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Molecules, Volume 21, Issue 4 (April 2016)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) With its epidemic proportion and an attrition rate approaching 100%, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an [...] Read more.
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Popp, J., et al. Biofuels and Their Co-Products as Livestock Feed: Global Economic and Environmental Implications. Molecules 2016, 21, 285.
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040546
Received: 15 April 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 23 April 2016
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to their paper[1].[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Selenium in Cattle: A Review
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040545
Received: 2 March 2016 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 23 April 2016
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2906 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The
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This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism’s use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
Open AccessArticle Crystallization of Esomeprazole Magnesium Water/Butanol Solvate
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040544
Received: 15 March 2016 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 23 April 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2576 | PDF Full-text (3082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The molecular structure of esomeprazole magnesium derivative in the solid-state is reported for the first time, along with a simplified crystallization pathway. The structure was determined using the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique to reveal the bonding relationships between esomeprazole heteroatoms and magnesium.
[...] Read more.
The molecular structure of esomeprazole magnesium derivative in the solid-state is reported for the first time, along with a simplified crystallization pathway. The structure was determined using the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique to reveal the bonding relationships between esomeprazole heteroatoms and magnesium. The esomeprazole crystallization process was carried out in 1-butanol and water was utilized as anti-solvent. The product proved to be esomeprazole magnesium tetrahydrate with two 1-butanol molecules that crystallized in P63 space group, in a hexagonal unit cell. Complete characterization of a sample after drying was conducted by the use of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS). Investigation by 1H-NMR and TGA has shown that the solvent content in the dried sample consists of two water molecules and 0.3 butanol molecules per esomeprazole magnesium molecule. This is different from the single crystal X-ray diffraction results and can be attributed to the loss of some water and 1-butanol molecules stabilized by intermolecular interactions. The title compound, after drying, is a true solvate in terms of water; conversely, 1-butanol fills the voids of the crystal lattice in non-stoichiometric amounts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystallization of Pharmaceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle Highly Efficient Reproducible Perovskite Solar Cells Prepared by Low-Temperature Processing
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040542
Received: 4 April 2016 / Revised: 19 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 23 April 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3236 | PDF Full-text (2036 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this work, we describe the role of the different layers in perovskite solar cells to achieve reproducible, ~16% efficient perovskite solar cells. We used a planar device architecture with PEDOT:PSS on the bottom, followed by the perovskite layer and an evaporated C
[...] Read more.
In this work, we describe the role of the different layers in perovskite solar cells to achieve reproducible, ~16% efficient perovskite solar cells. We used a planar device architecture with PEDOT:PSS on the bottom, followed by the perovskite layer and an evaporated C60 layer before deposition of the top electrode. No high temperature annealing step is needed, which also allows processing on flexible plastic substrates. Only the optimization of all of these layers leads to highly efficient and reproducible results. In this work, we describe the effects of different processing conditions, especially the influence of the C60 top layer on the device performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perovskite Solar Cells)
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Open AccessArticle 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-Heptamethoxyflavone, a Citrus Flavonoid, Ameliorates Corticosterone-Induced Depression-like Behavior and Restores Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression, Neurogenesis, and Neuroplasticity in the Hippocampus
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040541
Received: 2 March 2016 / Revised: 20 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 23 April 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2777 | PDF Full-text (2275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We previously reported that the citrus flavonoid 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF) increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of a transient global ischemia mouse model. Since the BDNF hypothesis of depression postulates that a reduction in BDNF is directly involved in
[...] Read more.
We previously reported that the citrus flavonoid 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF) increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of a transient global ischemia mouse model. Since the BDNF hypothesis of depression postulates that a reduction in BDNF is directly involved in the pathophysiology of depression, we evaluated the anti-depressive effects of HMF in mice with subcutaneously administered corticosterone at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 25 days. We demonstrated that the HMF treatment ameliorated (1) corticosterone-induced body weight loss, (2) corticosterone-induced depression-like behavior, and (3) corticosterone-induced reductions in BDNF production in the hippocampus. We also showed that the HMF treatment restored (4) corticosterone-induced reductions in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone and (5) corticosterone-induced reductions in the expression levels of phosphorylated calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2. These results suggest that HMF exerts its effects as an anti-depressant drug by inducing the expression of BDNF. Full article
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Open AccessReview Bifunctional Phosphorus Dendrimers and Their Properties
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040538
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 23 April 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2298 | PDF Full-text (4082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dendrimers are hyperbranched and monodisperse macromolecules, generally considered as a special class of polymers, but synthesized step-by-step. Most dendrimers have a uniform structure, with a single type of terminal function. However, it is often desirable to have at least two different functional groups.
