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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 1 (January 2011) – 47 articles , Pages 1-864

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Open AccessArticle
Identification of a Male-Specific Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and a Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) Marker in Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 857-864; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010857 - 24 Jan 2011
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 6874
Abstract
Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. is a dioecious species. Currently, there is no method to identify the sex during the juvenile stage that lasts a relatively long time. This study aimed to develop a sex specific Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) marker for Eucommia ulmoides [...] Read more.
Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. is a dioecious species. Currently, there is no method to identify the sex during the juvenile stage that lasts a relatively long time. This study aimed to develop a sex specific Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) marker for Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Of a total of 64 AFLP primer combinations screened, primer combination E-ACA/M-CTT produced a 350 bp male-specific marker. This 350 bp AFLP marker was converted into a 247 bp Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) marker. Results suggest that the SCAR marker can be utilized for early sexual identification in Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., and it will greatly facilitate future breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Thermotolerant Manganese Superoxide Dismutase from Bacillus sp. MHS47
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 844-856; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010844 - 24 Jan 2011
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4536
Abstract
A superoxide dismutase gene from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. MHS47 (MnSOD47) was cloned, sequenced, and expressed. The gene has an open reading frame of 612 bp, corresponding to 203 deduced amino acids, with high homology to the amino acid sequences of B. [...] Read more.
A superoxide dismutase gene from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. MHS47 (MnSOD47) was cloned, sequenced, and expressed. The gene has an open reading frame of 612 bp, corresponding to 203 deduced amino acids, with high homology to the amino acid sequences of B. thuringiensis (accession no. EEN01322), B. anthracis (accession no. NP_846724), B. cereus (accession no. ZP_04187911), B. weihenstephanensis (accession no. YP_001646918), and B. pseudomycoides. The conserved manganese-binding sites (H28, H83, D165, and H169) show that MnSOD47 has the specific characteristics of the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzymes. MnSOD47 expressed an enzyme with a molecular weight of approximately 22.65 kDa and a specific activity of 3537.75 U/mg. The enzyme is active in the pH range 7–8.5, with an optimum pH of 7.5, and at temperatures in the range 30–45 °C, with an optimum temperature of 37 °C. Tests of inhibitors and metal ions indicated that the enzyme activity is inhibited by sodium azide, but not by hydrogen peroxide or potassium cyanide. These data should benefit future studies of MnSODs in other microorganisms and the biotechnological production of MnSOD47, and could also be used to develop a biosensor for the detection of antioxidants and free radical activity. In the future, this basic knowledge could be applicable to the detection of cancer risks in humans and therapeutic treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Antioxidant Effects of Honey, Glibenclamide, Metformin, and Their Combinations in the Kidneys of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 829-843; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010829 - 21 Jan 2011
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 8675
Abstract
Hyperglycemia-induced increase in oxidative stress is implicated in diabetic complications. This study investigated the effect of metformin and/or glibenclamide in combination with honey on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in the kidneys of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; intraperitoneal)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were [...] Read more.
Hyperglycemia-induced increase in oxidative stress is implicated in diabetic complications. This study investigated the effect of metformin and/or glibenclamide in combination with honey on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in the kidneys of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; intraperitoneal)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were randomized into eight groups of five to seven rats and received distilled water (0.5 mL); honey (1.0 g/kg); metformin (100 mg/kg); metformin (100 mg/kg) and honey (1.0 g/kg); glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg); glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg) and honey (1.0 g/kg); metformin (100 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg); or metformin (100 mg/kg), glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg) and honey (1.0 g/kg) orally once daily for four weeks. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were significantly elevated while catalase (CAT) activity, total antioxidant status (TAS), reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH:oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio was significantly reduced in the diabetic kidneys. CAT, glutathione reductase (GR), TAS, and GSH remained significantly reduced in the diabetic rats treated with metformin and/or glibenclamide. In contrast, metformin or glibenclamide combined with honey significantly increased CAT, GR, TAS, and GSH. These results suggest that combination of honey with metformin or glibenclamide might offer additional antioxidant effect to these drugs. This might reduce oxidative stress-mediated damage in diabetic kidneys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of Chitosan against Mature Biofilms Formed by Food Related Bacteria
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 817-828; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010817 - 21 Jan 2011
Cited by 65 | Viewed by 8017
Abstract
Chitosan has proven antimicrobial properties against planktonic cell growth. Little is known, however, about its effects on already established biofilms. Oriented for application in food industry disinfection, the effectiveness of both medium molecular weight (MMW) chitosan and its enzymatically hydrolyzed product was tested [...] Read more.
