Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. Nikolaos Papakostas
Laboratory for Advanced Manufacturing Simulation and Robotics (LAMS), School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University College Dublin, Dublin D04 V1W8, Ireland
Dr. Sotiris Makris
Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems and Automation (LMS), Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, 26504 Rio Patras, Greece

New Frontiers in Industry 4.0

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 December 2021)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2022)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last few years, the Industry 4.0 paradigm has been one of the leading paradigms towards integrating modern smart technologies in manufacturing and industrial practice. The main underlying Industry 4.0 goals have been to allow for the closer interconnection of machines, devices and people, to increase information transparency, to support humans in a broad range of decision-making activities and to enable the autonomous operation of cyber-physical systems.

Industry 4.0 comprises a set of major components, including:

  • Internet of Things platforms and applications;
  • Mobile and wearable devices;
  • Smart sensors;
  • Authentication, data security and protection;
  • Cognitive computing platforms and applications, including technologies related to artificial intelligence, machine learning, as well as big data processing and analytics;
  • Advanced interactive technologies, including augmented/virtual reality;
  • Advanced data visualization techniques.

This topic aims to collect the results of research in these, and other relevant, Industry 4.0 areas. The submission of papers within those areas with strong connection to engineering, industrial and manufacturing applications is strongly encouraged.

Prof. Dr. Nikolaos Papakostas
Dr. Sotiris Makris
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • cyber-physical systems
  • IoT
  • cloud computing and manufacturing
  • computer vision for automation
  • predictive maintenance
  • additive and hybrid manufacturing
  • digital twin
  • supply chain management
  • artificial intelligence
  • predictive modeling
  • Big Data analytics for manufacturing applications
  • robotics
  • automation
  • Autonomous Systems
  • machine learning for manufacturing applications

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.838 3.7 2011 17.4 Days 2300 CHF
Automation
automation
- - 2020 21.5 Days 1000 CHF
Robotics
robotics
- 4.9 2012 18.9 Days 1600 CHF
Big Data and Cognitive Computing
BDCC
- 6.1 2017 17 Days 1400 CHF
Sensors
sensors
3.847 6.4 2001 16.2 Days 2400 CHF

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Published Papers (29 papers)