[...] Read more.
Dendrimers are hyperbranched and monodisperse macromolecules, generally considered as a special class of polymers, but synthesized step-by-step. Most dendrimers have a uniform structure, with a single type of terminal function. However, it is often desirable to have at least two different functional groups. This review will discuss the case of bifunctional phosphorus-containing dendrimers, and the consequences for their properties. Besides the terminal functions, dendritic structures may have also a function at the core, or linked off-center to the core, or at the core of dendrons (dendritic wedges). Association of two dendrons having different terminal functions leads to Janus dendrimers (two faces). The internal structure can also possess functional groups on one layer, or linked to one layer, or on several layers. Finally, there are several ways to have two types of terminal functions, besides the case of Janus dendrimers: either each terminal function bears two functions sequentially, or two different functions are linked to each terminal branching point. Examples of each type of structure will be given in this review, as well as practical uses of such sophisticated structures in the fields of fluorescence, catalysis, nanomaterials and biology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Dendrimers)
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Open AccessArticle Breast Cancer Stem Cell Culture and Enrichment Using Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Scaffolds
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040537
Received: 14 March 2016 / Revised: 20 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 23 April 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3044 | PDF Full-text (5708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cancer stem cell (CSC) population displays self-renewal capabilities, resistance to conventional therapies, and a tendency to post-treatment recurrence. Increasing knowledge about CSCs’ phenotype and functions is needed to investigate new therapeutic strategies against the CSC population. Here, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), a biocompatible polymer
[...] Read more.
The cancer stem cell (CSC) population displays self-renewal capabilities, resistance to conventional therapies, and a tendency to post-treatment recurrence. Increasing knowledge about CSCs’ phenotype and functions is needed to investigate new therapeutic strategies against the CSC population. Here, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), a biocompatible polymer free of toxic dye, has been used to fabricate scaffolds, solid structures suitable for 3D cancer cell culture. It has been reported that scaffold cell culture enhances the CSCs population. A RepRap BCN3D+ printer and 3 mm PCL wire were used to fabricate circular scaffolds. PCL design and fabrication parameters were first determined and then optimized considering several measurable variables of the resulting scaffolds. MCF7 breast carcinoma cell line was used to assess scaffolds adequacy for 3D cell culture. To evaluate CSC enrichment, the Mammosphere Forming Index (MFI) was performed in 2D and 3D MCF7 cultures. Results showed that the 60° scaffolds were more suitable for 3D culture than the 45° and 90° ones. Moreover, 3D culture experiments, in adherent and non-adherent conditions, showed a significant increase in MFI compared to 2D cultures (control). Thus, 3D cell culture with PCL scaffolds could be useful to improve cancer cell culture and enrich the CSCs population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Bioprinting)
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Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: Chemoinformatics
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040535
Received: 19 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
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Abstract
Chemoinformatics techniques were originally developed for the construction and searching of large archives of chemical structures but they were soon applied to problems in drug discovery and are now playing an increasingly important role in many additional areas of chemistry. This Special Issue
[...] Read more.
Chemoinformatics techniques were originally developed for the construction and searching of large archives of chemical structures but they were soon applied to problems in drug discovery and are now playing an increasingly important role in many additional areas of chemistry. This Special Issue contains seven original research articles and four review articles that provide an introduction to several aspects of this rapidly developing field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemoinformatics)
Open AccessArticle Peruvoside, a Cardiac Glycoside, Induces Primitive Myeloid Leukemia Cell Death
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040534
Received: 24 February 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1747 | PDF Full-text (2694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the available chemotherapy and treatment, leukemia remains a difficult disease to cure due to frequent relapses after treatment. Among the heterogeneous leukemic cells, a rare population referred as the leukemic stem cell (LSC), is thought to be responsible for relapses and drug
[...] Read more.
