Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. Ilona Hromadnikova
Head, Department of Molecular Biology and Cell Pathology, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
Dr. Katerina Kotlabova
Department Molecular Biology and Cell Pathology, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic

Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications

Abstract submission deadline
31 August 2022
Manuscript submission deadline
30 October 2022
Viewed by
31470

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, fetal growth restriction, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth (preterm prelabor rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm labour) and invasive placenta are major complications responsible for maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Elucidation of the pathogenetic mechanisms related to the initiation and onset of severe pregnancy-related complications enables the identification of potential biomarkers for early stratification of at-risk patients. Additionally, pregnancy-related complications induce long-term metabolic and vascular abnormalities that might increase the overall risk of metabolic, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, kidney, and other diseases later in life in mothers and their offspring. This Topic aims to provide an overview of the latest research on the mechanisms associated with pregnancy-related complications, as well as the contribution of pregnancy-related complications to the later development of various diseases. This will include the underlying mechanisms, diagnostics/prognostics and treatment strategies associated with pregnancy-related complications, and will be of interest to scientists and clinicians working in this quickly expanding area.

Topics will include (but are not limited to):

  • Pathogenesis of pregnancy-related complications
  • Diagnosis and prognosis of pregnancy-related complications
  • Short-term and long-term follow-up after pregnancy-related complications (mothers and offspring)
  • Novel treatment modalities of pregnancy-related complications and their short-term and long-term consequences.

Prof. Dr. Ilona Hromadnikova
Dr. Katerina Kotlabova
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • gestational hypertension
  • preeclampsia
  • HELLP syndrome
  • fetal growth restriction
  • gestational diabetes mellitus
  • preterm birth
  • invasive placenta

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
ijms
6.208 6.9 2000 15.9 Days 2300 CHF Submit
Biomedicines
biomedicines
4.757 3.0 2013 16.8 Days 2200 CHF Submit
Life
life
3.251 1.9 2011 14 Days 1800 CHF Submit
BioMed
biomed
- - 2021 15.0 days * 1000 CHF Submit
Reproductive Medicine
reprodmed
- - 2020 25.8 Days 1000 CHF Submit

* Median value for all MDPI journals in the second half of 2021.


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Published Papers (36 papers)

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Article
Obstetrical and Fertility Outcomes Following Transcatheter Pelvic Arterial Embolization for Postpartum Hemorrhage: A Cohort Follow-Up Study
Life 2022, 12(6), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12060892 - 15 Jun 2022
Abstract
Objectives: Management of severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) includes transcatheter pelvic arterial embolization (TAE). Data regarding subsequent fertility and obstetrical outcomes is limited, as most fertility outcomes derive from TAE in uterine fibroma. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes [...] Read more.
Objectives: Management of severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) includes transcatheter pelvic arterial embolization (TAE). Data regarding subsequent fertility and obstetrical outcomes is limited, as most fertility outcomes derive from TAE in uterine fibroma. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of patients undergoing TAE, particularly concerning subsequent fertility and following pregnancies. Material and methods: We included 28 patients who underwent TAE for PPH at our institution between 2009 and 2018 in a retrospective cohort study. Data were assessed by reviewing patients’ charts and by contacting the patients. Results: Ten patients had prophylactic balloon occlusion before cesarean section because of anticipated PPH, with planned hysterectomy by placenta increta/percreta. All these patients were excluded from the analysis regarding fertility. 16 (73%) patients reported having regular menstruation after TAE. In total, 11 women had no desire for subsequent pregnancy. Seven of the remaining 11 patients (63.6%) had a total of 13 spontaneous pregnancies, nine of these resulted in miscarriages. Four patients delivered a live baby (36.4%). Two of these (50%) had recurrent PPH and treatment was conservative. Of the patients with infertility (n = 4, 36.4%), two (18.1%) underwent assisted infertility treatment without success. Conclusion: Our study suggests that the fertility of patients undergoing TAE due to PPH is limited. In women who conceive, the risk for first trimester miscarriage as well as recurrent PPH seems to be increased. If this is a consequence of the underlying cause of PPH or the TAE remains unknown. Larger follow-up cohorts are needed. In the meantime, patients who desire pregnancy after TAE should be counseled accordingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Review
The Role of Kisspeptin in the Pathogenesis of Pregnancy Complications: A Narrative Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(12), 6611; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23126611 - 14 Jun 2022
Abstract
Kisspeptins are the family of neuropeptide products of the KISS-1 gene that exert the biological action by binding with the G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54), also known as the KISS-1 receptor. The kisspeptin level dramatically increases during pregnancy, and the placenta is supposed [...] Read more.
Kisspeptins are the family of neuropeptide products of the KISS-1 gene that exert the biological action by binding with the G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54), also known as the KISS-1 receptor. The kisspeptin level dramatically increases during pregnancy, and the placenta is supposed to be its primary source. The role of kisspeptin has already been widely studied in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, fertility, puberty disorders, and insulin resistance-related conditions, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome, and obesity. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preeclampsia (PE), preterm birth, fetal growth restriction (FGR), or spontaneous abortion affected 2 to 20% of pregnancies worldwide. Their occurrence is associated with numerous short and long-term consequences for mothers and newborns; hence, novel, non-invasive predictors of their development are intensively investigated. The study aims to present a comprehensive review emphasizing the role of kisspeptin in the most common pregnancy-related disorders and neonatal outcomes. The decreased level of kisspeptin is observed in women with GDM, FGR, and a high risk of spontaneous abortion. Nevertheless, there are still many inconsistencies in kisspeptin concentration in pregnancies with preterm birth or PE. Further research is needed to determine the usefulness of kisspeptin as an early marker of gestational and neonatal complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
The Impact of Mouse Preterm Birth Induction by RU-486 on Microglial Activation and Subsequent Hypomyelination
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(9), 4867; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23094867 - 27 Apr 2022
Abstract
Preterm birth (PTB) represents 15 million births every year worldwide and is frequently associated with maternal/fetal infections and inflammation, inducing neuroinflammation. This neuroinflammation is mediated by microglial cells, which are brain-resident macrophages that release cytotoxic molecules that block oligodendrocyte differentiation, leading to hypomyelination. [...] Read more.
Preterm birth (PTB) represents 15 million births every year worldwide and is frequently associated with maternal/fetal infections and inflammation, inducing neuroinflammation. This neuroinflammation is mediated by microglial cells, which are brain-resident macrophages that release cytotoxic molecules that block oligodendrocyte differentiation, leading to hypomyelination. Some preterm survivors can face lifetime motor and/or cognitive disabilities linked to periventricular white matter injuries (PWMIs). There is currently no recommendation concerning the mode of delivery in the case of PTB and its impact on brain development. Many animal models of induced-PTB based on LPS injections exist, but with a low survival rate. There is a lack of information regarding clinically used pharmacological substances to induce PTB and their consequences on brain development. Mifepristone (RU-486) is a drug used clinically to induce preterm labor. This study aims to elaborate and characterize a new model of induced-PTB and PWMIs by the gestational injection of RU-486 and the perinatal injection of pups with IL-1beta. A RU-486 single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection at embryonic day (E)18.5 induced PTB at E19.5 in pregnant OF1 mice. All pups were born alive and were adopted directly after birth. IL-1beta was injected intraperitoneally from postnatal day (P)1 to P5. Animals exposed to both RU-486 and IL-1beta demonstrated microglial reactivity and subsequent PWMIs. In conclusion, the s.c. administration of RU-486 induced labor within 24 h with a high survival rate for pups. In the context of perinatal inflammation, RU-486 labor induction significantly decreases microglial reactivity in vivo but did not prevent subsequent PWMIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
Expression of the Costimulatory Molecule B7-H4 in the Decidua and Placental Tissues in Patients with Placental Abruption
Biomedicines 2022, 10(4), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10040918 - 16 Apr 2022
Abstract
B7 homolog 4 protein (B7-H4), a member of the B7 family, is a immunomodulatory membrane protein. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of this protein in the decidua and placental tissues in case of placental abruption (PA) compared to [...] Read more.
