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Open AccessArticle

Assessment of Nociceptive Responsiveness Levels during Sedation-Analgesia by Entropy Analysis of EEG

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Department of Electronic Engineering, Universidad San Buenaventura, Cali 760033, Colombia
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Department of Automatic Control, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona 08028, Spain
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Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona 08028, Spain
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CIBER of Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona 08028, Spain
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Systems Pharmacology Effect Control & Modeling (SPEC-M) Research Group, Department of Anesthesia, Hospital CLINIC de Barcelona, Barcelona 08036, Spain
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Research and Development Department, Quantium Medical SL, Mataró 08302, Spain
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Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Milan 20097, Italy
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Department of Cardiothoracic-Vascular Anesthesia and Intensive Care, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Milan 20097, Italy
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Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in the 8th Conference of the European Study Group on Cardiovascular Oscillations (ESGCO 2014), Trento, Italy, 25–28 May 2014.
Academic Editor: Raúl Alcaraz Martínez
Entropy 2016, 18(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/e18030103
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 18 March 2016
The level of sedation in patients undergoing medical procedures is decided to assure unconsciousness and prevent pain. The monitors of depth of anesthesia, based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been progressively introduced into the daily practice to provide additional information about the state of the patient. However, the quantification of analgesia still remains an open problem. The purpose of this work was to analyze the capability of prediction of nociceptive responses based on refined multiscale entropy (RMSE) and auto mutual information function (AMIF) applied to EEG signals recorded in 378 patients scheduled to undergo ultrasonographic endoscopy under sedation-analgesia. Two observed categorical responses after the application of painful stimulation were analyzed: the evaluation of the Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS) after nail bed compression and the presence of gag reflex (GAG) during endoscopy tube insertion. In addition, bispectrum (BIS), heart rate (HR), predicted concentrations of propofol (CeProp) and remifentanil (CeRemi) were annotated with a resolution of 1 s. Results showed that functions based on RMSE, AMIF, HR and CeRemi permitted predicting different stimulation responses during sedation better than BIS. View Full-Text
Keywords: painful stimulation; nociception; sedation-analgesia; electroencephalography; refined multiscale entropy; auto mutual information function; 87.; 87.85.-d; 87.85.Ng; 87.19.-j; 87.19.le painful stimulation; nociception; sedation-analgesia; electroencephalography; refined multiscale entropy; auto mutual information function; 87.; 87.85.-d; 87.85.Ng; 87.19.-j; 87.19.le
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Valencia, J.F.; Melia, U.S.P.; Vallverdú, M.; Borrat, X.; Jospin, M.; Jensen, E.W.; Porta, A.; Gambús, P.L.; Caminal, P. Assessment of Nociceptive Responsiveness Levels during Sedation-Analgesia by Entropy Analysis of EEG. Entropy 2016, 18, 103.

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