Despite the available chemotherapy and treatment, leukemia remains a difficult disease to cure due to frequent relapses after treatment. Among the heterogeneous leukemic cells, a rare population referred as the leukemic stem cell (LSC), is thought to be responsible for relapses and drug resistance. Cardiac glycosides (CGs) have been used in treating heart failure despite its toxicity. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated its new usage as a potential anti-cancer drug. Ouabain, one of the CGs, specifically targeted CD34+CD38 leukemic stem-like cells, but not the more mature CD34+CD38+ leukemic cells, making this type of compounds a potential treatment for leukemia. In search of other potential anti-leukemia CGs, we found that Peruvoside, a less studied CG, is more effective than Ouabain and Digitoxin at inducing cell death in primitive myeloid leukemia cells without obvious cytotoxicity on normal blood cells. Similar to Ouabain and Digitoxin, Peruvoside also caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M stage. It up-regulates CDKN1A expression and activated the cleavage of Caspase 3, 8 and PARP, resulting in apoptosis. Thus, Peruvoside showed potent anti-leukemia effect, which may serve as a new anti-leukemia agent in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Repellent Activity of the Essential Oil from the Heartwood of Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin against Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040533
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1576 | PDF Full-text (390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus Guérin (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is endemic to Central-Southern Chile and Argentina, is one of the major berry pests in Chile and the most important pest in the La Araucanía Region (38°44′9″S, 72°35′25″W). Due to the poor effectiveness and problems
[...] Read more.
The weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus Guérin (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is endemic to Central-Southern Chile and Argentina, is one of the major berry pests in Chile and the most important pest in the La Araucanía Region (38°44′9″S, 72°35′25″W). Due to the poor effectiveness and problems surrounding the implementation of the traditional control methods using organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, new strategies for controlling this pest are needed. In this communication, we evaluated the behavioral responses of male and female A. superciliosus to volatile compounds released from the essential oil (EO) obtained from the heartwood of Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin using olfactometric bioassays. The composition of the EO was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). According to these analyses, δ-cadinol (24.16%), cubenol (22.64%), 15-copaenol (15.46%) and δ-cadinene (10.81%) were the principal components of the EO. The Pilgerodendron uviferum EO, which is almost exclusively composed of sesquiterpenes (99.5%), exhibited a repellent effect against A. superciliosus adults, regardless of the sex or concentration used (56.6 mg/cm3 and 1.58 × 10−2 mg/cm3). The EO has low volatility and greater persistence than the EOs composed of monoterpenes and is considered a good model in the search for raspberry weevil repellents. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Subnanometric Ag Species, Their Interaction with Supports and Role in Catalytic CO Oxidation
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040532
Received: 6 February 2016 / Revised: 7 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1674 | PDF Full-text (4856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The nature and size of the real active species of nanoparticulated metal supported catalysts is still an unresolved question. The technique of choice to measure particle sizes at the nanoscale, HRTEM, has a practical limit of 1 nm. This work is aimed to
[...] Read more.
The nature and size of the real active species of nanoparticulated metal supported catalysts is still an unresolved question. The technique of choice to measure particle sizes at the nanoscale, HRTEM, has a practical limit of 1 nm. This work is aimed to identify the catalytic role of subnanometer species and methods to detect and characterize them. In this frame, we investigated the sensitivity to redox pretreatments of Ag/Fe/TiO2, Ag/Mg/TiO2 and Ag/Ce/TiO2 catalysts in CO oxidation. The joint application of HRTEM, SR-XRD, DRS, XPS, EXAFS and XANES methods indicated that most of the silver in all samples is in the form of Ag species with size <1 nm. The differences in catalytic properties and sensitivity to pretreatments, observed for the studied Ag catalysts, could not be explained taking into account only the Ag particles whose size distribution is measured by HRTEM, but may be explained by the presence of the subnanometer Ag species, undetectable by HRTEM, and their interaction with supports. This result highlights their role as active species and the need to take them into account to understand integrally the catalysis by supported nanometals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coinage Metal (Copper, Silver, and Gold) Catalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Luculia pinceana Flower and Its Changes at Different Stages of Flower Development
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040531
Received: 22 February 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2084 | PDF Full-text (1187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Luculia plants are famed ornamental plants with sweetly fragrant flowers, of which L. pinceana Hooker, found primarily in Yunnan Province, China, has the widest distribution. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was employed to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different
[...] Read more.
Luculia plants are famed ornamental plants with sweetly fragrant flowers, of which L. pinceana Hooker, found primarily in Yunnan Province, China, has the widest distribution. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was employed to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different flower development stages of L. pinceana for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. Peak areas were normalized as percentages and used to determine the relative amounts of the volatiles. The results showed that a total of 39 compounds were identified at four different stages of L. pinceana flower development, including 26 at the bud stage, 26 at the initial-flowering stage, 32 at the full-flowering stage, and 32 at the end-flowering stage. The most abundant compound was paeonol (51%–83%) followed by (E,E)-α-farnesene, cyclosativene, and δ-cadinene. All these volatile compounds create the unique fragrance of L. pinceana flower. Floral scent emission offered tendency of ascending first and descending in succession, meeting its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatile was detected at the third and later periods of flower development. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed throughout the whole flower development. The result has important implications for future floral fragrance breeding of Luculia. L. pinceana would be adequate for a beneficial houseplant and has a promising prospect for development as essential oil besides for a fragrant ornamental owing to the main compounds of floral scent with many medicinal properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Enantioselective Separation of 4,8-DHT and Phytotoxicity of the Enantiomers on Various Plant Species
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040528
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1274 | PDF Full-text (2560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a candidate for bioherbicide, 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone (4,8-DHT) was isolated from Caryospora callicarpa epicarp and its two enantiomers, S-(+)-isosclerone and R-(−)-regiolone, were separated by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a Chiralcel OD column with chiral stationary phase (CSP)-coated cellulose-tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate). Then, the
[...] Read more.