Chitosan has proven antimicrobial properties against planktonic cell growth. Little is known, however, about its effects on already established biofilms. Oriented for application in food industry disinfection, the effectiveness of both medium molecular weight (MMW) chitosan and its enzymatically hydrolyzed product was tested against mature biofilms of four pathogenic strains, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica, and a food spoilage species, Pseudomonas fluorescens. Unexpectedly, log reductions were in some cases higher for biofilm than for planktonic cells. One hour exposure to MMW chitosan (1% w/v) caused a 6 log viable cell reduction on L. monocytogenes monospecies mature biofilms and reduced significantly (3–5 log reductions) the attached population of the other organisms tested, except S. aureus. Pronase-treated chitosan was more effective than MMW chitosan on all tested microorganisms, also with the exception of S. aureus, offering best results (8 log units) against the attached cells of B. cereus. These treatments open a new possibility to fight against mature biofilms in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins)
Open AccessReview
Development of Proteomics-Based Fungicides: New Strategies for Environmentally Friendly Control of Fungal Plant Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 795-816; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010795 - 21 Jan 2011
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 9404
Abstract
Proteomics has become one of the most relevant high-throughput technologies. Several approaches have been used for studying, for example, tumor development, biomarker discovery, or microbiology. In this “post-genomic” era, the relevance of these studies has been highlighted as the phenotypes determined by the [...] Read more.
Proteomics has become one of the most relevant high-throughput technologies. Several approaches have been used for studying, for example, tumor development, biomarker discovery, or microbiology. In this “post-genomic” era, the relevance of these studies has been highlighted as the phenotypes determined by the proteins and not by the genotypes encoding them that is responsible for the final phenotypes. One of the most interesting outcomes of these technologies is the design of new drugs, due to the discovery of new disease factors that may be candidates for new therapeutic targets. To our knowledge, no commercial fungicides have been developed from targeted molecular research, this review will shed some light on future prospects. We will summarize previous research efforts and discuss future innovations, focused on the fight against one of the main agents causing a devastating crops disease, fungal phytopathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocides)
Open AccessReview
MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-IMS)―Application of Spatial Proteomics for Ovarian Cancer Classification and Diagnosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 773-794; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010773 - 21 Jan 2011
Cited by 69 | Viewed by 11588
Abstract
MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) allows acquisition of mass data for metabolites, lipids, peptides and proteins directly from tissue sections. IMS is typically performed either as a multiple spot profiling experiment to generate tissue specific mass profiles, or a high resolution imaging experiment [...] Read more.
MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) allows acquisition of mass data for metabolites, lipids, peptides and proteins directly from tissue sections. IMS is typically performed either as a multiple spot profiling experiment to generate tissue specific mass profiles, or a high resolution imaging experiment where relative spatial abundance for potentially hundreds of analytes across virtually any tissue section can be measured. Crucially, imaging can be achieved without prior knowledge of tissue composition and without the use of antibodies. In effect MALDI-IMS allows generation of molecular data which complement and expand upon the information provided by histology including immuno-histochemistry, making its application valuable to both cancer biomarker research and diagnostics. The current state of MALDI-IMS, key biological applications to ovarian cancer research and practical considerations for analysis of peptides and proteins on ovarian tissue are presented in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Molecules in Ovarian Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in the Asian Rice Gall Midge (Orseolia oryzae) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 755-772; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010755 - 20 Jan 2011
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5184
Abstract
Microsatellite loci were isolated from the genomic DNA of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason) using a hybridization capture approach. A total of 90 non-redundant primer pairs, representing unique loci, were designed. These simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers represented di (72%), [...] Read more.
Microsatellite loci were isolated from the genomic DNA of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason) using a hybridization capture approach. A total of 90 non-redundant primer pairs, representing unique loci, were designed. These simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers represented di (72%), tri (15.3%), and complex repeats (12.7%). Three biotypes of gall midge (20 individuals for each biotype) were screened using these SSRs. The results revealed that 15 loci were hyper variable and showed polymorphism among different biotypes of this pest. The number of alleles ranged from two to 11 and expected heterozygosity was above 0.5. Inheritance studies with three markers (observed to be polymorphic between sexes) revealed sex linked inheritance of two SSRs (Oosat55 and Oosat59) and autosomal inheritance of one marker (Oosat43). These markers will prove to be a useful tool to devise strategies for integrated pest management and in the study of biotype evolution in this important rice pest. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Modulation of Ca2+ Signals by Epigallocatechin-3-gallate(EGCG) in Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 742-754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010742 - 20 Jan 2011
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5561
Abstract
Green tea has been receiving considerable attention as a possible neuroprotective agent against neurodegenerative disease. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major compound of green tea. Calcium signaling has profound effects on almost all aspects of neuronal function. Using digital calcium imaging and patch-clamp technique, [...] Read more.