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Article
Application of Deep Learning in the Deployment of an Industrial SCARA Machine for Real-Time Object Detection
Robotics 2022, 11(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics11040069 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 3
Abstract
In the spirit of innovation, the development of an intelligent robot system incorporating the basic principles of Industry 4.0 was one of the objectives of this study. With this aim, an experimental application of an industrial robot unit in its own isolated environment [...] Read more.
In the spirit of innovation, the development of an intelligent robot system incorporating the basic principles of Industry 4.0 was one of the objectives of this study. With this aim, an experimental application of an industrial robot unit in its own isolated environment was carried out using neural networks. In this paper, we describe one possible application of deep learning in an Industry 4.0 environment for robotic units. The image datasets required for learning were generated using data synthesis. There are significant benefits to the incorporation of this technology, as old machines can be smartened and made more efficient without additional costs. As an area of application, we present the preparation of a robot unit which at the time it was originally produced and commissioned was not capable of using machine learning technology for object-detection purposes. The results for different scenarios are presented and an overview of similar research topics on neural networks is provided. A method for synthetizing datasets of any size is described in detail. Specifically, the working domain of a given robot unit, a possible solution to compatibility issues and the learning of neural networks from 3D CAD models with rendered images will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Open Source IIoT Solution for Gas Waste Monitoring in Smart Factory
Sensors 2022, 22(8), 2972; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22082972 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Rapid development of smart manufacturing techniques in recent years is influencing production facilities. Factories must both keep up with smart technologies as well as upskill their workforce to remain competitive. One of the recent concerns is how businesses can contribute to environmental sustainability [...] Read more.
Rapid development of smart manufacturing techniques in recent years is influencing production facilities. Factories must both keep up with smart technologies as well as upskill their workforce to remain competitive. One of the recent concerns is how businesses can contribute to environmental sustainability and how to reduce operating costs. In this article authors present a method of measuring gas waste using Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) sensors and open-source solutions utilised on a brownfield production asset. The article provides a result of an applied research initiative in a live manufacturing facility. The design followed the Reference Architectural Model for Industry 4.0 (RAMI 4.0) model to provide a coherent smart factory system. The presented solution’s goal is to provide factory supervisors with information about gas waste which is generated during the production process. To achieve this an operational technology (OT) network was installed and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) dashboards were designed. Based on the information provided by the system, the business can be more aware of the production environment and can improve its efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Evaluation and Comparison of Ultrasonic and UWB Technology for Indoor Localization in an Industrial Environment
Sensors 2022, 22(8), 2927; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22082927 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
Evaluations of different technologies and solutions for indoor localization exist but only a few are aimed at the industrial context. In this paper, we compare and analyze two prominent solutions based on Ultra Wide Band Radio (Pozyx) and Ultrasound (GoT), both installed in [...] Read more.
Evaluations of different technologies and solutions for indoor localization exist but only a few are aimed at the industrial context. In this paper, we compare and analyze two prominent solutions based on Ultra Wide Band Radio (Pozyx) and Ultrasound (GoT), both installed in an industrial manufacturing laboratory. The comparison comprises a static and a dynamic case. The static case evaluates average localization errors over 90 s intervals for 100 ground-truth points at three different heights, corresponding to different relevant objects in an industrial environment: mobile robots, pallets, forklifts and worker helmets. The average error obtained across the laboratory is similar for both systems and is between 0.3 m and 0.6 m, with higher errors for low altitudes. The dynamic case is performed with a mobile robot travelling with an average speed of 0.5 m/s at a height of 0.3 m. In this case, low frequency error components are filtered out to focus the comparison on dynamic errors. Average dynamic errors are within 0.3–0.4 m for Pozyx and within 0.1–0.2 m for GoT. Results show an acceptable accuracy required for tracking people or objects and could serve as a guideline for the least achievable accuracy when applied for mobile robotics in conjunction with other elements of a robotic navigation stack. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Design and Reliability Analysis of a Novel Redundancy Topology Architecture
Sensors 2022, 22(7), 2582; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22072582 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Topology architecture has a decisive influence on network reliability. In this paper, we design a novel redundancy topology and analyze the structural robustness, the number of redundant paths between two terminal nodes, and the reliability of the proposed topology by using natural connectivity [...] Read more.
Topology architecture has a decisive influence on network reliability. In this paper, we design a novel redundancy topology and analyze the structural robustness, the number of redundant paths between two terminal nodes, and the reliability of the proposed topology by using natural connectivity and time-independent and time-dependent terminal pair reliability, k-terminal reliability, and all-terminal reliability comprehensively and quantitatively, and we compare these measures of the proposed topology with AFDX in three scenarios. The evaluations show that in the structural robustness analysis, when no nodes are removed, the natural connectivity of the proposed topology with 10 nodes, 16 nodes, and 20 nodes is 77.8%, 26.95%, and 81.39% higher than that of AFDX, respectively. In the time-independent reliability analysis, when the link reliability is 0.9, terminal pair reliability of the proposed topology with 10 nodes, 16 nodes, and 20 nodes is 5.78%, 17.75%, and 34.65% higher than that of AFDX, respectively; k-terminal reliability is 10.04%, 31.97%, and 53.74% higher than that of AFDX, respectively; and all-terminal reliability is 29.36%, 74.37%, and 107.91% higher than that of AFDX, respectively. In the time-dependent reliability analysis, when the operating time is 8000 h, the terminal pair reliability of the proposed topology with 10 nodes, 16 nodes, and 20 nodes is 3.53%, 10.87%, and 21.08% higher than that of AFDX, respectively; the k-terminal reliability is 6.20%, 19.65%, and 32.58% higher than that of AFDX, respectively; and the all-terminal reliability is 18.25%, 45.04%, and 63.86% higher than that of AFDX, respectively. The proposed topology increases the redundant paths of data transmission. It ensures reliable data transmission and has high robustness and reliability. It provides a new idea for improving the reliability of industrial buses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Digital Twin-Based Automated Guided Vehicle Scheduling: A Solution for Its Charging Problems