As a candidate for bioherbicide, 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone (4,8-DHT) was isolated from Caryospora callicarpa epicarp and its two enantiomers, S-(+)-isosclerone and R-(−)-regiolone, were separated by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a Chiralcel OD column with chiral stationary phase (CSP)-coated cellulose-tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate). Then, the phytotoxicity of 4,8-DHT and its enantiomers toward the seeds germination and seedling growth of the five tested plant species, including lettuce (Latuca sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), onion (Allium cepa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), were investigated and the results indicated a hormesis at low concentration of 4,8-DHT and its enantiomers, but a retardant effect at high concentration. Between the two enantiomers of 4,8-DHT, the S-(+)-isosclerone was more toxic to seeds germination and seedling growth of the five tested plant species than the R-(−)-regiolone, and also the phytotoxicity of S-(+)-isosclerone varied with different plants. For example, S-(+)-isosclerone was the most active to seedling growth of lettuce, indicating that S-(+)-isosclerone had specific effects on different organisms. Thus, all of the chirality and concentration of 4,8-DHT, as well as the affected plant species, need to be taken into consideration in the development and utilization of 4,8-DHT. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Topical Application of Polycal (a 2:98 (g/g) Mixture of Polycan and Calcium Gluconate) on Experimental Periodontitis and Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040527
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1673 | PDF Full-text (7781 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to observe whether Polycal has inhibitory activity on ligation-induced experimental periodontitis and related alveolar bone loss in rats following topical application to the gingival regions. One day after the ligation placements, Polycal (50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to observe whether Polycal has inhibitory activity on ligation-induced experimental periodontitis and related alveolar bone loss in rats following topical application to the gingival regions. One day after the ligation placements, Polycal (50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL solutions at 200 μL/rat) was topically applied to the ligated gingival regions daily for 10 days. Changes in bodyweight, alveolar bone loss index, and total number of buccal gingival aerobic bacterial cells were monitored, and the anti-inflammatory effects were investigated via myeloperoxidase activity and levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were also evaluated. Bacterial proliferation, periodontitis, and alveolar bone loss induced by ligature placements were significantly inhibited after 10 days of continuous topical application of Polycal. These results indicate that topical application of Polycal has a significant inhibitory effect on periodontitis and related alveolar bone loss in rats mediated by antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Glycyrrhetic Acid Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Vivo
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040523
Received: 25 January 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2016 | PDF Full-text (2467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glycyrrhizae Radix (GR) is a Korean traditional herb medicine that is widely used in clinical health care. Glycyrrhetic acid (GA) is an aglycone saponin extracted from GR that has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of GA in colitis have
[...] Read more.
