Anaphylaxis is an unpredictable systemic hypersensitivity reaction and constitutes a high risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality when occurring during pregnancy. Currently, the acute management of anaphylaxis is based on clinical parameters. A total serum tryptase is only used to support an accurate diagnosis. There is a need to detect other biomarkers to further assess high-risk patients in obstetrics. Our objective is to present biomarkers in this complex interdisciplinary approach beyond obstetrician and anaesthetic management. Candidate biomarkers derive either from mediators involved in immunopathogenesis or upcoming molecules from systems biology and proteomics. Serum tryptase is determined by singleplex immunoassay method and is important in the evaluation of anaphylactic mast cell degranulation but also in the assessment of other risk factors for anaphylaxis such as systemic mastocytosis. Another category of biomarkers investigates the IgE-mediated sensitization to triggers potentially involved in the etiology of anaphylaxis in pregnant women, using singleplex or multiplex immunoassays. These in vitro tests with natural extracts from foods, venoms, latex or drugs, as well as with molecular allergen components, are useful because in vivo allergy tests cannot be performed on pregnant women in such a major medical emergency due to their additional potential risk of anaphylaxis.
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