Green tea has been receiving considerable attention as a possible neuroprotective agent against neurodegenerative disease. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major compound of green tea. Calcium signaling has profound effects on almost all aspects of neuronal function. Using digital calcium imaging and patch-clamp technique, we determined the effects of EGCG on Ca2+ signals in hippocampal neurons. The results indicated that EGCG caused a dose-dependent increase in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). This [Ca2+]i increase was blocked by depleting intracellular Ca2+ stores with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitor thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid. Furthermore, EGCG-stimulated increase in [Ca2+]i was abolished following treatment with a PLC inhibitor. However, EGCG inhibited high-voltage activated Ca2+ currents (IHVA) and NMDA-induced inward currents (INMDA). These data suggest that EGCG triggers a cascade of events: it activates phospholipase C (PLC), mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ stores, raises the cytosolic Ca2+ levels, and inhibits the VGCC and NMDA receptors-mediated Ca2+ influx through a process that remains to be determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Susceptibility of Mycobacterium immunogenum and Pseudomonas fluorescens to Formaldehyde and Non-Formaldehyde Biocides in Semi-Synthetic Metalworking Fluids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 725-741; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010725 - 20 Jan 2011
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7353
Abstract
Mycobacterium immunogenum, a newly identified member of the Mycobacterium chelonae_M. abscessus complex is considered a potential etiological agent for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in machine workers exposed to contaminated metalworking fluid (MWF). This study investigated the biocidal efficacy of the frequently applied commercial [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium immunogenum, a newly identified member of the Mycobacterium chelonae_M. abscessus complex is considered a potential etiological agent for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in machine workers exposed to contaminated metalworking fluid (MWF). This study investigated the biocidal efficacy of the frequently applied commercial formaldehyde-releasing (HCHO) biocides Grotan and Bioban CS 1135 and non-HCHO type biocides Kathon 886 MW (isothiazolone) and Preventol CMK 40 (phenolic) toward this emerging mycobacterial species (M. immunogenum) in HP-linked MWFs, alone and in presence of a representative of the Gram-negative bacterial contaminants, Pseudomonas fluorescens, using two semi-synthetic MWF matrices (designated Fluid A and Fluid B). Relative biocide susceptibility analysis indicated M immunogenum to be comparatively more resistant (2–1600 fold) than P. fluorescens to the tested biocides under the varied test conditions. In terms of minimum inhibitory concentration, Kathon was the most effective biocide against M. immunogenum. Fluid factors had a major effect on the biocide susceptibility. Fluid A formulation provided greater protective advantage to the test organisms than Fluid B. Fluid dialysis (Fluid A) led to an increased biocidal efficacy of Grotan, Kathon and Preventol against M. immunogenum further implying the role of native fluid components. Used fluid matrix, in general, increased the resistance of the two test organisms against the biocides, with certain exceptions. M. immunogenum resistance increased in presence of the co-contaminant P. fluorescens. Collectively, the results show a multifactorial nature of the biocide susceptibility of MWF-colonizing mycobacteria and highlight the importance of more rigorous efficacy testing and validation of biocides prior to and during their application in metalworking fluid operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocides)
Open AccessArticle
In Silico Theoretical Molecular Modeling for Alzheimer’s Disease: The Nicotine-Curcumin Paradigm in Neuroprotection and Neurotherapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 694-724; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010694 - 19 Jan 2011
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 6893
Abstract
The aggregation of the amyloid-β-peptide (AβP) into well-ordered fibrils has been considered as the key pathological marker of Alzheimer’s disease. Molecular attributes related to the specific binding interactions, covalently and non-covalently, of a library of compounds targeting of conformational scaffolds were computed employing [...] Read more.
The aggregation of the amyloid-β-peptide (AβP) into well-ordered fibrils has been considered as the key pathological marker of Alzheimer’s disease. Molecular attributes related to the specific binding interactions, covalently and non-covalently, of a library of compounds targeting of conformational scaffolds were computed employing static lattice atomistic simulations and array constructions. A combinatorial approach using isobolographic analysis was stochastically modeled employing Artificial Neural Networks and a Design of Experiments approach, namely an orthogonal Face-Centered Central Composite Design for small molecules, such as curcumin and glycosylated nornicotine exhibiting concentration-dependent behavior on modulating AβP aggregation and oligomerization. This work provides a mathematical and in silico approach that constitutes a new frontier in providing neuroscientists with a template for in vitro and in vivo experimentation. In future this could potentially allow neuroscientists to adopt this in silico approach for the development of novel therapeutic interventions in the neuroprotection and neurotherapy of Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, the neuroprotective entities identified in this study may also be valuable in this regard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies (special issue))
Open AccessArticle
Detection of Mycosphaerella graminicola in Wheat Leaves by a Microsatellite Dinucleotide Specific-Primer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 682-693; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010682 - 19 Jan 2011
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 8232
Abstract
Early detection of infection is very important for efficient management of Mycosphaerella graminicola leaf blotch. To monitor and quantify the occurrence of this fungus during the growing season, a diagnostic method based on real-time PCR was developed. Standard and real-time PCR assays were [...] Read more.