Glycyrrhizae Radix (GR) is a Korean traditional herb medicine that is widely used in clinical health care. Glycyrrhetic acid (GA) is an aglycone saponin extracted from GR that has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of GA in colitis have not been reported. This study investigated the role of GA on ulcerative colitis in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis model. DSS-treated mice displayed weight loss and shortened colon length compared with control mice. Mice administered GA showed less weight loss and longer colon length than the DSS-treated group. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were decreased by GA treatment. GA treatment also reduced DSS-induced microscopic damage to colon tissue. GA regulates the phosphorylation of transcription factors including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and IκB alpha, and regulates the expression of cycloxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2. GA thus showed beneficial effects in a mouse model of colitis, implicating GA might be a useful herb-derived medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040511
Received: 18 March 2016 / Revised: 9 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2023 | PDF Full-text (2120 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Recent Advances in Flavors and Fragrances)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Melanin Fractions from Chestnut Shell
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040487
Received: 6 February 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1724 | PDF Full-text (1098 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chestnut shell melanin can be used as a colorant and antioxidant, and fractionated into three fractions (Fr. 1, Fr. 2, and Fr. 3) with different physicochemical properties. Antioxidant activities of the fractions were comparatively evaluated for the first time. The fractions exhibited different
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Chestnut shell melanin can be used as a colorant and antioxidant, and fractionated into three fractions (Fr. 1, Fr. 2, and Fr. 3) with different physicochemical properties. Antioxidant activities of the fractions were comparatively evaluated for the first time. The fractions exhibited different antioxidative potential in different evaluation systems. Fr. 1, which is only soluble in alkaline water, had the strongest peroxidation inhibition and superoxide anion scavenging activity; Fr. 2, which is soluble in alkaline water and hydrophilic organic solvents but insoluble in neutral and acidic water, had the greatest power to chelate ferrous ions; and Fr. 3, which is soluble both in hydrophilic organic solvents and in water at any pH conditions, had the greatest hydroxyl (·OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals scavenging abilities, reducing power, and phenolic content. The pigment fractions were superior to butylated hydroxytolune (BHT) in ·OH and DPPH· scavenging and to ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) in the Fe2+–chelation. They were inferior to BHT in peroxidation inhibition and O2· scavenging and reducing power. However, BHT is a synthetic antioxidant and cannot play the colorant role. The melanin fractions might be used as effective biological antioxidant colorants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040526
Received: 25 December 2015 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1741 | PDF Full-text (1737 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally
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Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally sustainable or safe. While the application of organic fertilizer is seen as a means of combating declining soil fertility, it has also been suggested as providing some control over certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Here, a greenhouse comparison was made of the Fusarium wilt control efficacy of various treatments given to a soil in which chrysanthemum had been produced continuously for many years. The treatments comprised the fungicide carbendazim (MBC), the soil fumigant dazomet (DAZ), the incorporation of a Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 (P. polymyxa SQR21, fungal antagonist) enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and applications of BOF combined with either MBC or DAZ. Data suggest that all the treatments evaluated show good control over Fusarium wilt. The MBC and DAZ treatments were effective in suppressing the disease, but led to significant decrease in urease activity and no enhancement of catalase activity in the rhizosphere soils. BOF including treatments showed significant enhancement in soil enzyme activities and microbial communities compared to the MBC and DAZ, evidenced by differences in bacterial/fungi (B/F) ratios, Shannon–Wiener indexes and urease, catalase and sucrase activities in the rhizosphere soil of chrysanthemum. Of all the treatments evaluated, DAZ/BOF application not only greatly suppressed Fusarium wilt and enhanced soil enzyme activities and microbial communities but also promoted the quality of chrysanthemum obviously. Our findings suggest that combined BOF with DAZ could more effectively control Fusarium wilt disease of chrysanthemum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Delivery of Gemcitabine Prodrugs Employing Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040522
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2335 | PDF Full-text (3153 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were studied as vehicles for the delivery of the antitumoral drug gemcitabine (GEM) and of its 4-(N)-acyl derivatives, (4-(N)-valeroyl-(C5GEM), 4-(N)-lauroyl-(C12GEM) and 4-(N)-stearoyl-gemcitabine (C18GEM)). The loading of the GEM
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In this paper, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were studied as vehicles for the delivery of the antitumoral drug gemcitabine (GEM) and of its 4-(N)-acyl derivatives, (4-(N)-valeroyl-(C5GEM), 4-(N)-lauroyl-(C12GEM) and 4-(N)-stearoyl-gemcitabine (C18GEM)). The loading of the GEM lipophilic prodrugs on MSNs was explored with the aim to obtain both a physical and a chemical protection of GEM from rapid plasmatic metabolization. For this purpose, MSNs as such or with grafted aminopropyl and carboxyethyl groups were prepared and characterized. Then, their different drug loading capacity in relation to the nature of the functional group was evaluated. In our experimental conditions, GEM was not loaded in any MSNs, while C12GEM was the most efficiently encapsulated and employed for further evaluation. The results showed that loading capacity increased with the presence of functional groups on the nanoparticles; similarly, the presence of functional groups on MSNs’ surface influenced the drug release profile. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the different preparations was evaluated and data showed that C12GEM loaded MSNs are less cytotoxic than the free drug with an activity that increased with the incubating time, indicating that all these systems are able to release the drug in a controlled manner. Altogether, the results demonstrate that these MSNs could be an interesting system for the delivery of anticancer drugs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sorption Kinetics on Open Carbon Nanohorn Aggregates: The Effect of Molecular Diameter
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040521
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 10 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1302 | PDF Full-text (1390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present the results of a study of the kinetics of adsorption on aggregates of open carbon nanohorns using argon and CF4 sorbates. We measured the equilibration times for each value of the sorbent loading along eight adsorption isotherms (four isotherms for
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We present the results of a study of the kinetics of adsorption on aggregates of open carbon nanohorns using argon and CF4 sorbates. We measured the equilibration times for each value of the sorbent loading along eight adsorption isotherms (four isotherms for each sorbate species). We found that: the equilibration times decrease as the sorbent loading (and the equilibrium pressure of the coexisting gas) increases, for a given temperature; and, that, for a given value of the sorbent loading, the equilibration times decrease with increasing temperature. When considering the effect of scaling of the temperatures by the respective critical temperatures we found that, at the same scaled temperature and at comparable loadings, the equilibration times for CF4 were longer than those for argon. We discuss a possible explanation for this result. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotubes: Advances and Applications)
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Open AccessReview Natural Phytochemicals in the Treatment and Prevention of Dementia: An Overview
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040518
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 4 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3649 | PDF Full-text (1664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The word dementia describes a class of heterogeneous diseases which etiopathogenetic mechanisms are not well understood. There are different types of dementia, among which, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are the more common.
