile Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Reveals Intraspecific Divergence and Niche Adaptation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1355; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081355
Received: 3 July 2016 / Revised: 5 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2164 | PDF Full-text (1547 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans known for its ubiquity in diverse acidic and sulfur-bearing environments worldwide was used as the research subject in this study. To explore the genomic fluidity and intraspecific diversity of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (A. thiooxidans) species, comparative genomics based on nine [...] Read more.
Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans known for its ubiquity in diverse acidic and sulfur-bearing environments worldwide was used as the research subject in this study. To explore the genomic fluidity and intraspecific diversity of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (A. thiooxidans) species, comparative genomics based on nine draft genomes was performed. Phylogenomic scrutiny provided first insights into the multiple groupings of these strains, suggesting that genetic diversity might be potentially correlated with their geographic distribution as well as geochemical conditions. While these strains shared a large number of common genes, they displayed differences in gene content. Functional assignment indicated that the core genome was essential for microbial basic activities such as energy acquisition and uptake of nutrients, whereas the accessory genome was thought to be involved in niche adaptation. Comprehensive analysis of their predicted central metabolism revealed that few differences were observed among these strains. Further analyses showed evidences of relevance between environmental conditions and genomic diversification. Furthermore, a diverse pool of mobile genetic elements including insertion sequences and genomic islands in all A. thiooxidans strains probably demonstrated the frequent genetic flow (such as lateral gene transfer) in the extremely acidic environments. From another perspective, these elements might endow A. thiooxidans species with capacities to withstand the chemical constraints of their natural habitats. Taken together, our findings bring some valuable data to better understand the genomic diversity and econiche adaptation within A. thiooxidans strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Trichostatin A Enhances the Apoptotic Potential of Palladium Nanoparticles in Human Cervical Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1354; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081354
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 1769 | PDF Full-text (3599 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cervical cancer ranks seventh overall among all types of cancer in women. Although several treatments, including radiation, surgery and chemotherapy, are available to eradicate or reduce the size of cancer, many cancers eventually relapse. Thus, it is essential to identify possible alternative therapeutic [...] Read more.
Cervical cancer ranks seventh overall among all types of cancer in women. Although several treatments, including radiation, surgery and chemotherapy, are available to eradicate or reduce the size of cancer, many cancers eventually relapse. Thus, it is essential to identify possible alternative therapeutic approaches for cancer. We sought to identify alternative and effective therapeutic approaches, by first synthesizing palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs), using a novel biomolecule called saponin. The synthesized PdNPs were characterized by several analytical techniques. They were significantly spherical in shape, with an average size of 5 nm. Recently, PdNPs gained much interest in various therapies of cancer cells. Similarly, histone deacetylase inhibitors are known to play a vital role in anti-proliferative activity, gene expression, cell cycle arrest, differentiation and apoptosis in various cancer cells. Therefore, we selected trichostatin A (TSA) and PdNPs and studied their combined effect on apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Cells treated with either TSA or PdNPs showed a dose-dependent effect on cell viability. The combinatorial effect, tested with 50 nM TSA and 50 nMPdNPs, had a more dramatic inhibitory effect on cell viability, than either TSA or PdNPs alone. The combination of TSA and PdNPs had a more pronounced effect on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase-3/9 activity and expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. Our data show a strong synergistic interaction between TSA and PdNPs in cervical cancer cells. The combinatorial treatment increased the therapeutic potential and demonstrated relevant targeted therapy for cervical cancer. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence for the combinatory effect and cytotoxicity mechanism of TSA and PdNPs in cervical cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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Open AccessReview
Plant Polyphenols as Chemopreventive Agents for Lung Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081352
Received: 3 July 2016 / Revised: 2 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2833 | PDF Full-text (1400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lung cancer may be prevented by a diet rich in fruits and vegetables as they are enriched with dietary antioxidant polyphenols, such as flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, lignans, stilbenes, and phenolic acids. Dietary polyphenols exert a wide range of beneficial biological functions beyond their antioxidative [...] Read more.
