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Molecules 2016, 21(4), 534;

Peruvoside, a Cardiac Glycoside, Induces Primitive Myeloid Leukemia Cell Death

State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 24 February 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2694 KB, uploaded 22 April 2016]   |  


Despite the available chemotherapy and treatment, leukemia remains a difficult disease to cure due to frequent relapses after treatment. Among the heterogeneous leukemic cells, a rare population referred as the leukemic stem cell (LSC), is thought to be responsible for relapses and drug resistance. Cardiac glycosides (CGs) have been used in treating heart failure despite its toxicity. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated its new usage as a potential anti-cancer drug. Ouabain, one of the CGs, specifically targeted CD34+CD38 leukemic stem-like cells, but not the more mature CD34+CD38+ leukemic cells, making this type of compounds a potential treatment for leukemia. In search of other potential anti-leukemia CGs, we found that Peruvoside, a less studied CG, is more effective than Ouabain and Digitoxin at inducing cell death in primitive myeloid leukemia cells without obvious cytotoxicity on normal blood cells. Similar to Ouabain and Digitoxin, Peruvoside also caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M stage. It up-regulates CDKN1A expression and activated the cleavage of Caspase 3, 8 and PARP, resulting in apoptosis. Thus, Peruvoside showed potent anti-leukemia effect, which may serve as a new anti-leukemia agent in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiac glycoside; Peruvoside; acute myeloid leukemia cardiac glycoside; Peruvoside; acute myeloid leukemia

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Feng, Q.; Leong, W.S.; Liu, L.; Chan, W.-I. Peruvoside, a Cardiac Glycoside, Induces Primitive Myeloid Leukemia Cell Death. Molecules 2016, 21, 534.

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