B7 homolog 4 protein (B7-H4), a member of the B7 family, is a immunomodulatory membrane protein. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of this protein in the decidua and placental tissues in case of placental abruption (PA) compared to cases of retained placental tissue (RPT) and controls. Tissue samples were obtained from 47 patients with PA, 60 patients with RPT, and 41 healthy controls. The samples were stained for B7-H4 expression, analyzed by an expert pathologist, and a semi-quantitative scale was applied. A statistical analysis revealed that the expression of B7-H4 was significantly higher in the decidua in PA samples compared to samples from patients with RPT (p-value < 0.001) and healthy controls (p-value < 0.001). The expression of B7-H4 in the placental chorionic villus was significantly higher in PA samples in relation to samples from healthy controls (p-value < 0.001) but not in relation to RPT samples (p-value = 0.0853). This finding suggests that B7-H4 might play an important role in mechanisms restoring reproductive tract homeostasis. Further research is necessary in regard to the role of B7-H4 in PA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
First Trimester Prediction of Preterm Delivery in the Absence of Other Pregnancy-Related Complications Using Cardiovascular-Disease Associated MicroRNA Biomarkers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(7), 3951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23073951 - 01 Apr 2022
Abstract
The aim of the study was to determine if aberrant expression profile of cardiovascular disease associated microRNAs would be able to predict within 10 to 13 weeks of gestation preterm delivery such as spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) or preterm prelabor rupture of membranes [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to determine if aberrant expression profile of cardiovascular disease associated microRNAs would be able to predict within 10 to 13 weeks of gestation preterm delivery such as spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) or preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) in the absence of other pregnancy-related complications (gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, or small for gestational age). In addition, we assessed if aberrant expression profile of cardiovascular disease associated microRNAs would be able to predict preterm delivery before and after 34 weeks of gestation. The retrospective study was performed within the period November 2012 to March 2020. Whole peripheral blood samples were collected from 6440 Caucasian individuals involving 41 PTB and 65 PPROM singleton pregnancies. A control group, 80 singleton term pregnancies, was selected on the base of equal sample storage time. Gene expression of 29 selected cardiovascular disease associated microRNAs was studied using real-time RT-PCR. Downregulation of miR-16-5p, miR-20b-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-26a-5p, miR-92a-3p, miR-126-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-145-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-155-5p, miR-210-3p, miR-221-3p and miR-342-3p was observed in pregnancies with preterm delivery before 37 (≤36 + 6/7) weeks of gestation. Majority of downregulated microRNAs (miR-16-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-26a-5p, miR-92a-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-145-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-155-5p, miR-210-3p, and miR-342-3p) was associated with preterm delivery occurring before 37 (≤36 + 6/7) weeks of gestation. The only miR-210-3p was downregulated in pregnancies with preterm delivery before 34 (≤33 + 6/7) weeks of gestation. The type of preterm delivery also had impact on microRNA gene expression profile. Downregulation of miR-24-3p, miR-92a-3p, miR-155-5p, and miR-210-3p was a common feature of PTB and PPROM pregnancies. Downregulation of miR-16-5p, miR-20b-5p, miR-26a-5p, miR-126-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-146a-5p, miR-221-3p, and miR-342-3p appeared just in PTB pregnancies. No microRNA was uniquely dysregulated in PPROM pregnancies. The combination of 12 microRNAs (miR-16-5p, miR-20b-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-26a-5p, miR-92a-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-145-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-155-5p, miR-210-3p, and miR-342-3p, AUC 0.818, p < 0.001, 74.53% sensitivity, 75.00% specificity, cut off > 0.634) equally as the combination of 6 microRNAs (miR-16-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-155-5p, and miR-210-3p, AUC 0.812, p < 0.001, 70.75% sensitivity, 78.75% specificity, cut off > 0.652) can predict preterm delivery before 37 weeks of gestation in early stages of gestation in 52.83% pregnancies at 10.0% FPR. Cardiovascular disease associated microRNAs represent promising biomarkers with very good diagnostical potential to be implemented into the current routine first trimester screening programme to predict preterm delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Review
Epigenetic Factors in Eutopic Endometrium in Women with Endometriosis and Infertility
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(7), 3804; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23073804 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Eutopic endometrium in patients with endometriosis is characterized by aberrant expression of essential genes during the implantation window. It predisposes to disturbance of endometrial receptivity. The pathomechanism of implantation failures in women with endometriosis remains unclear. This paper aims to summarize the knowledge [...] Read more.
Eutopic endometrium in patients with endometriosis is characterized by aberrant expression of essential genes during the implantation window. It predisposes to disturbance of endometrial receptivity. The pathomechanism of implantation failures in women with endometriosis remains unclear. This paper aims to summarize the knowledge on epigenetic mechanisms in eutopic endometrium in the group of patients with both endometriosis and infertility. The impaired DNA methylation patterns of gene promoter regions in eutopic tissue was established. The global profile of histone acetylation and methylation and the analysis of selected histone modifications showed significant differences in the endometrium of women with endometriosis. Aberrant expression of the proposed candidate genes may promote an unfavorable embryonic implantation environment of the endometrium due to an immunological dysfunction, inflammatory reaction, and apoptotic response in women with endometriosis. The role of the newly discovered proteins regulating gene expression, i.e., TET proteins, in endometrial pathology is not yet completely known. The cells of the eutopic endometrium in women with endometriosis contain a stable, impaired methylation pattern and a histone code. Medication targeting critical genes responsible for the aberrant gene expression pattern in eutopic endometrium may help treat infertility in women with endometriosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Review
Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(7), 3595; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23073595 - 25 Mar 2022
Abstract
The liver is one of the richest organs in mitochondria, serving as a hub for key metabolic pathways such as β-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, ketogenesis, respiratory activity, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, all of which provide metabolic energy for the entire [...] Read more.
The liver is one of the richest organs in mitochondria, serving as a hub for key metabolic pathways such as β-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, ketogenesis, respiratory activity, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, all of which provide metabolic energy for the entire body. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to subcellular organelle dysfunction in liver diseases, particularly fatty liver disease. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a life-threatening liver disorder unique to pregnancy, which can result in serious maternal and fetal complications, including death. Pregnant mothers with this disease require early detection, prompt delivery, and supportive maternal care. AFLP was considered a mysterious illness and though its pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated, molecular research over the past two decades has linked AFLP to mitochondrial dysfunction and defects in fetal fatty-acid oxidation (FAO). Due to deficient placental and fetal FAO, harmful 3-hydroxy fatty acid metabolites accumulate in the maternal circulation, causing oxidative stress and microvesicular fatty infiltration of the liver, resulting in AFLP. In this review, we provide an overview of AFLP and mitochondrial FAO followed by discussion of how altered mitochondrial function plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AFLP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
First-Trimester Screening for Fetal Growth Restriction and Small-for-Gestational-Age Pregnancies without Preeclampsia Using Cardiovascular Disease-Associated MicroRNA Biomarkers
Biomedicines 2022, 10(3), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10030718 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
The goal of the study was to determine the early diagnostical potential of cardiovascular disease-associated microRNAs for prediction of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) without preeclampsia (PE). The whole peripheral venous blood samples were collected within 10 to 13 weeks of [...] Read more.
