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Special Issue "Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioinorganic Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (27 May 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Vladimir Sivakov
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena, Germany
Interests: semiconducting nanostructures; functional oxides; cancer theranostics; nanomedicine; drug delivery; (bio)photonic

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomedicine and biophotonics related businesses are currently growing at a breathtaking pace, thereby comprising one of the fastest growing sectors of innovative economy. This sector is truly interdisciplinary, including, very prominently, the development of novel nanomaterials, light sources, or novel device/equipment concepts to carry out photon conversion or interaction. The great importance of disease diagnosis at a very early stage and of the individual treatment of patients requires a carefully targeted therapy and the ability to induce cell death selectively in diseased cells. Despite the tremendous progress achieved by using quantum dots or organic molecules for bio-imaging and drug delivery, some problems still remain to be solved: (i) reduction of skin/tissue sensitivity in the post treatment period, (ii) increased selectivity for tumor accumulation, and (iii) enhancement of treatment efficiency. Other potential problems include (i) cyto- and genotoxicity, (ii) slow clearance, (iii) accumulation in the organism, and (iv) low chemical stability. Significant expectations are now related to novel classes of inorganic materials, such as silicon-based, metal or metal oxide, upconvertor nanoparticles, etc., which could exhibit more stable and promising characteristics for both medical diagnostics and therapy. For this reason, new labeling and drug delivery agents for medical application is an important field of research with strongly-growing potential.

Dr. Vladimir Sivakov
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Drug delivery
  • Nanoparticles
  • Theranostic
  • Nanomedicine
  • Cancer
  • Tumor
  • Silicon
  • Upconvertor
  • Gold
  • Carbon-based nanoparticles
  • Metal oxide nanoparticles
  • Photoacoustic
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • Confocal Microscopy
  • Toxicity
  • Cell proliferation

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Linear and Non-Linear Optical Imaging of Cancer Cells with Silicon Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091536 - 12 Sep 2016
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2844
Abstract
New approaches for visualisation of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) in cancer cells are realised by means of the linear and nonlinear optics in vitro. Aqueous colloidal solutions of SiNPs with sizes of about 10–40 nm obtained by ultrasound grinding of silicon nanowires were introduced [...] Read more.
New approaches for visualisation of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) in cancer cells are realised by means of the linear and nonlinear optics in vitro. Aqueous colloidal solutions of SiNPs with sizes of about 10–40 nm obtained by ultrasound grinding of silicon nanowires were introduced into breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cell line). Further, the time-varying nanoparticles enclosed in cell structures were visualised by high-resolution structured illumination microscopy (HR-SIM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the nonlinear optical methods of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) with infrared laser excitation were applied to study the localisation of SiNPs in cells. Advantages of the nonlinear methods, such as rapid imaging, which prevents cells from overheating and larger penetration depth compared to the single-photon excited HR-SIM, are discussed. The obtained results reveal new perspectives of the multimodal visualisation and precise detection of the uptake of biodegradable non-toxic SiNPs by cancer cells and they are discussed in view of future applications for the optical diagnostics of cancer tumours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Trichostatin A Enhances the Apoptotic Potential of Palladium Nanoparticles in Human Cervical Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1354; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081354 - 19 Aug 2016
Cited by 94 | Viewed by 2561
Abstract
Cervical cancer ranks seventh overall among all types of cancer in women. Although several treatments, including radiation, surgery and chemotherapy, are available to eradicate or reduce the size of cancer, many cancers eventually relapse. Thus, it is essential to identify possible alternative therapeutic [...] Read more.