Early detection of infection is very important for efficient management of Mycosphaerella graminicola leaf blotch. To monitor and quantify the occurrence of this fungus during the growing season, a diagnostic method based on real-time PCR was developed. Standard and real-time PCR assays were developed using SYBR Green chemistry to quantify M. graminicola in vitro or in wheat samples. Microsatellite dinucleotide specific-primers were designed based on microsatellite repeats of sequences present in the genome of M. graminicola. Specificity was checked by analyzing DNA of 55 M. graminicola isolates obtained from different geographical origins. The method appears to be highly specific for detecting M. graminicola; no fluorescent signals were observed from 14 other closely related taxa. Primer (CT) 7 G amplified a specific amplicon of 570 bp from all M. graminicola isolates. The primers did not amplify DNA extracted from 14 other fungal species. The approximate melting temperature (Tm) of the (CT) 7 G primer was 84.2 °C. The detection limit of the real-time PCR assay with the primer sets (CT) 7 G is 10 fg/25 µL, as compared to 10 pg/25 µL using conventional PCR technology. From symptomless leaves, a PCR fragment could be generated two days after inoculation. Both conventional and real-time PCR could successfully detect the fungus from artificially inoculated wheat leaves. However, real-time PCR appeared much more sensitive than conventional PCR. The developed quantitative real-time PCR method proved to be rapid, sensitive, specific, cost-effective and reliable for the identification and quantification of M. graminicola in wheat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Open AccessArticle
Combined Effects of Cyclooxygenase-1 and Cyclooxygenase-2 Selective Inhibitors on Ovarian Carcinoma in Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 668-681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010668 - 18 Jan 2011
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 7179
Abstract
The present study was designed to investigate the combined effects of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 selective inhibitors on human ovarian SKOV-3 carcinoma cells xenograft-bearing mice. The animals were treated with 3 mg/kg SC-560 (a COX-1 selective inhibitor) alone, 25 mg/kg celecoxib (a COX-2 [...] Read more.
The present study was designed to investigate the combined effects of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 selective inhibitors on human ovarian SKOV-3 carcinoma cells xenograft-bearing mice. The animals were treated with 3 mg/kg SC-560 (a COX-1 selective inhibitor) alone, 25 mg/kg celecoxib (a COX-2 selective inhibitor) alone, or SC-560/celecoxib by gavage, twice a day for three weeks. To test the mechanism of inhibition of tumor growth by COX selective inhibitors, the index of proliferating cells in tumor tissues was determined by immunostaining and the index of apoptotic cells by the terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. The inhibitory rate on tumor growth in the combination group was 35.54% which is significant statistically compared with that of the control group (P < 0.05). In the combination group, the index of cell proliferation and apoptosis were 12.40% and 51.03% respectively, which are significant statistically compared with those of the control group (22.56%, 19.07%, all P < 0.05). These studies indicate that synergism between two COX inhibitors and inhibitor combination treatment has particular potential for chemoprevention of ovarian cancer growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Molecules in Ovarian Cancer)
Open AccessArticle
Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) as an Alternative Source of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 655-667; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010655 - 18 Jan 2011
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5792
Abstract
Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) have been proven to possess many biological activities, and much attention is focused on the search for plants which are rich in OA and UA. In this report, the OA and UA accumulation characteristics were investigated [...] Read more.
Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) have been proven to possess many biological activities, and much attention is focused on the search for plants which are rich in OA and UA. In this report, the OA and UA accumulation characteristics were investigated in 47 cultivars of Chinese herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) and were followed in three cultivars over different developmental stages as measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). OA and UA levels in leaves and stems demonstrated an overall upward trend from May 1 to September 15 except for UA in the leaves of “Hong Feng”. The maximum values of OA and UA in leaves of “Yangfei Chu Yu”, “Fen Zhu Pan” and “Hong Feng” were 852.98, 575.60, 290.48 μg/g FW and 924.94, 827.36, 432.67 μg/g FW, respectively. The maximum values of OA and UA in stems of “Yangfei Chu Yu”, “Fen Zhu Pan” and “Hong Feng” were 359.28, 90.49, 43.90 μg/g FW and 326.86, 82.25, 56.63 μg/g FW, respectively. OA and UA contents in leaves of 47 different herbaceous peony cultivars ranged from 66.73–618.12 and 36.23–665.14 μg/g FW, respectively, with average values of 171.62 and 227.57 μg/g FW, respectively. The results suggested that the aboveground parts of herbaceous peony may be used as an alternative source of OA and UA for medicinal purposes in addition to its ornamental purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessReview
Environmental Applications of Biosurfactants: Recent Advances
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 633-654; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010633 - 18 Jan 2011
Cited by 436 | Viewed by 13593
Abstract
Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons and metals. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology of environments contaminated with these pollutants is [...] Read more.
Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons and metals. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology of environments contaminated with these pollutants is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. The diversity of biosurfactants makes them an attractive group of compounds for potential use in a wide variety of industrial and biotechnological applications. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the applications of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms in hydrocarbon and metal remediation technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosurfactants)
Open AccessCase Report
HE4 in the Differential Diagnosis of a Pelvic Mass: A Case Report
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 627-632; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010627 - 18 Jan 2011
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6053
Abstract
Neoplasms of the ovary present an increasing challenge to the physician. Neoplastic ovarian cysts can resemble endometriomas in ultrasound imaging and need to be carefully considered in the differential diagnosis. We report the case of a woman with a strong family history of [...] Read more.