The goal of the study was to determine the early diagnostical potential of cardiovascular disease-associated microRNAs for prediction of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) without preeclampsia (PE). The whole peripheral venous blood samples were collected within 10 to 13 weeks of gestation from singleton Caucasian pregnancies within the period November 2012 to March 2020. The case-control retrospective study, nested in a cohort, involved all pregnancies diagnosed with SGA (n = 37) or FGR (n = 82) without PE and 80 appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) pregnancies selected with regard to equality of sample storage time. Gene expression of 29 cardiovascular disease-associated microRNAs was assessed using real-time RT-PCR. Upregulation of miR-16-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-155-5p, miR-181a-5p, and miR-195-5p was observed in SGA or FGR pregnancies at 10.0% false positive rate (FPR). Upregulation of miR-1-3p, miR-20b-5p, miR-126-3p, miR-130b-3p, and miR-499a-5p was observed in SGA pregnancies only at 10.0% FPR. Upregulation of miR-145-5p, miR-342-3p, and miR-574-3p was detected in FGR pregnancies at 10.0% FPR. The combination of four microRNA biomarkers (miR-1-3p, miR-20a-5p, miR-146a-5p, and miR-181a-5p) was able to identify 75.68% SGA pregnancies at 10.0% FPR in early stages of gestation. The detection rate of SGA pregnancies without PE increased 4.67-fold (75.68% vs. 16.22%) when compared with the routine first-trimester screening for PE and/or FGR based on the criteria of the Fetal Medicine Foundation. The combination of seven microRNA biomarkers (miR-16-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-145-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-181a-5p, miR-342-3p, and miR-574-3p) was able to identify 42.68% FGR pregnancies at 10.0% FPR in early stages of gestation. The detection rate of FGR pregnancies without PE increased 1.52-fold (42.68% vs. 28.05%) when compared with the routine first-trimester screening for PE and/or FGR based on the criteria of the Fetal Medicine Foundation. Cardiovascular disease-associated microRNAs represent promising early biomarkers with very suitable predictive potential for SGA or FGR without PE to be implemented into the routine screening programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
The Significance of Epidermal Growth Factor in Noninvasively Obtained Amniotic Fluid Predicting Respiratory Outcomes of Preterm Neonates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(6), 2978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23062978 - 10 Mar 2022
Abstract
Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) interrupts normal lung development, resulting in neonatal respiratory morbidity. Although post-PPROM risks have been researched, only a few studies have investigated noninvasively obtained amniotic fluid (AF) to predict neonatal outcomes. In this study, we aimed to determine [...] Read more.
Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) interrupts normal lung development, resulting in neonatal respiratory morbidity. Although post-PPROM risks have been researched, only a few studies have investigated noninvasively obtained amniotic fluid (AF) to predict neonatal outcomes. In this study, we aimed to determine whether epidermal growth factor (EGF) in vaginally-collected AF is a significant predictor of neonatal respiratory outcomes after PPROM. We analyzed EGF in vaginally-obtained AF from 145 women with PPROM at 22–34 weeks of gestation. The following neonatal outcomes were included: respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant need, duration and type of respiratory support, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We found that EGF concentration was associated with gestational age, and its medians were lower in neonates with respiratory morbidities than unaffected ones. EGF concentrations gradually declined, the lowest being in the most clinically ill patients. EGF < 35 pg/mL significantly predicted the odds of severe respiratory outcomes. EGF in noninvasively collected AF may be a reliable predictor for respiratory outcomes of preterm neonates with PPROM before 34 weeks of gestation. The results of our study may have implications for further research both in noninvasive amniotic fluid analysis and the management of patients after PPROM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Review
The Targeting of Nuclear Factor Kappa B by Drugs Adopted for the Prevention and Treatment of Preeclampsia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(5), 2881; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23052881 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Preeclampsia (PE) is characterised by high levels and activity of the transcription factor Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFĸB) in the maternal blood and placental cells. This factor is responsible for the regulation of over 400 genes known to influence processes related to inflammation, [...] Read more.
Preeclampsia (PE) is characterised by high levels and activity of the transcription factor Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFĸB) in the maternal blood and placental cells. This factor is responsible for the regulation of over 400 genes known to influence processes related to inflammation, apoptosis and angiogenesis, and cellular responses to oxidative stress and hypoxia. Although high NFĸB activity induces hypoxia and inflammation, which are beneficial for the process of implantation, NFĸB level should be reduced in the later stages of physiological pregnancy to favour maternal immunosuppression and maintain gestation. It is believed that the downregulation of NFĸB activity by pharmacotherapy might be a promising way to treat preeclampsia. Interestingly, many of the drugs adopted for the prevention and treatment of preeclampsia have been found to regulate NFĸB activity. Despite this, further innovation is urgently needed to ensure treatment safety and efficacy. The present article summarizes the current state of knowledge about the drugs recommended by cardiology, obstetrics, and gynaecology societies for the prevention and treatment of preeclampsia with regard to their impact on the cellular regulation of NFĸB pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
Acute Prenatal Hypoxia in Rats Affects Physiology and Brain Metabolism in the Offspring, Dependent on Sex and Gestational Age
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(5), 2579; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23052579 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
Hypoxia is damaging to the fetus, but the developmental impact may vary, with underlying molecular mechanisms unclear. We demonstrate the dependence of physiological and biochemical effects of acute prenatal hypoxia (APH) on sex and gestational age. Compared to control rats, APH on the [...] Read more.
Hypoxia is damaging to the fetus, but the developmental impact may vary, with underlying molecular mechanisms unclear. We demonstrate the dependence of physiological and biochemical effects of acute prenatal hypoxia (APH) on sex and gestational age. Compared to control rats, APH on the 10th day of pregnancy (APH-10) increases locomotion in both the male and female offspring, additionally increasing exploratory activity and decreasing anxiety in the males. Compared to APH-10, APH on the 20th day of pregnancy (APH-20) induces less behavioral perturbations. ECG is changed similarly in all offspring only by APH-10. Sexual dimorphism in the APH outcome on behavior is also observed in the brain acetylation system and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase reaction, essential for neurotransmitter metabolism. In view of the perturbed behavior, more biochemical parameters in the brains are assessed after APH-20. Of the six enzymes, APH-20 significantly decreases the malic enzyme activity in both sexes. Among 24 amino acids and dipeptides, APH-20 increases the levels of only three amino acids (Phe, Thr, and Trp) in male offspring, and of seven amino acids (Glu, Gly, Phe, Trp, Ser, Thr, Asn) and carnosine in the female offspring. Thus, a higher reactivity of the brain metabolism to APH stabilizes the behavior. The behavior and brain biochemistry demonstrate sexually dimorphic responses to APH at both gestational stages, whereas the APH effects on ECG depend on gestational age rather than sex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
Characterization of Serum Metabolome and Proteome Profiles Identifies SNX5 Specific for Pregnancy Failure in Holstein Heifers
Life 2022, 12(2), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12020309 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Pregnancy loss predominantly occurs during the first 3–4 weeks due to fertilization failure or early embryonic losses in cattle. Insufficient biochemical communication between conceptus (embryo plus extraembryonic membranes) and endometrium has been suspected as the primary cause for early embryonic losses. If molecules [...] Read more.
Pregnancy loss predominantly occurs during the first 3–4 weeks due to fertilization failure or early embryonic losses in cattle. Insufficient biochemical communication between conceptus (embryo plus extraembryonic membranes) and endometrium has been suspected as the primary cause for early embryonic losses. If molecules regulating this communication were identified, molecular mechanisms associated with early pregnancy losses could be better understood. To identify candidate molecules as detection markers of non-pregnant or females undergoing embryonic loss, peripheral blood from embryo-transferred heifers on day 7 (day 0 = day of estrus) were collected on days 17 (pre-attachment), 20 (during attachment), and 22 (post-attachment), which were subjected to metabolome and global proteome iTRAQ analyses. The metabolome analysis partly divided serum components into pregnant or not. In the iTRAQ analysis, heatmap analysis with top 25 proteins was separated into pregnant or not on day 20 or 22. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis identified five candidate proteins detecting non-pregnant heifers, of which SNX5 in day 22 serum had the highest area under the curve (AUC): 0.983. We also detected SNX5 in day 22 serum from non-pregnant heifers using western blotting. These results suggest that high SNX5 in day 22 serum could predict early pregnancy loss in heifers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
METTL21A, a Non-Histone Methyltransferase, Is Dispensable for Spermatogenesis and Male Fertility in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(4), 1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23041942 - 09 Feb 2022
Abstract
Protein methyltransferases play various physiological and pathological roles through methylating histone and non-histone targets. Many histone methyltransferases have been reported to regulate the development of spermatogenic cells. However, the specific function of non-histone methyltransferases during spermatogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we found [...] Read more.