Lung cancer may be prevented by a diet rich in fruits and vegetables as they are enriched with dietary antioxidant polyphenols, such as flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, lignans, stilbenes, and phenolic acids. Dietary polyphenols exert a wide range of beneficial biological functions beyond their antioxidative properties and are involved in regulation of cell survival pathways leading to anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic functions. There are sufficient evidence from in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies to suggest that the dietary intervention of polyphenols in cancer prevention, including the chemopreventive ability of dietary polyphenols, act against lung carcinogens. Cohort and epidemiological studies in selected risk populations have evaluated clinical effects of polyphenols. Polyphenols have demonstrated three major actions: antioxidative activity, regulation of phase I and II enzymes, and regulation of cell survival pathways against lung carcinogenesis. They have also shown an inverse association of lung cancer occurrences among high risk populations who consumed considerable amounts of fruits and vegetables in their daily diet. In in vitro cell culture experimental models, polyphenols bind with electrophilic metabolites from carcinogens, inactivate cellular oxygen radicals, prevent membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidative damage, and adduct formation. Further, polyphenols enhance the detoxifying enzymes such as the phase II enzymes, glutathione transferases and glucuronosyl transferases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mechanism of Action of Food Components in Disease Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Cytotoxicity against K562 Cells of 3-O-Angeloyl-20-O-acetyl Ingenol, a Derivative of Ingenol Mebutate
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081348
Received: 1 June 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
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Abstract
Ingenol mebutate possesses significant cytotoxicity and is clinically used to treat actinic keratosis. However, ingenol mebutate undergoes acyl migration which affects its bioactivity. Compound 3-O-angeloyl-20-O-acetyl ingenol (AAI, also known as 20-O-acetyl-ingenol-3-angelate or PEP008) is a synthetic derivative [...] Read more.
Ingenol mebutate possesses significant cytotoxicity and is clinically used to treat actinic keratosis. However, ingenol mebutate undergoes acyl migration which affects its bioactivity. Compound 3-O-angeloyl-20-O-acetyl ingenol (AAI, also known as 20-O-acetyl-ingenol-3-angelate or PEP008) is a synthetic derivative of ingenol mebutate. In this work, we report the AAI synthesis details and demonstrate AAI has higher cytotoxicity than ingenol mebutate in a chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cell line. Our data indicate that the increased activity of AAI originates from the improved intracellular stability of AAI rather than the increased binding affinity between AAI and the target protein protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ). AAI inhibits cell proliferation, induces G2/M phase arrest, disrupts the mitochondrial membrane potential, and stimulates apoptosis, as well as necrosis in K562 cells. Similar to ingenol mebutate, AAI activates PKCδ and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), and inactivates protein kinase B (AKT). Furthermore, AAI also inhibits JAK/STAT3 pathway. Altogether, our studies show that ingenol derivative AAI is cytotoxic to K562 cells and modulates PKCδ/ERK, JAK/STAT3, and AKT signaling pathways. Our work suggests that AAI may be a new candidate of chemotherapeutic agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle
Dextran: Influence of Molecular Weight in Antioxidant Properties and Immunomodulatory Potential
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1340; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081340
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 9 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1749 | PDF Full-text (1147 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dextrans (α-d-glucans) extracted from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, with molecular weights (MW) of 10 (D10), 40 (D40) and 147 (D147) kDa, were evaluated as antioxidant, anticoagulant and immunomodulatory drugs for the first time. None presented anticoagulant activity. As for [...] Read more.