Neoplasms of the ovary present an increasing challenge to the physician. Neoplastic ovarian cysts can resemble endometriomas in ultrasound imaging and need to be carefully considered in the differential diagnosis. We report the case of a woman with a strong family history of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, who presented with a pelvic mass. The young girl refused oncogenetic counseling and genetic testing, even though she had a 50% a priori probability of being a BRCA1 mutation carrier. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a comparative analysis of the serum concentration of HE-4 and CA125 biomarkers provided accuracy and sensitivity in the diagnosis of a benign ovarian pathology. Based on this experience, we propose that the sensitivity of a screening program based on a HE4 and CA125 assay and MRI in high risk patients with mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes may be considered a useful pre-operative tool for the differential diagnosis of pelvic masses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Open AccessArticle
Construction and Characterization of a cDNA Library from Wheat Infected with Fusarium graminearum Fg 2
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 613-626; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010613 - 18 Jan 2011
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 7096
Abstract
Total RNA from wheat spikes infected with F. graminearum Fg2 was extracted and the mRNA was purified. Switching Mechanism at 5' end of the RNA Transcript (SMART) technique and CDS Ill/3' primer were used for first-strand cDNA synthesis using reverse transcriptase by RT-PCR. [...] Read more.
Total RNA from wheat spikes infected with F. graminearum Fg2 was extracted and the mRNA was purified. Switching Mechanism at 5' end of the RNA Transcript (SMART) technique and CDS Ill/3' primer were used for first-strand cDNA synthesis using reverse transcriptase by RT-PCR. Primer extension polymerase chain reaction was used to construct the double-strand cDNA that was digested by proteinase K, then by Sfi I and fractionated. cDNAs longer than 0.5 kb were collected and ligated to λTriplEx2 vector followed λ phage packaging reaction and library amplification. The qualities of both unamplified and amplified cDNA libraries were strictly checked by conventional titer determination. One hundred and sixty five plaques were randomly picked and tested using PCR with universal primers derived from the sequence flanking the vector. A high quality cDNA library from wheat spikes that have been infected by F. graminearum was successfully constructed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessReview
Phospholipases A1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 588-612; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010588 - 18 Jan 2011
Cited by 77 | Viewed by 6618
Abstract
Phospholipase A1 (PLA1) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes phospholipids and produces 2-acyl-lysophospholipids and fatty acids. This lipolytic activity is conserved in a wide range of organisms but is carried out by a diverse set of PLA1 enzymes. Where their [...] Read more.
Phospholipase A1 (PLA1) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes phospholipids and produces 2-acyl-lysophospholipids and fatty acids. This lipolytic activity is conserved in a wide range of organisms but is carried out by a diverse set of PLA1 enzymes. Where their function is known, PLA1s have been shown to act as digestive enzymes, possess central roles in membrane maintenance and remodeling, or regulate important cellular mechanisms by the production of various lysophospholipid mediators, such as lysophosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidic acid, which in turn have multiple biological functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences)
Open AccessArticle
Immunomodulatory Activity of Dietary Fiber: Arabinoxylan and Mixed-Linked Beta-Glucan Isolated from Barley Show Modest Activities in Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 570-587; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010570 - 18 Jan 2011
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 8070
Abstract
High intake of dietary fiber is claimed to protect against development of colorectal cancer. Barley is a rich source of dietary fiber, and possible immunomodulatory effects of barley polysaccharides might explain a potential protective effect. Dietary fiber was isolated by extraction and enzyme [...] Read more.
High intake of dietary fiber is claimed to protect against development of colorectal cancer. Barley is a rich source of dietary fiber, and possible immunomodulatory effects of barley polysaccharides might explain a potential protective effect. Dietary fiber was isolated by extraction and enzyme treatment. A mixed-linked β-glucan (WSM-TPX, 96.5% β-glucan, Mw 886 kDa), an arabinoxylan (WUM-BS-LA, 96.4% arabinoxylan, Mw 156 kDa), a mixed-linked β-glucan rich fraction containing 10% arabinoxylan (WSM-TP) and an arabinoxylan rich fraction containing 30% mixed-linked β-glucan (WUM-BS) showed no significant effect on IL-8 secretion and proliferation of two intestinal epithelial cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29, and had no significant effect on the NF-κB activity in the monocytic cell line U937-3κB-LUC. Further enriched arabinoxylan fractions (WUM-BS-LA) from different barley varieties (Tyra, NK96300, SB94897 and CDCGainer) were less active than the mixed-linked β-glucan rich fractions (WSM-TP and WSM-TPX) in the complement-fixing test. The mixed-linked β-glucan rich fraction from NK96300 and CDCGainer showed similar activities as the positive control while mixed‑linked β-glucan rich fractions from Tyra and SB94897 were less active. From these results it is concluded that the isolated high molecular weight mixed-linked β-glucans and arabinoxylans from barley show low immunological responses in selected in vitro test systems and thus possible anti-colon cancer effects of barley dietary fiber cannot be explained by our observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: Biochemistry and Nutritional Science)
Open AccessReview
The Biochemical and Cellular Basis for Nutraceutical Strategies to Attenuate Neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 506-569; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010506 - 17 Jan 2011
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 9460
Abstract
Future therapeutic intervention that could effectively decelerate the rate of degeneration within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) could add years of mobility and reduce morbidity associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Neurodegenerative decline associated with PD is distinguished by extensive damage to SNc [...] Read more.