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The word dementia describes a class of heterogeneous diseases which etiopathogenetic mechanisms are not well understood. There are different types of dementia, among which, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are the more common. Currently approved pharmacological treatments for most forms of dementia seem to act only on symptoms without having profound disease-modifying effects. Thus, alternative strategies capable of preventing the progressive loss of specific neuronal populations are urgently required. In particular, the attention of researchers has been focused on phytochemical compounds that have shown antioxidative, anti-amyloidogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties and that could represent important resources in the discovery of drug candidates against dementia. In this review, we summarize the neuroprotective effects of the main phytochemicals belonging to the polyphenol, isothiocyanate, alkaloid and cannabinoid families in the prevention and treatment of the most common kinds of dementia. We believe that natural phytochemicals may represent a promising sources of alternative medicine, at least in association with therapies approved to date for dementia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sulforaphane Analogues with Heterocyclic Moieties: Syntheses and Inhibitory Activities against Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040514
Received: 17 December 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2337 | PDF Full-text (3370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent studies have shown that sulforaphane (SFN) selectively inhibits the growth of ALDH+ breast cancer stem-like cells.Herein, a series of SFN analogues were synthesized and evaluated against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and SUM-159, and the leukemia stem cell-like cell line KG-1a.
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Recent studies have shown that sulforaphane (SFN) selectively inhibits the growth of ALDH+ breast cancer stem-like cells.Herein, a series of SFN analogues were synthesized and evaluated against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and SUM-159, and the leukemia stem cell-like cell line KG-1a. These SFN analogues were characterized by the replacement of the methyl group with heterocyclic moieties, and the replacement of the sulfoxide group with sulfide or sulfone. A growth inhibitory assay indicated that the tetrazole analogs 3d, 8d and 9d were significantly more potent than SFN against the three cancer cell lines. Compound 14c, the water soluble derivative of tetrazole sulfide 3d, demonstrated higher potency against KG-1a cell line than 3d. SFN, 3d and 14c significantly induced the activation of caspase-3, and reduced the ALDH+ subpopulation in the SUM159 cell line, while the marketed drug doxrubicin(DOX) increased the ALDH+ subpopulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Heterocyclic Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of an Optimized Wet Milling Technology on the Crystallinity, Morphology and Dissolution Properties of Micro- and Nanonized Meloxicam
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040507
Received: 22 March 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1567 | PDF Full-text (1657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article reports on the effects of a new combined wet milling technique on the physicochemical properties of meloxicam (MEL). The influence of milling time on the particle size, the crystallinity, the morphology and the dissolution rate of MEL has been studied in
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This article reports on the effects of a new combined wet milling technique on the physicochemical properties of meloxicam (MEL). The influence of milling time on the particle size, the crystallinity, the morphology and the dissolution rate of MEL has been studied in the presence and absence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a stabilizer agent. Micronized MEL particles were produced in aqueous medium which did not contain additive after milling for 10 min. For nanonization an additive and longer milling time were required. After particle size determination the structural and morphological characterization of the wet milled, dried products containing MEL were studied. X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) examinations revealed the change in the crystallinity of MEL. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that aggregates of nanosized MEL particles were formed, regardless of the presence of PVA. The nanonized MEL crystals (D50 = 126 nm) exhibited a regular shape and a smooth surface. The increased specific surface area resulted in a high dissolution rate and concentration of free MEL. According to the results, the produced samples could be applied as a basic material (micronized MEL) and intermediate product (micronized and nanonized MEL with PVA) for the design of dosage forms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystallization of Pharmaceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil—Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040520
Received: 19 February 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2371 | PDF Full-text (5351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cellulose acetate (CA) nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG) essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs), with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and
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Cellulose acetate (CA) nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG) essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs), with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology: Novel Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Pentaherbs Formula, Berberine, Gallic Acid and Chlorogenic Acid in Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Inflammation
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040519
