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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1361;

Involvement of Three Esterase Genes from Panonychus citri (McGregor) in Fenpropathrin Resistance

Key Laboratory of Entomology and Pest Control Engineering, College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: T. G. Emyr Davies
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 6 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
PDF [1325 KB, uploaded 19 August 2016]


The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is a major citrus pest with a worldwide distribution and an extensive record of pesticide resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanism associated with fenpropathrin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, synergist triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dramatically increased the toxicity of fenpropathrin, suggesting involvement of carboxylesterases (CarEs) in the metabolic detoxification of this insecticide. The subsequent spatiotemporal expression pattern analysis of PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 showed that three CarEs genes were all over-expressed after insecticide exposure and higher transcripts levels were observed in different field resistant strains of P. citri. Heterologous expression combined with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra-zolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells revealed that PcE1-, PcE7- or PcE9-expressing cells showed significantly higher cytoprotective capability than parental Sf9 cells against fenpropathrin, demonstrating that PcEs probably detoxify fenpropathrin. Moreover, gene silencing through the method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding followed by insecticide bioassay increased the mortalities of fenpropathrin-treated mites by 31% (PcE1), 27% (PcE7) and 22% (PcE9), respectively, after individual PcE gene dsRNA treatment. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 are functional genes mediated in fenpropathrin resistance in P. citri and enrich molecular understanding of CarEs during the resistance development of the mite. View Full-Text
Keywords: Panonychus citri; carboxylesterase; fenpropathrin resistance; heterologous expression; RNA interference Panonychus citri; carboxylesterase; fenpropathrin resistance; heterologous expression; RNA interference

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Shen, X.-M.; Liao, C.-Y.; Lu, X.-P.; Wang, Z.; Wang, J.-J.; Dou, W. Involvement of Three Esterase Genes from Panonychus citri (McGregor) in Fenpropathrin Resistance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1361.

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