Protein methyltransferases play various physiological and pathological roles through methylating histone and non-histone targets. Many histone methyltransferases have been reported to regulate the development of spermatogenic cells. However, the specific function of non-histone methyltransferases during spermatogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we found that METTL21A, a non-histone methyltransferase, is highly expressed in mouse testes. In order to elucidate the role of METTL21A in spermatogenesis, we generated a Mettl21a global knockout mouse model using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Unexpectedly, our results showed that knockout males are fertile without apparent defects in the processes of male germ cell development, including spermatogonial differentiation, meiosis, and sperm maturation. Furthermore, the ablation of METTL21A does not affect the expression and localization of its known targeting proteins in testes. Together, our data demonstrated that METTL21A is not essential for mouse spermatogenesis and male fertility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
A Novel Xeno-Free Method to Isolate Human Endometrial Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (E-MSCs) in Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) Conditions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(4), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23041931 - 09 Feb 2022
Abstract
The cyclic regeneration of human endometrium is guaranteed by the proliferative capacity of endometrial mesenchymal stromal cells (E-MSCs). Due to this, the autologous infusion of E-MSCs has been proposed to support endometrial growth in a wide range of gynecological diseases. We aimed to [...] Read more.
The cyclic regeneration of human endometrium is guaranteed by the proliferative capacity of endometrial mesenchymal stromal cells (E-MSCs). Due to this, the autologous infusion of E-MSCs has been proposed to support endometrial growth in a wide range of gynecological diseases. We aimed to compare two different endometrial sampling methods, surgical curettage and vacuum aspiration biopsy random assay (VABRA), and to validate a novel xeno-free method to culture human E-MSCs. Six E-MSCs cell samples were isolated after mechanical tissue homogenization and cultured using human platelet lysate. E-MSCs were characterized for the colony formation capacity, proliferative potential, and multilineage differentiation. The expression of mesenchymal and stemness markers were tested by FACS analysis and real-time PCR, respectively. Chromosomal alterations were evaluated by karyotype analysis, whereas tumorigenic capacity and invasiveness were tested by soft agar assay. Both endometrial sampling techniques allowed efficient isolation and expansion of E-MSCs using a xeno-free method, preserving their mesenchymal and stemness phenotype, proliferative potential, and limited multi-lineage differentiation ability during the culture. No chromosomal alterations and invasive/tumorigenic capacity were observed. Herein, we report the first evidence of efficient E-MSCs isolation and culture in Good Manufacturing Practice compliance conditions, suggesting VABRA endometrial sampling as alternative to surgical curettage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
Regulatory T Cell Apoptosis during Preeclampsia May Be Prevented by Gal-2
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031880 - 07 Feb 2022
Abstract
There are several open questions to be answered regarding the pathophysiology of the development of preeclampsia (PE). Numerous factors are involved in its genesis, such as defective placentation, vascular impairment, and an altered immune response. The activation of the adaptive and innate immune [...] Read more.
There are several open questions to be answered regarding the pathophysiology of the development of preeclampsia (PE). Numerous factors are involved in its genesis, such as defective placentation, vascular impairment, and an altered immune response. The activation of the adaptive and innate immune system represents an immunologic, particularity during PE. Proinflammatory cytokines are predominantly produced, whereas immune regulatory and immune suppressive factors are diminished in PE. In the present study, we focused on the recruitment of regulatory T cells (Tregs) which are key players in processes mediating immune tolerance. To identify Tregs in the decidua, an immunohistochemical staining of FoxP3 of 32 PE and 34 control placentas was performed. A clearly reduced number of FoxP3-positive cells in the decidua of preeclamptic women could be shown in our analysis (p = 0.036). Furthermore, CCL22, a well-known Treg chemoattractant, was immunohistochemically evaluated. Interestingly, CCL22 expression was increased at the maternal-fetal interface in PE-affected pregnancies (psyncytiotrophoblast = 0.035, pdecidua = 0.004). Therefore, the hypothesis that Tregs undergo apoptosis at the materno-fetal interface during PE was generated, and verified by FoxP3/TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) staining. Galectin-2 (Gal-2), a member of the family of carbohydrate-binding proteins, which is known to be downregulated during PE, seems to play a pivotal role in T cell apoptosis. By performing a cell culture experiment with isolated Tregs, we could identify Gal-2 as a factor that seems to prevent the apoptosis of Tregs. Our findings point to a cascade of apoptosis of Tregs at the materno-fetal interface during PE. Gal-2 might be a potential therapeutic target in PE to regulate immune tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
Cardiovascular Disease-Associated MicroRNA Dysregulation during the First Trimester of Gestation in Women with Chronic Hypertension and Normotensive Women Subsequently Developing Gestational Hypertension or Preeclampsia with or without Fetal Growth Restriction
Biomedicines 2022, 10(2), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020256 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess if cardiovascular disease-associated microRNAs would be able to predict during the early stages of gestation (within 10 to 13 weeks) subsequent onset of hypertensive pregnancy-related complications: gestational hypertension (GH) or preeclampsia (PE). Secondly, the goal [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to assess if cardiovascular disease-associated microRNAs would be able to predict during the early stages of gestation (within 10 to 13 weeks) subsequent onset of hypertensive pregnancy-related complications: gestational hypertension (GH) or preeclampsia (PE). Secondly, the goal of the study was to assess if cardiovascular disease-associated microRNAs would be able to detect the presence of chronic hypertension in early pregnancies. The retrospective study was performed on whole peripheral blood samples collected from singleton Caucasian pregnancies within the period November 2012 to March 2020. The case control study, nested in a cohort, involved all women with chronic hypertension (n = 29), all normotensive women that later developed GH (n = 83) or PE with or without fetal growth restriction (FGR) (n = 66), and 80 controls selected on the base of equal sample storage time. Whole peripheral blood profiling was performed with the selection of 29 cardiovascular disease-associated microRNAs using real-time RT-PCR. Upregulation of miR-1-3p (51.72% at 10.0% FPR) was observed in patients with chronic hypertension only. Upregulation of miR-20a-5p (44.83% and 33.33% at 10.0% FPR) and miR-146a-5p (65.52% and 42.42% at 10.0% FPR) was observed in patients with chronic hypertension and normotensive women with later occurrence of PE. Upregulation of miR-181a-5p was detected in normotensive women subsequently developing GH (22.89% at 10.0% FPR) or PE (40.91% at 10.0% FPR). In a part of women with subsequent onset of PE, upregulation of miR-143-3p (24.24% at 10.0% FPR), miR-145-5p (21.21% at 10.0% FPR), and miR-574-3p (27.27% at 10.0% FPR) was also present. The combination of microRNA biomarkers (miR-20a-5p, miR-143-3p, miR-145-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-181a-5p, and miR-574-3p) can predict the later occurrence of PE in 48.48% of pregnancies at 10.0% FPR in early stages of gestation. The combination of upregulated microRNA biomarkers (miR-1-3p, miR-20a-5p, and miR-146a-5p) is able to identify 72.41% of pregnancies with chronic hypertension at 10.0% FPR in early stages of gestation. Cardiovascular disease-associated microRNAs represent promising biomarkers with very good diagnostical potential to be implemented into the current first trimester screening program to predict later occurrence of PE with or without FGR. The comparison of the predictive results of the routine first trimester screening for PE and/or FGR based on the criteria of the Fetal Medicine Foundation and the first trimester screening for PE wo/w FGR using a panel of six cardiovascular disease-associated microRNAs only revealed that the detection rate of PE increased 1.45-fold (48.48% vs. 33.33%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
Placenta-Specific miR-125b Overexpression Leads to Increased Rates of Pregnancy Loss in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(2), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020943 - 15 Jan 2022
Abstract
Pregnancy loss (PL) is one of the common complications that women can experience during pregnancy, with an occurrence rate of 1 to 5%. The potential causes of pregnancy loss are unclear, with no effective treatment modalities being available. It has been previously reported [...] Read more.