Received: 28 December 2015 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3524 | PDF Full-text (9278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common allergic skin disease, characterized by dryness, itchiness, thickening and inflammation of the skin. Infiltration of eosinophils into the dermal layer and presence of edema are typical characteristics in the skin biopsy of AD patients. Previous in vitro
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common allergic skin disease, characterized by dryness, itchiness, thickening and inflammation of the skin. Infiltration of eosinophils into the dermal layer and presence of edema are typical characteristics in the skin biopsy of AD patients. Previous in vitro and clinical studies showed that the Pentaherbs formula (PHF) consisting of five traditional Chinese herbal medicines, Flos Lonicerae, Herba Menthae, Cortex Phellodendri, Cortex Moutan and Rhizoma Atractylodis at w/w ratio of 2:1:2:2:2 exhibited therapeutic potential in treating AD. In this study, an in vivo murine model with oxazolone (OXA)-mediated dermatitis was used to elucidate the efficacy of PHF. Active ingredients of PHF water extract were also identified and quantified, and their in vitro anti-inflammatory activities on pruritogenic cytokine IL-31- and alarmin IL-33-activated human eosinophils and dermal fibroblasts were evaluated. Ear swelling, epidermis thickening and eosinophils infiltration in epidermal and dermal layers, and the release of serum IL-12 of the murine OXA-mediated dermatitis were significantly reduced upon oral or topical treatment with PHF (all p < 0.05). Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and berberine contents (w/w) in PHF were found to be 0.479%, 1.201% and 0.022%, respectively. Gallic acid and chlorogenic acid could suppress the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and chemokine CCL7 and CXCL8, respectively, in IL-31- and IL-33-treated eosinophils-dermal fibroblasts co-culture; while berberine could suppress the release of IL-6, CXCL8, CCL2 and CCL7 in the eosinophil culture and eosinophils-dermal fibroblasts co-culture (all p < 0.05). These findings suggest that PHF can ameliorate allergic inflammation and attenuate the activation of eosinophils. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Herbal Medicine Research)
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Open AccessCommunication A Chemo-Enzymatic Road Map to the Synthesis of CoA Esters
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040517
Received: 20 March 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2982 | PDF Full-text (1443 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Coenzyme A (CoA) is a ubiquitous cofactor present in every known organism. The thioesters of CoA are core intermediates in many metabolic processes, such as the citric acid cycle, fatty acid biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including polyketide biosynthesis. Synthesis of CoA-thioesters is
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Coenzyme A (CoA) is a ubiquitous cofactor present in every known organism. The thioesters of CoA are core intermediates in many metabolic processes, such as the citric acid cycle, fatty acid biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including polyketide biosynthesis. Synthesis of CoA-thioesters is vital for the study of CoA-dependent enzymes and pathways, but also as standards for metabolomics studies. In this work we systematically tested five chemo-enzymatic methods for the synthesis of the three most abundant acyl-CoA thioester classes in biology; saturated acyl-CoAs, α,β-unsaturated acyl-CoAs (i.e., enoyl-CoA derivatives), and α-carboxylated acyl-CoAs (i.e., malonyl-CoA derivatives). Additionally we report on the substrate promiscuity of three newly described acyl-CoA dehydrogenases that allow the simple conversion of acyl-CoAs into enoyl-CoAs. With these five methods, we synthesized 26 different CoA-thioesters with a yield of 40% or higher. The CoA esters produced range from short- to long-chain, include branched and α,β-unsaturated representatives as well as other functional groups. Based on our results we provide a general guideline to the optimal synthesis method of a given CoA-thioester in respect to its functional group(s) and the commercial availability of the precursor molecule. The proposed synthetic routes can be performed in small scale and do not require special chemical equipment, making them convenient also for biological laboratories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosynthesis of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Antitumor Evaluation of Novel 5-Hydrosulfonyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one Derivatives
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040516
Received: 26 January 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 31 March 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1632 | PDF Full-text (1152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of novel 5-hydrosulfonyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one derivatives bearing natural product substructures has been successfully synthesized and their antitumor activity studied. These newly synthesized derivatives were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and high resolution mass spectral data, then
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A series of novel 5-hydrosulfonyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one derivatives bearing natural product substructures has been successfully synthesized and their antitumor activity studied. These newly synthesized derivatives were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and high resolution mass spectral data, then screened as antitumor agents against the A549, HCC1937, and MDA-MB-468 human tumor cell lines using MTT cell proliferation assays. The results show that some of these compounds can effectively inhibit the growth of these cancerous cells, with compound 5b being the best one (IC50 = 2.6 μM). Flow cytometry data revealed that compound 5b induced apoptosis of HCC1937 cells with increased solution concentration. The structure and activity relationships (SAR) of these compounds is summarized. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Olive Fruit Lipoxygenase Extraction Protocols on 9- and 13-Z,E-HPODE Formation