Future therapeutic intervention that could effectively decelerate the rate of degeneration within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) could add years of mobility and reduce morbidity associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Neurodegenerative decline associated with PD is distinguished by extensive damage to SNc dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons and decay of the striatal tract. While genetic mutations or environmental toxins can precipitate pathology, progressive degenerative succession involves a gradual decline in DA neurotransmission/synaptic uptake, impaired oxidative glucose consumption, a rise in striatal lactate and chronic inflammation. Nutraceuticals play a fundamental role in energy metabolism and signaling transduction pathways that control neurotransmission and inflammation. However, the use of nutritional supplements to slow the progression of PD has met with considerable challenge and has thus far proven unsuccessful. This review re-examines precipitating factors and insults involved in PD and how nutraceuticals can affect each of these biological targets. Discussed are disease dynamics (Sections 1 and 2) and natural substances, vitamins and minerals that could impact disease processes (Section 3). Topics include nutritional influences on α-synuclein aggregation, ubiquitin proteasome function, mTOR signaling/lysosomal-autophagy, energy failure, faulty catecholamine trafficking, DA oxidation, synthesis of toxic DA-quinones, o-semiquinones, benzothiazolines, hyperhomocyseinemia, methylation, inflammation and irreversible oxidation of neuromelanin. In summary, it is clear that future research will be required to consider the multi-faceted nature of this disease and re-examine how and why the use of nutritional multi-vitamin-mineral and plant-based combinations could be used to slow the progression of PD, if possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies (special issue))
Open AccessReview
High Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency of Metal Phthalocyanine/Fullerene Heterojunction Photovoltaic Device
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 476-505; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010476 - 17 Jan 2011
Cited by 71 | Viewed by 9912
Abstract
This paper introduces the fundamental physical characteristics of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Photoelectric conversion efficiency is crucial to the evaluation of quality in OPV devices, and enhancing efficiency has been spurring on researchers to seek alternatives to this problem. In this paper, we [...] Read more.
This paper introduces the fundamental physical characteristics of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Photoelectric conversion efficiency is crucial to the evaluation of quality in OPV devices, and enhancing efficiency has been spurring on researchers to seek alternatives to this problem. In this paper, we focus on organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices and review several approaches to enhance the energy conversion efficiency of small molecular heterojunction OPV devices based on an optimal metal-phthalocyanine/fullerene (C60) planar heterojunction thin film structure. For the sake of discussion, these mechanisms have been divided into electrical and optical sections: (1) Electrical: Modification on electrodes or active regions to benefit carrier injection, charge transport and exciton dissociation; (2) Optical: Optional architectures or infilling to promote photon confinement and enhance absorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Cells)
Open AccessReview
Biosurfactants for Microbubble Preparation and Application
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 462-475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010462 - 17 Jan 2011
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 6787
Abstract
Biosurfactants can be classified by their chemical composition and their origin. This review briefly describes various classes of biosurfactants based on their origin and introduces a few of the most widely used biosurfactants. The current status and future trends in biosurfactant production are [...] Read more.
Biosurfactants can be classified by their chemical composition and their origin. This review briefly describes various classes of biosurfactants based on their origin and introduces a few of the most widely used biosurfactants. The current status and future trends in biosurfactant production are discussed, with an emphasis on those derived from plants. Following a brief introduction of the properties of microbubbles, recent progress in the application of microbubble technology to molecular imaging, wastewater treatment, and aerobic fermentation are presented. Several studies on the preparation, characterization and applications of biosurfactant-based microbubbles are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosurfactants)
Open AccessShort Note
Isolation and Characterization of the First Microsatellite Markers for the Endangered Relict Mussel Hypanis colorata (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Cardiidae)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 456-461; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010456 - 17 Jan 2011
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6308
Abstract
Hypanis colorata (Eichwald, 1829) (Cardiidae: Lymnocardiinae) is a bivalve relict species with a Ponto-Caspian distribution and is under strict protection in Romania, according to national regulations. While the species is depressed in the western Black Sea lagoons from Romania and Ukraine, it is [...] Read more.
Hypanis colorata (Eichwald, 1829) (Cardiidae: Lymnocardiinae) is a bivalve relict species with a Ponto-Caspian distribution and is under strict protection in Romania, according to national regulations. While the species is depressed in the western Black Sea lagoons from Romania and Ukraine, it is also a successful invader in the middle Dniepr and Volga regions. Establishing a conservation strategy for this species or studying its invasion process requires knowledge about the genetic structure of the species populations. We have isolated and characterized nine polymorphic microsatellite markers in H. colorata. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 28 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.613 to 1.000. The microsatellites developed in the present study are highly polymorphic and they should be useful for the assessment of genetic variation within this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Inherently Chiral Calixarenes: Synthesis, Optical Resolution, Chiral Recognition and Asymmetric Catalysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 429-455; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010429 - 17 Jan 2011
Cited by 66 | Viewed by 6082
Abstract
Inherently chiral calixarenes, whose chirality is based on the absence of a planar symmetry or an inversion center in the molecules as a whole through the asymmetric array of several achiral groups upon the three-dimensional calix-skeletons, are challenging and attractive chiral molecules, because [...] Read more.