Pregnancy loss (PL) is one of the common complications that women can experience during pregnancy, with an occurrence rate of 1 to 5%. The potential causes of pregnancy loss are unclear, with no effective treatment modalities being available. It has been previously reported that the level of miR-125b was significantly increased in placentas of PL patients. However, the role of miR-125b in the development of PL still remains unknown. In the current study, an miR-125b placenta-specific over-expression model was constructed by lentiviral transfecting zona-free mouse embryos followed by embryo transfer. On gestation day 15, it was observed that the placenta was significantly smaller in the miR-125b placenta-specific overexpression group than the control group. Additionally, the abortion rate of the miR-125b placenta-specific overexpression group was markedly higher than in the control group. The blood vessel diameter was larger in the miR-125b-overexpressing specific placenta. In addition, miR-125b-overexpressing HTR8 and JEG3 cell lines were also generated to analyze the migration and invasion ability of trophoblasts. The results showed that miR-125b overexpression significantly suppressed the migration and invasion ability of HTR8 and JEG3 cells. Overall, our results demonstrated that miR-125b can affect embryo implantation through modulating placenta angiogenesis and trophoblast cell invasion capacity that can lead to PL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Communication
Comparison of Diagnostic Values of Maternal Arginine Concentration for Different Pregnancy Complications: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Biomedicines 2022, 10(1), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10010166 - 13 Jan 2022
Abstract
Abnormal arginine metabolism contributes to the development of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preeclampsia (PE), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which increase the health burden of mothers and induce adverse birth outcomes. However, associations between maternal arginine concentration and different pregnancy complications have not [...] Read more.
Abnormal arginine metabolism contributes to the development of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preeclampsia (PE), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which increase the health burden of mothers and induce adverse birth outcomes. However, associations between maternal arginine concentration and different pregnancy complications have not been systematically compared. The PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases were searched for peer-reviewed publications to evaluate the diagnostic value of plasma arginine concentration in complicated pregnancies. Standardized mean difference (SMD) of the arginine concentration was pooled by a random effects model. The results show that increased maternal arginine concentrations were observed in IUGR (SMD: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.76; I2 = 47.0%) and GDM (SMD: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.81; I2 = 82.3%) cases but not in PE patients (SMD: 0.21; 95% CI: −0.04, 0.47; I2 = 80.3%) compared with the normal cohorts. Subgroup analyses indicated that the non-fasting circulating arginine concentration in third trimester was increased significantly in GDM and severe IUGR pregnancies, but the change mode was dependent on ethnicity. Additionally, only severe PE persons were accompanied by higher plasma arginine concentrations. These findings suggest that maternal arginine concentration is an important reference for assessing the development of pregnancy complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
The Interplay between Pathophysiological Pathways in Early-Onset Severe Preeclampsia Unveiled by Metabolomics
Life 2022, 12(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12010086 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Introduction: Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder unique to pregnancy responsible for a great part of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The precise pathogenesis of this complex disorder is still unrevealed. Methods: We examined the pathophysiological pathways involved in early-onset preeclampsia, a specific [...] Read more.
Introduction: Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder unique to pregnancy responsible for a great part of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The precise pathogenesis of this complex disorder is still unrevealed. Methods: We examined the pathophysiological pathways involved in early-onset preeclampsia, a specific subgroup representing its most severe presentation, using LC-MS/MS metabolomic analysis based on multi-level extraction of lipids and small metabolites from maternal blood samples, collected at the time of diagnosis from 14 preeclamptic and six matched healthy pregnancies. Statistical analysis comprised multivariate and univariate approaches with the application of over representation analysis to identify differential pathways. Results: A clear difference between preeclamptic and control pregnancies was observed in principal component analysis. Supervised multivariate analysis using orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis provided a robust model with goodness of fit (R2X = 0.91, p = 0.002) and predictive ability (Q2Y = 0.72, p < 0.001). Finally, univariate analysis followed by 5% false discovery rate correction indicated 82 metabolites significantly altered, corresponding to six overrepresented pathways: (1) aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis; (2) arginine biosynthesis; (3) alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism; (4) D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism; (5) arginine and proline metabolism; and (6) histidine metabolism. Conclusion: Metabolomic analysis focusing specifically on the early-onset severe form of preeclampsia reveals the interplay between pathophysiological pathways involved in this form. Future studies are required to explore new therapeutic approaches targeting these altered metabolic pathways in early-onset preeclampsia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
Overexpression of microRNAs miR-25-3p, miR-185-5p and miR-132-3p in Late Onset Fetal Growth Restriction, Validation of Results and Study of the Biochemical Pathways Involved
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(1), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23010293 - 28 Dec 2021
Abstract
In a prospective study, 48 fetuses were evaluated with Doppler ultrasound after 34 weeks and classified, according to the cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) and estimated fetal weight (EFW), into fetuses with normal growth and fetuses with late-onset fetal growth restriction (LO-FGR). Overexpression of miRNAs [...] Read more.
In a prospective study, 48 fetuses were evaluated with Doppler ultrasound after 34 weeks and classified, according to the cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) and estimated fetal weight (EFW), into fetuses with normal growth and fetuses with late-onset fetal growth restriction (LO-FGR). Overexpression of miRNAs from neonatal cord blood belonging to LO-FGR fetuses, was validated by real-time PCR. In addition, functional characterization of overexpressed miRNAs was performed by analyzing overrepresented pathways, gene ontologies, and prioritization of synergistically working miRNAs. Three miRNAs: miR-25-3p, miR-185-5p and miR-132-3p, were significantly overexpressed in cord blood of LO-FGR fetuses. Pathway and gene ontology analysis revealed over-representation of certain molecular pathways associated with cardiac development and neuron death. In addition, prioritization of synergistically working miRNAs highlighted the importance of miR-185-5p and miR-25-3p in cholesterol efflux and starvation responses associated with LO-FGR phenotypes. Evaluation of miR-25-3p; miR-132-3p and miR-185-5p might serve as molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis and management of LO-FGR; improving the understanding of its influence on adult disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Review
Galectins in Early Pregnancy and Pregnancy-Associated Pathologies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23010069 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Galectins are a family of conserved soluble proteins defined by an affinity for β-galactoside structures present on various glycoconjugates. Over the past few decades, galectins have been recognized as important factors for successful implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. An increasing number of studies [...] Read more.
Galectins are a family of conserved soluble proteins defined by an affinity for β-galactoside structures present on various glycoconjugates. Over the past few decades, galectins have been recognized as important factors for successful implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated their involvement in trophoblast cell function and placental development. In addition, several lines of evidence suggest their important roles in feto-maternal immune tolerance regulation and angiogenesis. Changed or dysregulated galectin expression is also described in pregnancy-related disorders. Although the data regarding galectins’ clinical relevance are still at an early stage, evidence suggests that some galectin family members are promising candidates for better understanding pregnancy-related pathologies, as well as predicting biomarkers. In this review, we aim to summarize current knowledge of galectins in early pregnancy as well as in pregnancy-related pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Review
Genetic Background of Fetal Growth Restriction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23010036 - 21 Dec 2021
Abstract
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is one of the most formidable challenges in present-day antenatal care. Pathological fetal growth is a well-known factor of not only in utero demise in the third trimester, but also postnatal morbidity and unfavorable developmental outcomes, including long-term sequalae [...] Read more.
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is one of the most formidable challenges in present-day antenatal care. Pathological fetal growth is a well-known factor of not only in utero demise in the third trimester, but also postnatal morbidity and unfavorable developmental outcomes, including long-term sequalae such as metabolic diseases, diabetic mellitus or hypertension. In this review, the authors present the current state of knowledge about the genetic disturbances responsible for FGR diagnosis, divided into fetal, placental and maternal causes (including preeclampsia), as well as their impact on prenatal diagnostics, with particular attention on chromosomal microarray (CMA) and noninvasive prenatal testing technique (NIPT). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Review
PPARγ—A Factor Linking Metabolically Unhealthy Obesity with Placental Pathologies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 13167; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222313167 - 06 Dec 2021
Abstract
Obesity is a known factor in the development of preeclampsia. This paper links adipose tissue pathologies with aberrant placental development and the resulting preeclampsia. PPARγ, a transcription factor from the ligand-activated nuclear hormone receptor family, appears to be one common aspect of both [...] Read more.