Dextrans (α-d-glucans) extracted from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, with molecular weights (MW) of 10 (D10), 40 (D40) and 147 (D147) kDa, were evaluated as antioxidant, anticoagulant and immunomodulatory drugs for the first time. None presented anticoagulant activity. As for the antioxidant and immunomodulatory tests, a specific test showed an increase in the dextran activity that was proportional to the increase in molecular weight. In a different assay, however, activity decreased or showed no correlation to the MW. As an example, the reducing power assay showed that D147 was twice as potent as other dextrans. On the other hand, all three samples showed similar activity (50%) when it came to scavenging the OH radical, whereas only the D10 sample showed sharp activity (50%) when it came to scavenging the superoxide ion. D40 was the single dextran that presented with immunomodulatory features since it stimulated the proliferation (~50%) of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and decreased the release of nitric oxide (~40%) by the cells, both in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In addition, D40 showed a greater scavenging activity (50%) for the hydrogen peroxide, which caused it to also be the more potent dextran when it came to inhibiting lipid peroxidation (70%). These points toward dextrans with a 40 kDa weight as being ideal for antioxidant and immunomodulatory use. However, future studies with the D40 and other similarly 40 kDa dextrans are underway to confirm this hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Mouse Maternal High-Fat Intake Dynamically Programmed mRNA m6A Modifications in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissues in Offspring
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081336
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 6 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2275 | PDF Full-text (2257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epigenetic mechanisms have an important role in the pre- and peri-conceptional programming by maternal nutrition. Yet, whether or not RNA m6A methylation—an old epigenetic marker receiving increased attention recently—is involved remains an unknown question. In this study, mouse high-fat feeding prior [...] Read more.
Epigenetic mechanisms have an important role in the pre- and peri-conceptional programming by maternal nutrition. Yet, whether or not RNA m6A methylation—an old epigenetic marker receiving increased attention recently—is involved remains an unknown question. In this study, mouse high-fat feeding prior to conception was shown to induce overweight and glucose intolerant dams, which then continued to be exposed to a high-fat diet during gestation and lactation. The dams on a standard diet throughout the whole experiment were used as a control. Results showed that maternal high-fat intake impaired postnatal growth in male offspring, indicated by decreased body weight and Lee’s index at 3, 8 and 15 weeks old, but the percentages of visceral fat and tibialis anterior relative to the whole body weights were significantly increased at eight weeks of age. The maternal high-fat exposure significantly increased mRNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) levels in visceral fat at three weeks old, combined with downregulated Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and upregulated Methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3) transcription, and these changes were reversed at eight weeks of age. In the tibialis anterior muscle, the maternal high-fat diet significantly enhanced m6A modifications at three weeks, and lowered m6A levels at 15 weeks of age. Accordingly, FTO transcription was significantly inhibited at three weeks and stimulated at 15 weeks of age, and METTL3 transcripts were significantly improved at three weeks. Interestingly, both FTO and METTL3 transcription was significantly elevated at eight weeks of age, and yet the m6A modifications remained unchanged. Our study showed that maternal high-fat intake could affect mRNA m6A modifications and its related genes in offspring in a tissue-specific and development-dependent way, and provided an interesting indication of the working of the m6A system during the transmission from maternal nutrition to subsequent generations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
1α,25(OH)2D3 Suppresses the Migration of Ovarian Cancer SKOV-3 Cells through the Inhibition of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081285
Received: 11 May 2016 / Revised: 12 July 2016 / Accepted: 29 July 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1947 | PDF Full-text (2196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy due to its high metastatic ability. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential during both follicular rupture and epithelium regeneration. However, it may also accelerate the progression of ovarian carcinomas. Experimental studies have found that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 [1α,25(OH) [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy due to its high metastatic ability. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential during both follicular rupture and epithelium regeneration. However, it may also accelerate the progression of ovarian carcinomas. Experimental studies have found that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3] can inhibit the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether 1α,25(OH)2D3 could inhibit the migration of ovarian cancer cells via regulating EMT. We established a model of transient transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1)-induced EMT in human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line SKOV-3 cells. Results showed that, compared with control, 1α,25(OH)2D3 not only inhibited the migration and the invasion of SKOV-3 cells, but also promoted the acquisition of an epithelial phenotype of SKOV-3 cells treated with TGF-β1. We discovered that 1α,25(OH)2D3 increased the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreased the level of mesenchymal marker, Vimentin, which was associated with the elevated expression of VDR. Moreover, 1α,25(OH)2D3 reduced the expression level of transcription factors of EMT, such as slug, snail, and β-catenin. These results indicate that 1α,25(OH)2D3 suppresses the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells by inhibiting EMT, implying that 1α,25(OH)2D3 might be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Full article
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