Cervical cancer ranks seventh overall among all types of cancer in women. Although several treatments, including radiation, surgery and chemotherapy, are available to eradicate or reduce the size of cancer, many cancers eventually relapse. Thus, it is essential to identify possible alternative therapeutic approaches for cancer. We sought to identify alternative and effective therapeutic approaches, by first synthesizing palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs), using a novel biomolecule called saponin. The synthesized PdNPs were characterized by several analytical techniques. They were significantly spherical in shape, with an average size of 5 nm. Recently, PdNPs gained much interest in various therapies of cancer cells. Similarly, histone deacetylase inhibitors are known to play a vital role in anti-proliferative activity, gene expression, cell cycle arrest, differentiation and apoptosis in various cancer cells. Therefore, we selected trichostatin A (TSA) and PdNPs and studied their combined effect on apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Cells treated with either TSA or PdNPs showed a dose-dependent effect on cell viability. The combinatorial effect, tested with 50 nM TSA and 50 nMPdNPs, had a more dramatic inhibitory effect on cell viability, than either TSA or PdNPs alone. The combination of TSA and PdNPs had a more pronounced effect on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase-3/9 activity and expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. Our data show a strong synergistic interaction between TSA and PdNPs in cervical cancer cells. The combinatorial treatment increased the therapeutic potential and demonstrated relevant targeted therapy for cervical cancer. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence for the combinatory effect and cytotoxicity mechanism of TSA and PdNPs in cervical cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Accumulation and Toxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Cells and Experimental Animals
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081193 - 19 Aug 2016
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 3430
Abstract
The uptake and distribution of negatively charged superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (SPIONs) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts NIH3T3, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal influenced by SPIONs injected into experimental animals, were visualized and investigated. Cellular uptake and distribution [...] Read more.
The uptake and distribution of negatively charged superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (SPIONs) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts NIH3T3, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal influenced by SPIONs injected into experimental animals, were visualized and investigated. Cellular uptake and distribution of the SPIONs in NIH3T3 after staining with Prussian Blue were investigated by a bright-field microscope equipped with digital color camera. SPIONs were localized in vesicles, mostly placed near the nucleus. Toxicity of SPION nanoparticles tested with cell viability assay (XTT) was estimated. The viability of NIH3T3 cells remains approximately 95% within 3–24 h of incubation, and only a slight decrease of viability was observed after 48 h of incubation. MRI studies on Wistar rats using a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner were showing that SPIONs give a negative contrast in the MRI. The dynamic MRI measurements of the SPION clearance from the injection site shows that SPIONs slowly disappear from injection sites and only a low concentration of nanoparticles was completely eliminated within three weeks. No functionalized SPIONs accumulate in cells by endocytic mechanism, none accumulate in the nucleus, and none are toxic at a desirable concentration. Therefore, they could be used as a dual imaging agent: as contrast agents for MRI and for traditional optical biopsy by using Prussian Blue staining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Pulmonary Toxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Following Inhalation and Intratracheal Instillation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081241 - 01 Aug 2016
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 2843
Abstract
We conducted inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in order to examine their pulmonary toxicity. F344 rats were received intratracheal instillation at 0.2 or 1 mg of ZnO nanoparticles with a primary diameter of 35 nm that were well-dispersed [...] Read more.
We conducted inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in order to examine their pulmonary toxicity. F344 rats were received intratracheal instillation at 0.2 or 1 mg of ZnO nanoparticles with a primary diameter of 35 nm that were well-dispersed in distilled water. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed at three days, one week, one month, three months, and six months after the instillation. As the inhalation study, rats were exposed to a concentration of inhaled ZnO nanoparticles (2 and 10 mg/m3) for four weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The same endpoints as in the intratracheal instillation study were analyzed at three days, one month, and three months after the end of the exposure. In the intratracheal instillation study, both the 0.2 and the 1.0 mg ZnO groups had a transient increase in the total cell and neutrophil count in the BALF and in the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2, chemokine for neutrophil, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress marker, in the BALF. In the inhalation study, transient increases in total cell and neutrophil count, CINC-1,-2 and HO-1 in the BALF were observed in the high concentration groups. Neither of the studies of ZnO nanoparticles showed persistent inflammation in the rat lung, suggesting that well-dispersed ZnO nanoparticles have low toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Liposomes Loaded with Hydrophobic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Suitable T2 Contrast Agents for MRI
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081209 - 27 Jul 2016
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2654
Abstract
There has been a recent surge of interest in the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to their tunable properties and their low toxicity compared with other CAs such as gadolinium. SPIONs [...] Read more.