Obesity is a known factor in the development of preeclampsia. This paper links adipose tissue pathologies with aberrant placental development and the resulting preeclampsia. PPARγ, a transcription factor from the ligand-activated nuclear hormone receptor family, appears to be one common aspect of both pathologies. It is the master regulator of adipogenesis in humans. At the same time, its aberrantly low activity has been observed in placental pathologies. Overweight and obesity are very serious health problems worldwide. They have negative effects on the overall mortality rate. Very importantly, they are also conducive to diseases linked to impaired placental development, including preeclampsia. More and more people in Europe are suffering from overweight (35.2%) and obesity (16%) (EUROSTAT 2021 data), some of them young women planning pregnancy. As a result, we will be increasingly encountering obese pregnant women with a considerable risk of placental development disorders, including preeclampsia. An appreciation of the mechanisms shared by these two conditions may assist in their prevention and treatment. Clearly, it should not be forgotten that health education concerning the need for a proper diet and physical activity is of utmost importance here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
Regulation of Epigenetic Modifications in the Placenta during Preeclampsia: PPARγ Influences H3K4me3 and H3K9ac in Extravillous Trophoblast Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(22), 12469; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212469 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and retinoid X receptor α (RxRα), a binding heterodimer playing a pivotal role in the successful trophoblast invasion, in the placental tissue of preeclamptic patients. Furthermore, we [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and retinoid X receptor α (RxRα), a binding heterodimer playing a pivotal role in the successful trophoblast invasion, in the placental tissue of preeclamptic patients. Furthermore, we aimed to characterize a possible interaction between PPARγ and H3K4me3 (trimethylated lysine 4 of the histone H3), respectively H3K9ac (acetylated lysine 9 of the histone H3), to illuminate the role of histone modifications in a defective trophoblast invasion in preeclampsia (PE). Therefore, the expression of PPARγ and RxRα was analyzed in 26 PE and 25 control placentas by immunohistochemical peroxidase staining, as well as the co-expression with H3K4me3 and H3K9ac by double immunofluorescence staining. Further, the effect of a specific PPARγ-agonist (Ciglitazone) and PPARγ-antagonist (T0070907) on the histone modifications H3K9ac and H3K4me3 was analyzed in vitro. In PE placentas, we found a reduced expression of PPARγ and RxRα and a reduced co-expression with H3K4me3 and H3K9ac in the extravillous trophoblast (EVT). Furthermore, with the PPARγ-antagonist treated human villous trophoblast (HVT) cells and primary isolated EVT cells showed higher levels of the histone modification proteins whereas treatment with the PPARγ-agonist reduced respective histone modifications. Our results show that the stimulation of PPARγ-activity leads to a reduction of H3K4me3 and H3K9ac in trophoblast cells, but paradoxically decreases the nuclear PPARγ expression. As the importance of PPARγ, being involved in a successful trophoblast invasion has already been investigated, our results reveal a pathophysiologic connection between PPARγ and the epigenetic modulation via H3K4me3 and H3K9ac in PE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
High-Throughput Sequencing of Circulating MicroRNAs in Plasma and Serum during Pregnancy Progression
Life 2021, 11(10), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101055 - 08 Oct 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Although circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in maternal blood may play an important role in regulation of pregnancy progression and serve as non-invasive biomarkers for different gestation complications, little is known about their profile in blood during normally developing pregnancy. In this study we evaluated [...] Read more.
Although circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in maternal blood may play an important role in regulation of pregnancy progression and serve as non-invasive biomarkers for different gestation complications, little is known about their profile in blood during normally developing pregnancy. In this study we evaluated the miRNA profiles in paired plasma and serum samples from pregnant women without health or gestational abnormalities at three time points using high-throughput sequencing technology. Sequencing revealed that the percentage of miRNA reads in plasma and serum decreased by a third compared to first and second trimesters. We found two miRNAs in plasma (hsa-miR-7853-5p and hsa-miR-200c-3p) and 10 miRNAs in serum (hsa-miR-203a-5p, hsa-miR-495-3p, hsa-miR-4435, hsa-miR-340-5p, hsa-miR-4417, hsa-miR-1266-5p, hsa-miR-4494, hsa-miR-134-3p, hsa-miR-5008-5p, and hsa-miR-6756-5p), that exhibit level changes during pregnancy (p-value adjusted < 0.05). In addition, we observed differences for 36 miRNAs between plasma and serum (p-value adjusted < 0.05), which should be taken into consideration when comparing the results between studies performed using different biosample types. The results were verified by analysis of three miRNAs using qRT-PCR (p < 0.05). The present study confirms that the circulating miRNA profile in blood changes during gestation. Our results set the basis for further investigation of molecular mechanisms, involved in regulation of pregnancy, and the search for biomarkers of gestation abnormalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
C1431T Variant of PPARγ Is Associated with Preeclampsia in Pregnant Women
Life 2021, 11(10), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101052 - 07 Oct 2021
Abstract
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is essential for placental development, whose SNPs have shown increased susceptibility to pregnancy-related diseases, such as preeclampsia. Our aim was to investigate the association between preeclampsia and three PPARγ SNPs (Pro12Ala, C1431T, and C681G), which together with nine [...] Read more.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is essential for placental development, whose SNPs have shown increased susceptibility to pregnancy-related diseases, such as preeclampsia. Our aim was to investigate the association between preeclampsia and three PPARγ SNPs (Pro12Ala, C1431T, and C681G), which together with nine clinical factors were used to build a pragmatic model for preeclampsia prediction. Data were collected from 1648 women from the EDEN cohort, of which 35 women had preeclamptic pregnancies, and the remaining 1613 women had normal pregnancies. Univariate analysis comparing preeclamptic patients to the control resulted in the SNP C1431T being the only factor significantly associated with preeclampsia (p < 0.05), with a confidence interval of 95% and odds ratio ranging from 4.90 to 8.75. On the other hand, three methods of multivariate feature selection highlighted seven features that could be potential predictors of preeclampsia: maternal C1431T and C681G variants, obesity, body mass index, number of pregnancies, primiparity, cigarette use, and education. These seven features were further used as input into eight different machine-learning algorithms to create predictive models, whose performances were evaluated based on metrics of accuracy and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The boost tree-based model performed the best, with respective accuracy and AUC values of 0.971 ± 0.002 and 0.991 ± 0.001 in the training set and 0.951 and 0.701 in the testing set. A flowchart based on the boost tree model was constructed to depict the procedure for preeclampsia prediction. This final decision tree showed that the C1431T variant of PPARγ is significantly associated with susceptibility to preeclampsia. We believe that this final decision tree could be applied in the clinical prediction of preeclampsia in the very early stages of pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
Metabolomics Analysis of Amniotic Fluid in Euploid Foetuses with Thickened Nuchal Translucency by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Life 2021, 11(9), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11090913 - 02 Sep 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Persistence of a fetal thickened nuchal translucency (NT), one of the most sensitive and specific individual markers of fetal disorders, is strongly correlated with the possibility of a genetic syndrome, congenital infections, or other malformations. Thickened NT can also be found in normal [...] Read more.
Persistence of a fetal thickened nuchal translucency (NT), one of the most sensitive and specific individual markers of fetal disorders, is strongly correlated with the possibility of a genetic syndrome, congenital infections, or other malformations. Thickened NT can also be found in normal pregnancies. Several of its pathophysiological aspects still remain unexplained. Metabolomics could offer a fresh opportunity to explore maternal–foetal metabolism in an effort to explain its physiological and pathological mechanisms. For this prospective case-control pilot study, thirty-nine samples of amniotic fluids were collected, divisible into 12 euploid foetuses with an enlarged nuchal translucency (>NT) and 27 controls (C). Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses were performed to find a specific metabolic pattern of >NT class. The correlation between the metabolic profile and clinical parameters was evaluated (NT showed an R2 = 0.75, foetal crown-rump length showed R2 = 0.65, pregnancy associated plasma protein-A showed R2 = 0.60). Nine metabolites significantly differing between >NT foetuses and C were detected: 2-hydroxybutyric acid, 3-hydroxybutyric, 1,5 Anydro-Sorbitol, cholesterol, erythronic acid, fructose, malic acid, threitol, and threonine, which were linked to altered pathways involved in altered energetic pathways. Through the metabolomics approach, it was possible to identify a specific metabolic fingerprint of the fetuses with >NT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Communication
The Effect of Citral on Aquaporin 5 and Trpv4 Expressions and Uterine Contraction in Rat—An Alternative Mechanism
Life 2021, 11(9), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11090897 - 30 Aug 2021
Abstract
Aquaporins (AQPs) are expressed in the uterus, playing a physiological role during pregnancy. An osmotic pathway—through AQP5—may modify the transient potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) function and uterine contraction. Our aim was to determine the role of TRPV4 antagonist citral in the regulation of [...] Read more.