Inherently chiral calixarenes, whose chirality is based on the absence of a planar symmetry or an inversion center in the molecules as a whole through the asymmetric array of several achiral groups upon the three-dimensional calix-skeletons, are challenging and attractive chiral molecules, because of their potential in supramolecular chemistry. The synthesis and optical resolution of all varieties of inherently chiral calixarenes are systematically discussed and classified, and their applications in chiral recognition and asymmetric catalysis are thoroughly illustrated in this review. Full article
Open AccessReview
Exploring the Immunoproteome for Ovarian Cancer Biomarker Discovery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 410-428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010410 - 14 Jan 2011
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6909
Abstract
Most scientific efforts towards early detection of ovarian cancer are commonly focused on the discovery of tumour-associated antigens (TAA). Autologous antibodies against TAA, however, may serve as more sensitive diagnostic markers. They circulate in the blood before TAA and are usually more abundant [...] Read more.
Most scientific efforts towards early detection of ovarian cancer are commonly focused on the discovery of tumour-associated antigens (TAA). Autologous antibodies against TAA, however, may serve as more sensitive diagnostic markers. They circulate in the blood before TAA and are usually more abundant than the TAAs themselves as a result of amplification through the humoral immune response. Accumulating evidence also suggests that a humoral response already exists during malignant transformation when aberrant gene expression is translated into premalignant cellular changes. This article reviews the current knowledge about autoantibodies against TAA in ovarian cancer and presents current immunoproteomic approaches for their detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Molecules in Ovarian Cancer)
Open AccessArticle
Study of OH Radicals in Human Serum Blood of Healthy Individuals and Those with Pathological Schizophrenia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 401-409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010401 - 14 Jan 2011
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 5577
Abstract
The human body is constantly under attack from free radicals that occur as part of normal cell metabolism, and by exposure to environmental factors such as UV light, cigarette smoke, environmental pollutants and gamma radiation. The resulting “Reactive Oxygen Species” (ROS) circulate freely [...] Read more.
The human body is constantly under attack from free radicals that occur as part of normal cell metabolism, and by exposure to environmental factors such as UV light, cigarette smoke, environmental pollutants and gamma radiation. The resulting “Reactive Oxygen Species” (ROS) circulate freely in the body with access to all organs and tissues, which can have serious repercussions throughout the body. The body possesses a number of mechanisms both to control the production of ROS and to cope with free radicals in order to limit or repair damage to tissues. Overproduction of ROS or insufficient defense mechanisms leads to a dangerous disbalance in the organism. Thereby several pathomechanisms implicated in over 100 human diseases, e.g., cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus, physiological disease, aging, etc., can be induced. Thus, a detailed investigation on the quantity of oxygen radicals, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH) in human serum blood, and its possible correlation with antioxidant therapy effects, is highly topical. The subject of this study was the influence of schizophrenia on the amount of OH in human serum blood. The radicals were detected by fluorimetry, using terephthalic acid as a chemical trap. For all experiments the serum blood of healthy people was used as a control group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
RNA Interference Targeting Slug Increases Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Sensitivity to Cisplatin via Upregulating PUMA
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 385-400; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010385 - 14 Jan 2011
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 5738 | Retraction
Abstract
Slug is an E-cadherin repressor and a suppressor of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) and it has recently been demonstrated that Slug plays an important role in controlling apoptosis. In this study, we examined whether Slug’s ability to silence expression suppresses the [...] Read more.
Slug is an E-cadherin repressor and a suppressor of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) and it has recently been demonstrated that Slug plays an important role in controlling apoptosis. In this study, we examined whether Slug’s ability to silence expression suppresses the growth of cholangiocarcinoma cells and/or sensitizes cholangiocarcinoma cells to chemotherapeutic agents through induction of apoptosis. We targeted the Slug gene using siRNA (Slug siRNA) via full Slug cDNA plasmid (Slug cDNA) transfection of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Slug siRNA, cisplatin, or Slug siRNA in combination with cisplatin, were used to treat cholangiocarcinoma cells in vitro. Western blot was used to detect the expression of Slug, PUMA, and E-cadherin protein. TUNEL, Annexin V Staining, and cell cycle analysis were used to detect apoptosis. A nude mice subcutaneous xenograft model of QBC939 cells was used to assess the effect of Slug silencing and/or cisplatin on tumor growth. Immunohistochemical staining was used to analyze the expression of Slug and PUMA. TUNEL was used to detect apoptosis in vivo. The results showed that PUMA and E-cadherin expression in cholangiocarcinoma cells is Slug dependent. We demonstrated that Slug silencing and cisplatin both promote apoptosis by upregulation of PUMA, not by upregulation of E-cadherin. Slug silencing significantly sensitized cholangiocarcinoma cells to cisplatin through upregulation of PUMA. Finally, we showed that Slug silencing suppressed the growth of QBC939 xenograft tumors and sensitized the tumor cells to cisplatin through PUMA upregulation and induction of apoptosis. Our findings indicate that Slug is an important modulator of the therapeutic response of cholangiocarcinoma cells and is potentially useful as a sensitizer in cholangiocarcinoma therapy. One of the mechanisms is the regulation of PUMA by Slug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of the Methanol Extract of Basella alba L (Basellaceae) on Steroid Production in Leydig Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 376-384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010376 - 14 Jan 2011
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 10097
Abstract
In this study, Leydig cells were purified from 70 day-old Sprague Dawley male rats and incubated with 10 and 100 µg/mL of methanol extract of Basella alba (MEBa) for 4 hours followed by the evaluation of cell viability, steroid (testosterone and estradiol) production, [...] Read more.