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040506
Received: 4 March 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1279 | PDF Full-text (916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In plant tissues, enzymes implicated in the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway are responsible for the hydroperoxydation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, ultimately leading to the production of small chemical species involved in several physiological processes. During industrial olive oil production, these enzymes are activated upon
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In plant tissues, enzymes implicated in the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway are responsible for the hydroperoxydation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, ultimately leading to the production of small chemical species involved in several physiological processes. During industrial olive oil production, these enzymes are activated upon crushing and grinding of olive fruit tissue, subsequently leading to the synthesis of volatile compounds responsible for the positive aroma and flavor of the oil. An investigation of LOX activity during olive fruit ripening and malaxation could assist in the production of oils with favorable aroma and taste. Therefore, a reliable method for olive LOX purification is crucial. Here we report a critical review of six LOX extraction protocols, two of which have shown minimum enzyme activity, possibly leading to misconceptions in the interpretation of experimental data. Future research concerning olive LOX should employ extraction methods that preserve enzyme activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle The Apoptotic Effect of Ursolic Acid on SK-Hep-1 Cells is Regulated by the PI3K/Akt, p38 and JNK MAPK Signaling Pathways
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040460
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1843 | PDF Full-text (4072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpene acid that is present in a wide variety of medicinal herbs and edible plants. This study investigated the effect of UA on apoptosis and proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells. After treatment of SK-Hep-1 cells with
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Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpene acid that is present in a wide variety of medicinal herbs and edible plants. This study investigated the effect of UA on apoptosis and proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells. After treatment of SK-Hep-1 cells with different concentrations of UA, we observed that cell viability was reduced in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent increase in the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 and G2/M phases, with cells treated with 60 μM showing the highest percentages of cells in those phases. UA-induced chromatin condensation of nuclei was observed by using DAPI staining. The western blot results revealed that exposure to UA was associated with decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and TCTP and increased expression of apoptosis-related proteins TNF-α, Fas, FADD, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and PARP. Immunocytochemistry staining showed that treatment with UA resulted in increased expression of caspase-3. Moreover, exposure to UA resulted in the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. These findings suggest that UA inhibits the proliferation of SK-Hep-1 cells and induces apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic and Chromatic Properties of Beibinghong Red Ice Wine during and after Vinification
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21040431
Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1543 | PDF Full-text (2293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The phenolic and chromatic characteristics of a special red ice wine made from a Vitis amurensis × V. vinifera hybrid cultivar Beibinghong were studied. Results from two different vintages (2013 and 2014) showed that during vinification, the phenolic acid content increased, while the
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The phenolic and chromatic characteristics of a special red ice wine made from a Vitis amurensis × V. vinifera hybrid cultivar Beibinghong were studied. Results from two different vintages (2013 and 2014) showed that during vinification, the phenolic acid content increased, while the level of flavonoids (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins) reduced by a variable extent. The color intensity and red % decreased together with a decrease in anthocyanin content. This was accompanied by an increase in hue as well as yellow %. The final phenolic content was found to be between 119.54 and 180.93 mg/L, with anthocyanins as the predominant phenolic group (92.06%–93.03%), of which 3,5-O-diglucosidic anthocyanins made up 53.55%–79.04%. Phenolic acids were the primary non-anthocyanin phenolics at about 6.64%–7.5%. The phenolic contents and color parameters of Beibinghong dry red wine and several V. vinifera dry red wines of superior color quality were also used in an attempt to clarify the relationship between phenolics and color in the Beibinghong red ice wine. By using Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA), it was found that 3,5-O-diglucosidic anthocyanins and protocatechuic acid were the only characteristic phenolics that differentiated Beibinghong wines from the other selected red wines from more traditional varieties. They were also the main phenolics to be positively correlated with the hue and yellow % of the wine at the early stages leading into maturation. Their presence might, therefore, explain the relatively high hue and yellow % of Beibinghong ice wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Wine Chemistry)
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