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Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity, Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties and GC-MS Analysis of Keladi Candik (Alocasia longiloba Miq)

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Faculty of Agro-Based Industry, University Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli Campus, Jeli 17600, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Institute of Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture (IFSSA), University Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli 17600, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Division of Animal Biotechnology, Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh 517502, India
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Faculty of Earth Science, University Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli 17600, Kelantan, Malaysia
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Department of Microbiology, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh 516003, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2658; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112658
Received: 4 April 2020 / Revised: 4 May 2020 / Accepted: 6 May 2020 / Published: 8 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Alocasia longiloba, locally known as ‘Keladi Candik’, has been used traditionally to treat wounds, furuncle and joint inflammations. A. longiloba can be a new source of herbal medicine against hyperuricemia by inhibiting the activity of xanthine oxidase enzyme, the enzyme which is responsible for the development of hyperuricemia in human. Existing xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI drugs) show several side effects on gout patients. Therefore, an alternative herbal medicine from plants, with high therapeutic property and free of side effects, are greatly needed. This study was conducted to evaluate XO inhibitory activity, chemical composition, antioxidant activity and GC-MS profile of A. longiloba. Our results showed that ethanolic petiole extract exhibited the highest XO inhibitory activity (70.40 ± 0.05%) with IC50 value of 42.71 μg/mL, followed by ethanolic fruit extracts (61.44 ± 1.24%) with the IC50 value of 51.32 μg/mL. In a parallel study, the phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, terpenoids, glycoside and saponin in petiole and fruit extracts, as well as higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents and strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS antioxidant assay. The GC-MS analysis of fruit and petiole extracts revealed the presence of various compounds belonging to different chemical nature, among them are limonen-6-ol, α-DGlucopyranoside, paromomycin, aziridine, phenol, Heptatriacotanol, Phen-1,2,3-dimethyl and Betulin found in ethanolic fruit extract, and Phen-1,4-diol,2,3-dimethyl-, 1-Ethynyl-3,trans(1,1-dimethylethyl), Phenol,2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)- and 7-Methyl-Z-tetradecen-1-olacetate found in ethanolic petiole extract. Some compounds were documented as potent anti-inflammatory and arthritis related diseases by other researchers. In this study, the efficiency of solvents to extract bioactives was found to be ethanol > water, methanol > hexane > chloroform. Together, our results suggest the prospective utilization of fruit and petiole of A. longiloba to inhibit the activity of XO enzyme. View Full-Text
Keywords: gout; xanthine oxidase inhibitors; hyperuricemia; keladi candik; ethanol extract gout; xanthine oxidase inhibitors; hyperuricemia; keladi candik; ethanol extract
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abdulhafiz, F.; Mohammed, A.; Kayat, F.; Bhaskar, M.; Hamzah, Z.; Podapati, S.K.; Reddy, L.V. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity, Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties and GC-MS Analysis of Keladi Candik (Alocasia longiloba Miq). Molecules 2020, 25, 2658. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112658

AMA Style

Abdulhafiz F, Mohammed A, Kayat F, Bhaskar M, Hamzah Z, Podapati SK, Reddy LV. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity, Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties and GC-MS Analysis of Keladi Candik (Alocasia longiloba Miq). Molecules. 2020; 25(11):2658. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112658

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abdulhafiz, Ferid; Mohammed, Arifullah; Kayat, Fatimah; Bhaskar, Matcha; Hamzah, Zulhazman; Podapati, Sanjay K.; Reddy, Lebaka V. 2020. "Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity, Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties and GC-MS Analysis of Keladi Candik (Alocasia longiloba Miq)" Molecules 25, no. 11: 2658. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112658

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