There has been a recent surge of interest in the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to their tunable properties and their low toxicity compared with other CAs such as gadolinium. SPIONs exert a strong influence on spin-spin T2 relaxation times by decreasing the MR signal in the regions to which they are delivered, consequently yielding darker images or negative contrast. Given the potential of these nanoparticles to enhance detection of alterations in soft tissues, we studied the MRI response of hydrophobic or hydrophilic SPIONs loaded into liposomes (magnetoliposomes) of different lipid composition obtained by sonication. These hybrid nanostructures were characterized by measuring several parameters such as size and polydispersity, and number of SPIONs encapsulated or embedded into the lipid systems. We then studied the influence of acyl chain length as well as its unsaturation, charge, and presence of cholesterol in the lipid bilayer at high field strength (7 T) to mimic the conditions used in preclinical assays. Our results showed a high variability depending on the nature of the magnetic particles. Focusing on the hydrophobic SPIONs, the cholesterol-containing samples showed a slight reduction in r2, while unsaturation of the lipid acyl chain and inclusion of a negatively charged lipid into the bilayer appeared to yield a marked increase in negative contrast, thus rendering these magnetoliposomes suitable candidates as CAs, especially as a liver CA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanodiamonds for Medical Applications: Interaction with Blood in Vitro and in Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17071111 - 12 Jul 2016
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 2921
Abstract
Nanodiamonds (ND) have emerged to be a widely-discussed nanomaterial for their applications in biological studies and for medical diagnostics and treatment. The potentials have been successfully demonstrated in cellular and tissue models in vitro. For medical applications, further in vivo studies on various [...] Read more.
Nanodiamonds (ND) have emerged to be a widely-discussed nanomaterial for their applications in biological studies and for medical diagnostics and treatment. The potentials have been successfully demonstrated in cellular and tissue models in vitro. For medical applications, further in vivo studies on various applications become important. One of the most challenging possibilities of ND biomedical application is controllable drug delivery and tracing. That usually assumes ND interaction with the blood system. In this work, we study ND interaction with rat blood and analyze how the ND surface modification and coating can optimize the ND interaction with the blood. It was found that adsorption of a low concentration of ND does not affect the oxygenation state of red blood cells (RBC). The obtained in vivo results are compared to the results of in vitro studies of nanodiamond interaction with rat and human blood and blood components, such as red blood cells and blood plasma. An in vivo animal model shows ND injected in blood attach to the RBC membrane and circulate with blood for more than 30 min; and ND do not stimulate an immune response by measurement of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α with ND injected into mice via the caudal vein. The results further confirm nanodiamonds’ safety in organisms, as well as the possibility of their application without complicating the blood’s physiological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Bacteria-Templated NiO Nanoparticles/Microstructure for an Enzymeless Glucose Sensor
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17071104 - 11 Jul 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3249
Abstract
The bacterial-induced hollow cylinder NiO (HCNiO) nanomaterial was utilized for the enzymeless (without GOx) detection of glucose in basic conditions. The determination of glucose in 0.05 M NaOH solution with high sensitivity was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry (i–t). The fundamental [...] Read more.
The bacterial-induced hollow cylinder NiO (HCNiO) nanomaterial was utilized for the enzymeless (without GOx) detection of glucose in basic conditions. The determination of glucose in 0.05 M NaOH solution with high sensitivity was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry (i–t). The fundamental electrochemical parameters were analyzed and the obtained values of diffusion coefficient (D), heterogeneous rate constant (ks), electroactive surface coverage (Г), and transfer coefficient (alpha-α) are 1.75 × 10−6 cm2/s, 57.65 M−1·s−1, 1.45 × 10−10 mol/cm2, and 0.52 respectively. The peak current of the i–t method shows two dynamic linear ranges of calibration curves 0.2 to 3.5 µM and 0.5 to 250 µM for the glucose electro-oxidation. The Ni2+/Ni3+ couple with the HCNiO electrode and the electrocatalytic properties were found to be sensitive to the glucose oxidation. The green chemistry of NiO preparation from bacteria and the high catalytic ability of the oxyhydroxide (NiOOH) is the good choice for the development of a glucose sensor. The best obtained sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD) for this sensor were 3978.9 µA mM−1·cm−2 and 0.9 µM, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Dual-Labeled Near-Infrared/99mTc Imaging Probes Using PAMAM-Coated Silica Nanoparticles for the Imaging of HER2-Expressing Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17071086 - 07 Jul 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3302
Abstract
We sought to develop dual-modality imaging probes using functionalized silica nanoparticles to target human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer cells and achieve efficient target imaging of HER2-expressing tumors. Polyamidoamine-based functionalized silica nanoparticles (PCSNs) for multimodal imaging were synthesized with near-infrared [...] Read more.
