Next Article in Journal
Studies on [5,6]-Fused Bicyclic Scaffolds Derivatives as Potent Dual B-RafV600E/KDR Inhibitors Using Docking and 3D-QSAR Approaches
Next Article in Special Issue
Genotoxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Granulosa Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Microanalysis, Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution of Polysaccharide-Protein Complexes from Longan Pulp in Mice
Previous Article in Special Issue
Developmental and Reproductive Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Arabidopsis thaliana
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 24417-24450;

In Vitro/In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation and Quantification of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, 2000 Lakeshore Drive, New Orleans, LA 70148, USA
Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, 5050 Percival Stern Hall, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
Department of Immunology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 7455 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77054, USA
Department of Urology, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane avenue, SL-42, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yuping Bao and Anna Cristina S. Samia
Received: 27 July 2015 / Revised: 30 September 2015 / Accepted: 30 September 2015 / Published: 15 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1748 KB, uploaded 15 October 2015]   |  


Increasing biomedical applications of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in academic and commercial settings have alarmed the scientific community about the safety and assessment of toxicity profiles of IONPs. The great amount of diversity found in the cytotoxic measurements of IONPs points toward the necessity of careful characterization and quantification of IONPs. The present document discusses the major developments related to in vitro and in vivo toxicity assessment of IONPs and its relationship with the physicochemical parameters of IONPs. Major discussion is included on the current spectrophotometric and imaging based techniques used for quantifying, and studying the clearance and biodistribution of IONPs. Several invasive and non-invasive quantification techniques along with the pitfalls are discussed in detail. Finally, critical guidelines are provided to optimize the design of IONPs to minimize the toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxicity; quantification; iron oxide nanoparticles; physicochemical properties toxicity; quantification; iron oxide nanoparticles; physicochemical properties

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Patil, U.S.; Adireddy, S.; Jaiswal, A.; Mandava, S.; Lee, B.R.; Chrisey, D.B. In Vitro/In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation and Quantification of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 24417-24450.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top