In this study, Leydig cells were purified from 70 day-old Sprague Dawley male rats and incubated with 10 and 100 µg/mL of methanol extract of Basella alba (MEBa) for 4 hours followed by the evaluation of cell viability, steroid (testosterone and estradiol) production, and the level of aromatase mRNA. Results showed that MEBa did not affect Leydig cell viability. At the concentration of 10 µg/mL, MEBa significantly stimulated testosterone and estradiol production (p < 0.01 and p < 0.03, respectively), and enhanced aromatase mRNA level (p < 0.04). These observations suggest that MEBa directly stimulated testosterone, estradiol and aromatase mRNA levels in isolated Leydig cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
A Three-Dimensional, Magnetic and Electroactive Nanoprobe for Amperometric Determination of Tumor Biomarkers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 362-375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010362 - 14 Jan 2011
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5361
Abstract
A novel electrochemical immunosensor for tumor biomarker detection based on three-dimensional, magnetic and electroactive nanoprobes was developed in this study. To fabricate the nanoprobes, negatively charged Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were first [...] Read more.
A novel electrochemical immunosensor for tumor biomarker detection based on three-dimensional, magnetic and electroactive nanoprobes was developed in this study. To fabricate the nanoprobes, negatively charged Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were first loaded on the surface of multiple wall carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) which were functioned with redox-active hemin and cationic polyelectrolyte poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) (PDDA). Using alpha fetoprotein (AFP) as a model analyte, AFP antibody (anti-AFP) was absorbed on the surface of Au NPs, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was then used to block sites against non-specific binding, and finally formed anti-AFP/Au NPs/Fe3O4/hemin/MCNTs named anti-AFP nanoprobes. When the target antigen AFP was present, it interacted with anti-AFP and formed an antigen-antibody complex on the nanoprobe interface. This resulted in a decreased electrochemical signal of hemin for quantitative determination of AFP when immobilized onto the screen-printed working electrode (SPCE). The results showed that the nanoprobe-based electrochemical immunosensor was sensitive to AFP detection at a concentration of 0.1 to 200 ng×mL-1 with a detection limit of 0.04 ng×mL-1, it also demonstrated good selectivity against other interferential substances. The electroactive nanoprobes can be massively prepared, easily immobilized on the SPCE for target detection and rapidly renewed with a magnet. The proposed immunosensor is fast, simple, sensitive, stable, magnet-controlled, nontoxic, label-free and reproducible. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Laser Induced C60 Cage Opening Studied by Semiclassical Dynamics Simulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 353-361; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010353 - 13 Jan 2011
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4747
Abstract
Laser induced opening of the C60 cage is studied by a semiclassical electron-radiation-ion dynamics technique. The simulation results indicate that the C60 cage is abruptly opened immediately after laser excitation. The opening of the C60 cage induces a quick increase [...] Read more.
Laser induced opening of the C60 cage is studied by a semiclassical electron-radiation-ion dynamics technique. The simulation results indicate that the C60 cage is abruptly opened immediately after laser excitation. The opening of the C60 cage induces a quick increase in kinetic energy and a sharp decrease in electronic energy, suggesting that the breaking of the C60 cage efficiently heats up the cluster and enhances the thermal fragmentation of C60 fullerene. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Role of Reactive-Oxygen-Species in Microbial Persistence and Inflammation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 334-352; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12010334 - 13 Jan 2011
Cited by 101 | Viewed by 8993
Abstract
The mechanisms of chronic infections caused by opportunistic pathogens are of keen interest to both researchers and health professionals globally. Typically, chronic infectious disease can be characterized by an elevation in immune response, a process that can often lead to further destruction. Reactive-Oxygen-Species [...] Read more.
The mechanisms of chronic infections caused by opportunistic pathogens are of keen interest to both researchers and health professionals globally. Typically, chronic infectious disease can be characterized by an elevation in immune response, a process that can often lead to further destruction. Reactive-Oxygen-Species (ROS) have been strongly implicated in the aforementioned detrimental response by host that results in self-damage. Unlike excessive ROS production resulting in robust cellular death typically induced by acute infection or inflammation, lower levels of ROS produced by host cells are increasingly recognized to play a critical physiological role for regulating a variety of homeostatic cellular functions including growth, apoptosis, immune response, and microbial colonization. Sources of cellular ROS stimulation can include “danger-signal-molecules” such as extracellular ATP (eATP) released by stressed, infected, or dying cells. Particularly, eATP-P2X7 receptor mediated ROS production has been lately found to be a key modulator for controlling chronic infection and inflammation. There is growing evidence that persistent microbes can alter host cell ROS production and modulate eATP-induced ROS for maintaining long-term carriage. Though these processes have yet to be fully understood, exploring potential positive traits of these “injurious” molecules could illuminate how opportunistic pathogens maintain persistence through physiological regulation of ROS signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Recognition)
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