We sought to develop dual-modality imaging probes using functionalized silica nanoparticles to target human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer cells and achieve efficient target imaging of HER2-expressing tumors. Polyamidoamine-based functionalized silica nanoparticles (PCSNs) for multimodal imaging were synthesized with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence (indocyanine green (ICG)) and technetium-99m (99mTc) radioactivity. Anti-HER2 antibodies were bound to the labeled PCSNs. These dual-imaging probes were tested to image HER2-overexpressing breast carcinoma cells. In vivo imaging was also examined in breast tumor xenograft models in mice. SK-BR3 (HER2 positive) cells were imaged with stronger NIR fluorescent signals than that in MDA-MB231 (HER2 negative) cells. The increased radioactivity of the SK-BR3 cells was also confirmed by phosphor imaging. NIR images showed strong fluorescent signals in the SK-BR3 tumor model compared to muscle tissues and the MDA-MB231 tumor model. Automatic well counting results showed increased radioactivity in the SK-BR3 xenograft tumors. We developed functionalized silica nanoparticles loaded with 99mTc and ICG for the targeting and imaging of HER2-expressing cells. The dual-imaging probes efficiently imaged HER2-overexpressing cells. Although further studies are needed to produce efficient isotope labeling, the results suggest that the multifunctional silica nanoparticles are a promising vehicle for imaging specific components of the cell membrane in a dual-modality manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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Open AccessCommunication
In Situ Electron Microscopy of Lactomicroselenium Particles in Probiotic Bacteria
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17071047 - 30 Jun 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2771
Abstract
Electron microscopy was used to test whether or not (a) in statu nascendi synthesized, and in situ measured, nanoparticle size does not differ significantly from the size of nanoparticles after their purification; and (b) the generation of selenium is detrimental to the bacterial [...] Read more.
Electron microscopy was used to test whether or not (a) in statu nascendi synthesized, and in situ measured, nanoparticle size does not differ significantly from the size of nanoparticles after their purification; and (b) the generation of selenium is detrimental to the bacterial strains that produce them. Elemental nano-sized selenium produced by probiotic latic acid bacteria was used as a lactomicroselenium (lactomicroSel) inhibitor of cell growth in the presence of lactomicroSel, and was followed by time-lapse microscopy. The size of lactomicroSel produced by probiotic bacteria was measured in situ and after isolation and purification. For these measurements the TESLA BS 540 transmission electron microscope was converted from analog (aTEM) to digital processing (dTEM), and further to remote-access internet electron microscopy (iTEM). Lactobacillus acidophilus produced fewer, but larger, lactomicroSel nanoparticles (200–350 nm) than Lactobacillus casei (L. casei), which generated many, smaller lactomicroSel particles (85–200 nm) and grains as a cloudy, less electrodense material. Streptococcus thermophilus cells generated selenoparticles (60–280 nm) in a suicidic manner. The size determined in situ in lactic acid bacteria was significantly lower than those measured by scanning electron microscopy after the isolation of lactomicroSel particles obtained from lactobacilli (100–500 nm), but higher relative to those isolated from Streptococcus thermopilus (50–100 nm). These differences indicate that smaller lactomicroSel particles could be more toxic to the producing bacteria themselves and discrepancies in size could have implications with respect to the applications of selenium nanoparticles as prebiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Poly(acrylic acid)-regulated Synthesis of Rod-Like Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles for Inducing the Osteogenic Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17050639 - 06 May 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3062
Abstract
Calcium carbonate, especially with nanostructure, has been considered as a good candidate material for bone regeneration due to its excellent biodegradability and osteoconductivity. In this study, rod-like calcium carbonate nanoparticles (Rod-CC NPs) with desired water dispersibility were achieved with the regulation of poly [...] Read more.