Aquaporins (AQPs) are expressed in the uterus, playing a physiological role during pregnancy. An osmotic pathway—through AQP5—may modify the transient potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) function and uterine contraction. Our aim was to determine the role of TRPV4 antagonist citral in the regulation of pregnant uterine contraction. In vitro uterine contractions were evoked by KCl and the response was modified with citral. The expressions of TRPV4 and AQP5 were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot techniques. The lengths of gestational periods were determined in normal and LPS-induced preterm births after citral treatment, in vivo. Citral significantly decreased the uterine contraction on day 22 of pregnancy. AQP5 expression significantly increased after citral incubation; however, TRPV4 expression did not show significant changes. After citral pretreatment, the gestational period was extended both in normal and LPS-induced preterm births. Our results suppose that the downregulation of AQP5 may initiate hypertonic stress, activating TRPV4 the uterine contraction on the last day of the gestational period. The putative cooperation between AQP5 and TRPV4 may open a novel target to treat or prevent preterm birth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
Risk Factors for Early and Late Onset Preeclampsia in Reunion Island: Multivariate Analysis of Singleton and Twin Pregnancies. A 20-Year Population-Based Cohort of 2120 Preeclampsia Cases
Reprod. Med. 2021, 2(3), 131-143; https://doi.org/10.3390/reprodmed2030014 - 25 Aug 2021
Abstract
Objectives: To develop a multivariate model for risk factors specific to early onset preeclampsia (EOP) and late onset preeclampsia (LOP) in our entire population (singleton and twin pregnancies). Material and methods: 20 year-observational population-based historical cohort study (2001–2020). All consecutive births delivered at [...] Read more.
Objectives: To develop a multivariate model for risk factors specific to early onset preeclampsia (EOP) and late onset preeclampsia (LOP) in our entire population (singleton and twin pregnancies). Material and methods: 20 year-observational population-based historical cohort study (2001–2020). All consecutive births delivered at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hospitalier Sud Reunion’s maternity ward. A standardized validated epidemiological perinatal database was used. Results: During the 20-year period, there were 81,834 pregnancies and 83,497 infants born, 1232 dichorionic and 350 monochorionic twin pregnancies. There were 2120 cases of preeclampsia, of which 2001 were preeclamptic singleton pregnancies and 119 twin pregnancies (incidence 7.5% in twin pregnancies vs. 2.5% singletons, OR 3.0, p < 0.001). Independent risk factors for EOP and LOP in a multivariate model (controlling for the two major confounders: maternal ages—both risks for EOP and LOP, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI—specific risk factor for LOP) were: history of preeclampsia (adjusted OR (aOR) 11.7 for EOP, 7.8 for LOP, p < 0.0001), chronic hypertension (aOR 7.3 for EOP, 3.9 for LOP, p < 0.0001), history of perinatal death (aOR 2.2 for EOP, p < 0.0001 and 1.48 for LOP, p = 0.007), primipaternity (aOR 3.0 for EOP and 3.6 for LOP, p = 0.001), dizygotic twin pregnancies (aOR 3.7 for EOP, p < 0.0001 and 2.1 for LOP, p = 0.003), monozygotic twin pregnancies (aOR 3.98 for EOP, p = 0.003 and non-significant (NS) for LOP), ovulation induction (aOR 5.6 for EOP, p = 0.004 and NS for LOP), and in vitro fertilization (aOR 2.8 for EOP, p = 0.05 and NS for LOP). Specific to LOP and NS for EOP: renal diseases (aOR for LOP 2.9, p = 0.007) and gestational diabetes mellitus (aOR 1.2, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Maternal ages over 35 years, chronic hypertension, history of preeclampsia, ovulation induction, in vitro fertilizations, history of perinatal deaths and twin pregnancy (in our experience, especially mono zygotic twin pregnancies) are significant risk factors for EOP. New paternity is an independent factor for both EOP and LOP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Review
State-of-the-Art on Biomarkers for Anaphylaxis in Obstetrics
Life 2021, 11(9), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11090870 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Anaphylaxis is an unpredictable systemic hypersensitivity reaction and constitutes a high risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality when occurring during pregnancy. Currently, the acute management of anaphylaxis is based on clinical parameters. A total serum tryptase is only used to support [...] Read more.
Anaphylaxis is an unpredictable systemic hypersensitivity reaction and constitutes a high risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality when occurring during pregnancy. Currently, the acute management of anaphylaxis is based on clinical parameters. A total serum tryptase is only used to support an accurate diagnosis. There is a need to detect other biomarkers to further assess high-risk patients in obstetrics. Our objective is to present biomarkers in this complex interdisciplinary approach beyond obstetrician and anaesthetic management. Candidate biomarkers derive either from mediators involved in immunopathogenesis or upcoming molecules from systems biology and proteomics. Serum tryptase is determined by singleplex immunoassay method and is important in the evaluation of anaphylactic mast cell degranulation but also in the assessment of other risk factors for anaphylaxis such as systemic mastocytosis. Another category of biomarkers investigates the IgE-mediated sensitization to triggers potentially involved in the etiology of anaphylaxis in pregnant women, using singleplex or multiplex immunoassays. These in vitro tests with natural extracts from foods, venoms, latex or drugs, as well as with molecular allergen components, are useful because in vivo allergy tests cannot be performed on pregnant women in such a major medical emergency due to their additional potential risk of anaphylaxis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
ADCY5, CAPN10 and JAZF1 Gene Polymorphisms and Placental Expression in Women with Gestational Diabetes
Life 2021, 11(8), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11080806 - 09 Aug 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is carbohydrate intolerance that occurs during pregnancy. This disease may lead to various maternal and neonatal complications; therefore, early diagnosis is very important. Because of the similarity in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and GDM, the genetic variants associated [...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is carbohydrate intolerance that occurs during pregnancy. This disease may lead to various maternal and neonatal complications; therefore, early diagnosis is very important. Because of the similarity in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and GDM, the genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes are commonly investigated in GDM. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between the polymorphisms in the ADCY5 (rs11708067, rs2877716), CAPN10 (rs2975760, rs3792267), and JAZF1 (rs864745) genes and GDM as well as to determine the expression of these genes in the placenta. This study included 272 pregnant women with GDM and 348 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance. The diagnosis of GDM was based on a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24–28 weeks gestation, according to International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of the ADCY5 gene (rs11708067, rs2877716) and CAPN10 gene (rs2975760, rs3792267) polymorphisms between pregnant women with normal carbohydrate tolerance and pregnant women with GDM. We have shown a lower frequency of JAZF1 gene rs864745 C allele carriers among women with GDM CC + CT vs. TT (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.41–0.87, p = 0.006), and C vs. T (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.60–0.95, p = 0.014). In addition, ADCY5 and JAZF1 gene expression was statistically significantly increased in the placentas of women with GDM compared with that of healthy women. The expression of the CAPN10 gene did not differ significantly between women with and without GDM. Our results indicate increased expression of JAZF1 and ADCY5 genes in the placentas of women with GDM as well as a protective effect of the C allele of the JAZF1 rs864745 gene polymorphism on the development of GDM in pregnant women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
Outcomes of Deferoxamine Action on H2O2-Induced Growth Inhibition and Senescence Progression of Human Endometrial Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 6035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22116035 - 03 Jun 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are broadly applied in regenerative therapy to replace cells that are lost or impaired during disease. The low survival rate of MSCs after transplantation is one of the major limitations heavily influencing the success of the therapy. Unfavorable microenvironments [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are broadly applied in regenerative therapy to replace cells that are lost or impaired during disease. The low survival rate of MSCs after transplantation is one of the major limitations heavily influencing the success of the therapy. Unfavorable microenvironments with inflammation and oxidative stress in the damaged regions contribute to MSCs loss. Most of the strategies developed to overcome this obstacle are aimed to prevent stress-induced apoptosis, with little attention paid to senescence—another common stress reaction of MSCs. Here, we proposed the strategy to prevent oxidative stress-induced senescence of human endometrial stem cells (hMESCs) based on deferoxamine (DFO) application. DFO prevented DNA damage and stress-induced senescence of hMESCs, as evidenced by reduced levels of reactive oxygen species, lipofuscin, cyclin D1, decreased SA-β-Gal activity, and improved mitochondrial function. Additionally, DFO caused accumulation of HIF-1α, which may contribute to the survival of H2O2-treated cells. Importantly, cells that escaped senescence due to DFO preconditioning preserved all the properties of the initial hMESCs. Therefore, once protecting cells from oxidative damage, DFO did not alter further hMESCs functioning. The data obtained may become the important prerequisite for development of a new strategy in regenerative therapy based on MSCs preconditioning using DFO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
Essential Role of CRIM1 on Endometrial Receptivity in Goat
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(10), 5323; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105323 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
In domestic ruminants, endometrial receptivity is related to successful pregnancy and economic efficiency. Despite several molecules having been reported in the past regarding endometrial receptivity regulation, much regarding the mechanism of endometrial receptivity regulation remains unknown due to the complex nature of the [...] Read more.