Calcium carbonate, especially with nanostructure, has been considered as a good candidate material for bone regeneration due to its excellent biodegradability and osteoconductivity. In this study, rod-like calcium carbonate nanoparticles (Rod-CC NPs) with desired water dispersibility were achieved with the regulation of poly (acrylic acid). Characterization results revealed that the Rod-CC NPs had an average length of 240 nm, a width of 90 nm with an average aspect ratio of 2.60 and a negative ζ-potential of −22.25 ± 0.35 mV. The degradation study illustrated the nanoparticles degraded 23% at pH 7.4 and 45% at pH 5.6 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution within three months. When cultured with MC3T3-E1 cells, the Rod-CC NPs exhibited a positive effect on the proliferation of osteoblast cells. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays together with the osteocalcin (OCN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) expression observations demonstrated the nanoparticles could induce the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Our study developed well-dispersed rod-like calcium carbonate nanoparticles which have great potential to be used in bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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Open AccessCommunication
Fluorescence-Lifetime Imaging Microscopy for Visualization of Quantum Dots’ Endocytic Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040473 - 30 Mar 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2844
Abstract
Accumulation of carboxylated polyethylene glycol (PEG) CdSe/ZnSquantum dots (QDs) has been monitored in living fibroblasts using confocal microscopy for fluorescence intensity and fluorescence-lifetime imaging (FLIM). The wide range of mean photoluminescence (PL) lifetime values was observed for the intracellular QDs in different intracellular [...] Read more.
Accumulation of carboxylated polyethylene glycol (PEG) CdSe/ZnSquantum dots (QDs) has been monitored in living fibroblasts using confocal microscopy for fluorescence intensity and fluorescence-lifetime imaging (FLIM). The wide range of mean photoluminescence (PL) lifetime values was observed for the intracellular QDs in different intracellular microenvironment, which revealed structural heterogeneity of endosomes and enabled the distinguishing among endosomes of different maturity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Biodegradation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Macrophages through Respiratory Burst Modulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17030409 - 22 Mar 2016
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3178
Abstract
The biodegradation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may be one of major determinants of the toxic outcomes in exposed individuals. In this study, we employed a macrophage/monocyte model, Raw264.7, to investigate the feasibility of regulating the biodegradation of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes [...] Read more.
The biodegradation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may be one of major determinants of the toxic outcomes in exposed individuals. In this study, we employed a macrophage/monocyte model, Raw264.7, to investigate the feasibility of regulating the biodegradation of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) (pristine, ox-, and OH-SWCNTs) by respiratory burst modulation. An artificial fluid mimicking the enzymatic reactions of respiratory burst was constituted to reveal the role of respiratory burst played in SWCNT biodegradation. The biodegradation of SWCNTs were characterized by Raman, ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Our results showed significantly accelerated biodegradation of ox-SWCNTs and OH-SWCNTs in macrophages activated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), which could be prevented by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), whereas p-SWCNTs were resistant to biodegradation. Similar tendencies were observed by using the in vitro enzymatic system, and the degradation rates of these SWCNTs are in the order of OH-SWCNTs > ox-SWCNTs >> p-SWCNTs, suggesting a pivotal role of respiratory burst in accelerating the biodegradation of SWCNTs and that defect sites on SWCNTs might be a prerequisite for the biodegradation to occur. Our findings might provide invaluable clues on the development of intervention measurements for relieving the side effects of SWCNTs and would help to design safer SWCNT products with higher biodegradability and less toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Silver Nanoparticle-Mediated Cellular Responses in Various Cell Lines: An in Vitro Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101603 - 22 Sep 2016
Cited by 112 | Viewed by 4315