In domestic ruminants, endometrial receptivity is related to successful pregnancy and economic efficiency. Despite several molecules having been reported in the past regarding endometrial receptivity regulation, much regarding the mechanism of endometrial receptivity regulation remains unknown due to the complex nature of the trait. In this work, we demonstrated that the cysteine-rich transmembrane bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) regulator 1 (CRIM1) served as a novel regulator in the regulation of goat endometrial receptivity in vitro. Our results showed that hormones and IFN-τ increased the expression of CRIM1 in goat endometrial epithelial cells (EECs). Knockdown of CRIM1 via specific shRNA hindered cell proliferation, cell adhesion and prostaglandins (PGs) secretion and thus derailed normal endometrial receptivity. We further confirmed that receptivity defect phenotypes due to CRIM1 interference were restored by ATG7 overexpression in EECs while a loss of ATG7 further impaired receptivity phenotypes. Moreover, our results showed that changing the expression of ATG7 affected the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, mR-143-5p was shown to be a potential upstream factor of CRIM1-regulated endometrial receptivity in EECs. Overall, these results suggest that CRIM1, as the downstream target of miR-143-5p, has effects on ATG7-dependent autophagy, regulating cell proliferation, cell adhesion and PG secretion, and provides a new target for the diagnosis and treatment of early pregnancy failure and for improving the success rates of artificial reproduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Review
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Maternal Immune Dysregulation: What We Know So Far
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 4261; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084261 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 8
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an obstetric complication that affects approximately 5–10% of all pregnancies worldwide. GDM is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, and is characterized by exaggerated insulin resistance, a condition which is [...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an obstetric complication that affects approximately 5–10% of all pregnancies worldwide. GDM is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, and is characterized by exaggerated insulin resistance, a condition which is already pronounced in healthy pregnancies. Maternal hyperglycaemia ensues, instigating a ‘glucose stress’ response and concurrent systemic inflammation. Previous findings have proposed that both placental and visceral adipose tissue play a part in instigating and mediating this low-grade inflammatory response which involves altered infiltration, differentiation and activation of maternal innate and adaptive immune cells. The resulting maternal immune dysregulation is responsible for exacerbation of the condition and a further reduction in maternal insulin sensitivity. GDM pathology results in maternal and foetal adverse outcomes such as increased susceptibility to diabetes mellitus development and foetal neurological conditions. A clearer understanding of how these pathways originate and evolve will improve therapeutic targeting. In this review, we will explore the existing findings describing maternal immunological adaption in GDM in an attempt to highlight our current understanding of GDM-mediated immune dysregulation and identify areas where further research is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Review
Molecular Pathways of Cellular Senescence and Placental Aging in Late Fetal Growth Restriction and Stillbirth
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 4186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084186 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Abnormally accelerated, premature placental senescence plays a crucial role in the genesis of pregnancy pathologies. Abnormal growth in the third trimester can present as small for gestational age fetuses or fetal growth restriction. One differs from the other by the presence of signs [...] Read more.
Abnormally accelerated, premature placental senescence plays a crucial role in the genesis of pregnancy pathologies. Abnormal growth in the third trimester can present as small for gestational age fetuses or fetal growth restriction. One differs from the other by the presence of signs of placental insufficiency and the risk of stillbirth. The majority of stillbirths occur in normally grown fetuses and are classified as “unexplained”, which often leads to conclusions that they were unpreventable. The main characteristic of aging is a gradual decline in the function of cells, tissues, and organs. These changes result in the accumulation of senescent cells in mitotic tissues. These cells begin the aging process that disrupts tissues’ normal functions by affecting neighboring cells, degrading the extracellular matrix, and reducing tissues’ regeneration capacity. Different degrees of abnormal placentation result in the severity of fetal growth restriction and its sequelae, including fetal death. This review aims to present the current knowledge and identify future research directions to understand better placental aging in late fetal growth restriction and unexplained stillbirth. We hypothesized that the final diagnosis of placental insufficiency can be made only using markers of placental senescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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Article
A History of Preterm Delivery Is Associated with Aberrant Postpartal MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Mothers with an Absence of Other Pregnancy-Related Complications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 4033; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084033 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 6
Abstract
This prospective cross-sectional case-control study investigated the postpartal gene expression of microRNAs associated with diabetes/cardiovascular/cerebrovascular diseases in the peripheral white blood cells of women with anamnesis of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (n = 58), spontaneous preterm birth (n = 55), [...] Read more.
This prospective cross-sectional case-control study investigated the postpartal gene expression of microRNAs associated with diabetes/cardiovascular/cerebrovascular diseases in the peripheral white blood cells of women with anamnesis of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (n = 58), spontaneous preterm birth (n = 55), and term delivery (n = 89) by a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes or spontaneous preterm birth, mothers showed diverse expression profiles for 25 out of 29 tested microRNAs (miR-1-3p, miR-16-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-20b-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-23a-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-26a-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-100-5p, miR-103a-3p, miR-125b-5p, miR-126-3p, miR-130b-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-145-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-181a-5p, miR-195-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-221-3p, miR-499a-5p, and miR-574-3p). The earliest gestational ages at delivery and the lowest birth weights of newborns were associated with the highest postpartal levels of the previously mentioned microRNAs in maternal peripheral white blood cells. Administration of tocolytic drugs in order to prolong pregnancy, used in order to administer and complete a full course of antenatal corticosteroids, was associated with alterations in postpartal microRNA expression profiles to a lesser extent than in women with imminent delivery, where there was insufficient time for administration of tocolytics and antenatal corticosteroids. Overall, mothers who did not receive tocolytic therapy (miR-24-3p and miR-146a-5p) and mothers who did not receive corticosteroid therapy (miR-1-3p, miR-100-5p, and miR-143-3p) had increased or showed a trend toward increased postpartal microRNA expression when compared with mothers given tocolytic and corticosteroid therapy. In addition, mothers with serum C-reactive protein levels above 20 mg/L, who experienced preterm labour, showed a trend toward increased postpartal expression profiles of miR-143-3p and miR-199a-5p when compared with mothers with normal serum C-reactive protein levels. On the other hand, the occurrence of maternal leukocytosis, the presence of intra-amniotic inflammation (higher levels of interleukin 6 in the amniotic fluid), and the administration of antibiotics at the time of preterm delivery had no impact on postpartal microRNA expression profiles in mothers with a history of preterm delivery. Likewise, the condition of the newborns at the moment of birth, determined by Apgar scores at 5 and 10 min and the pH of cord arterial blood, had no influence on the postpartal expression profiles of mothers with a history of preterm delivery. These findings may contribute to explaining the increased cardiovascular risk in mothers with anamnesis of preterm delivery, and the greater increase of maternal cardiovascular risk with the decrease of gestational age at delivery. Women with preterm delivery in their anamnesis represent a high-risk group with special needs on a long-term basis, with a need to apply preventive and therapeutic interventions as early as possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Related Complications)
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