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted increased interest and are currently used in various industries including medicine, cosmetics, textiles, electronics, and pharmaceuticals, owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, particularly as antimicrobial and anticancer agents. Recently, several studies have reported both beneficial and [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted increased interest and are currently used in various industries including medicine, cosmetics, textiles, electronics, and pharmaceuticals, owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, particularly as antimicrobial and anticancer agents. Recently, several studies have reported both beneficial and toxic effects of AgNPs on various prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. To develop nanoparticles for mediated therapy, several laboratories have used a variety of cell lines under in vitro conditions to evaluate the properties, mode of action, differential responses, and mechanisms of action of AgNPs. In vitro models are simple, cost-effective, rapid, and can be used to easily assess efficacy and performance. The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and biocompatibility of AgNPs depend on many factors such as size, shape, surface charge, surface coating, solubility, concentration, surface functionalization, distribution of particles, mode of entry, mode of action, growth media, exposure time, and cell type. Cellular responses to AgNPs are different in each cell type and depend on the physical and chemical nature of AgNPs. This review evaluates significant contributions to the literature on biological applications of AgNPs. It begins with an introduction to AgNPs, with particular attention to their overall impact on cellular effects. The main objective of this review is to elucidate the reasons for different cell types exhibiting differential responses to nanoparticles even when they possess similar size, shape, and other parameters. Firstly, we discuss the cellular effects of AgNPs on a variety of cell lines; Secondly, we discuss the mechanisms of action of AgNPs in various cellular systems, and try to elucidate how AgNPs interact with different mammalian cell lines and produce significant effects; Finally, we discuss the cellular activation of various signaling molecules in response to AgNPs, and conclude with future perspectives on research into AgNPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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Open AccessReview
Towards Effective Photothermal/Photodynamic Treatment Using Plasmonic Gold Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081295 - 09 Aug 2016
Cited by 71 | Viewed by 4805
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of different size and shape are widely used as photosensitizers for cancer diagnostics and plasmonic photothermal (PPT)/photodynamic (PDT) therapy, as nanocarriers for drug delivery and laser-mediated pathogen killing, even the underlying mechanisms of treatment effects remain poorly understood. There is [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of different size and shape are widely used as photosensitizers for cancer diagnostics and plasmonic photothermal (PPT)/photodynamic (PDT) therapy, as nanocarriers for drug delivery and laser-mediated pathogen killing, even the underlying mechanisms of treatment effects remain poorly understood. There is a need in analyzing and improving the ways to increase accumulation of AuNP in tumors and other crucial steps in interaction of AuNPs with laser light and tissues. In this review, we summarize our recent theoretical, experimental, and pre-clinical results on light activated interaction of AuNPs with tissues and cells. Specifically, we discuss a combined PPT/PDT treatment of tumors and killing of pathogen bacteria with gold-based nanocomposites and atomic clusters, cell optoporation, and theoretical simulations of nanoparticle-mediated laser heating of tissues and cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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Open AccessReview
Usefulness of Intratracheal Instillation Studies for Estimating Nanoparticle-Induced Pulmonary Toxicity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17020165 - 27 Jan 2016
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
Inhalation studies are the gold standard for the estimation of the harmful effects of respirable chemical substances, while there is limited evidence of the harmful effects of chemical substances by intratracheal instillation. We reviewed the effectiveness of intratracheal instillation studies for estimating the [...] Read more.
Inhalation studies are the gold standard for the estimation of the harmful effects of respirable chemical substances, while there is limited evidence of the harmful effects of chemical substances by intratracheal instillation. We reviewed the effectiveness of intratracheal instillation studies for estimating the hazards of nanoparticles, mainly using papers in which both inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies were performed using the same nanoparticles. Compared to inhalation studies, there is a tendency in intratracheal instillation studies that pulmonary inflammation lasted longer in the lungs. A difference in pulmonary inflammation between high and low toxicity nanoparticles was observed in the intratracheal instillation studies, as in the inhalation studies. Among the endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, the kinetics of neutrophil counts, percentage of neutrophils, and chemokines for neutrophils and macrophages, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), reflected pulmonary inflammation, suggesting that these markers may be considered the predictive markers of pulmonary toxicity in both types of study. When comparing pulmonary inflammation between intratracheal instillation and inhalation studies under the same initial lung burden, there is a tendency that the inflammatory response following the intratracheal instillation of nanoparticles is greater than or equal to that following the inhalation of nanoparticles. If the difference in clearance in both studies is not large, the estimations of pulmonary toxicity are close. We suggest that intratracheal instillation studies can be useful for ranking the hazard of nanoparticles through pulmonary inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
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