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3354; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073354 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
Due to poor predictability of resources and difficulty in perception of task execution status, traditional Automatic Guide Vehicle (AGV) scheduling systems need a lot of extra time in the charging process. To solve this problem, a digital twin-based dynamic AGV scheduling (DTDAS) method [...] Read more.
Due to poor predictability of resources and difficulty in perception of task execution status, traditional Automatic Guide Vehicle (AGV) scheduling systems need a lot of extra time in the charging process. To solve this problem, a digital twin-based dynamic AGV scheduling (DTDAS) method is proposed, including four functions, namely the knowledge support system, the scheduling model, the scheduling optimization, and the scheduling simulation. With the features of virtual reality data interaction, symbiosis, and fusion from the digital twin technology, the proposed DTDAS method can solve the AGV charging problem in the AGV scheduling system, effectively improving the operating efficiency of the workshop. An AGV scheduling process in a discrete manufacturing workshop is taken as a case study to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that, compared with the traditional AGV scheduling method, the DTDAS method proposed in this article can reduce makespan 10.7% and reduce energy consumption by 1.32%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Industry 4.0 Readiness Calculation—Transitional Strategy Definition by Decision Support Systems
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22031185 - 04 Feb 2022
Cited by 3
Abstract
The digitization of the manufacturing industry, 10 years after the introduction of the Industry 4.0 concept, is still one of the most demanding tasks for the companies, especially for SMEs. As one of the biggest barriers in new business model implementation, the lack [...] Read more.
The digitization of the manufacturing industry, 10 years after the introduction of the Industry 4.0 concept, is still one of the most demanding tasks for the companies, especially for SMEs. As one of the biggest barriers in new business model implementation, the lack of strategy and workforce skills is frequently mentioned in the literature. The high level of investments it requires and the perception of high risks with unclear future benefits can be avoided with readiness factor calculation. This paper presents a novel model for readiness factor calculation, oriented to process planning and based on decision support systems. The model enables the definition of the optimal strategic plan for the digitization with the use of decision support systems (analytic hierarchy process) and through the use of statistical methods implemented within the model it minimizes the influence of human subjectivity and quantification of qualitative criteria. This innovative approach enables the understanding of the transition process to new technology-enabled business models, in this case oriented towards process planning. The useability and reliability of the model is proven in a case study of a metal machining company. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
A Flexible Localization Method of Multi-Constrained Free-Form Surface Based on the Profile Curves
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1213; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031213 - 24 Jan 2022
Abstract
The precision forming process is currently used for many difficult-to-cut parts such as aero-engine blades. However, satisfying the tolerance requirement of the forming accuracy is difficult. Thus, precision machining is used to ensure final accuracy of the part. The error of the near-net [...] Read more.
The precision forming process is currently used for many difficult-to-cut parts such as aero-engine blades. However, satisfying the tolerance requirement of the forming accuracy is difficult. Thus, precision machining is used to ensure final accuracy of the part. The error of the near-net shape caused by the thermal process cannot be ignored in the machining process. If the cutting tool path is generated in terms of the design blade model, it would be too difficult to satisfy the material allowance and tolerance requirement of the design blade. In this paper, we propose a new flexible localization method to reconstruct a to-be-cut surface which improves the qualification rate. In this method, the tolerance and material allowance requirements are transformed into optimization constraints. Furthermore, the profile curves of the to-be-reconstructed blade surface are converted into the optimization variables. The material allowance distribution of the to-be-reconstructed surface needs to be as uniform as possible. Through this optimization, the profile curves of the blade surface at the specified height are obtained and used to evaluate the to-be-cut blade model. Finally, a typical compressor blade model is used to verify the proposed method. The results show that the approach can meet the tolerance requirements and ensure sufficient material allowance for the near-net shape blades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Slow Time-Varying Batch Process Quality Prediction Based on Batch Augmentation Analysis
Sensors 2022, 22(2), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22020512 - 10 Jan 2022
Abstract
In this paper, focusing on the slow time-varying characteristics, a series of works have been conducted to implement an accurate quality prediction for batch processes. To deal with the time-varying characteristics along the batch direction, sliding windows can be constructed. Then, the start-up [...] Read more.
In this paper, focusing on the slow time-varying characteristics, a series of works have been conducted to implement an accurate quality prediction for batch processes. To deal with the time-varying characteristics along the batch direction, sliding windows can be constructed. Then, the start-up process is identified and the whole process is divided into two modes according to the steady-state identification. In the most important mode, the process data matrix, used to establish the regression model of the current batch, is expanded to involve the process data of previous batches, which is called batch augmentation. Thus, the process data of previous batches, which have an important influence on the quality of the current batch, will be identified and form a new batch augmentation matrix for modeling using the partial least squares (PLS) method. Moreover, considering the multiphase characteristic, batch augmentation analysis and modeling is conducted within each phase. Finally, the proposed method is applied to a typical batch process, the injection molding process. The quality prediction results are compared with those of the traditional quality prediction method based on PLS and the ridge regression method under the proposed batch augmentation analysis framework. The conclusion is obtained that the proposed method based on the batch augmentation analysis is superior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
High-Speed Handling Robot with Bionic End-Effector for Large Glass Substrate in Clean Environment
Sensors 2022, 22(1), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010149 - 27 Dec 2021
Abstract
The development of “large display, high performance and low cost” in the FPD industry demands glass substrates to be “larger and thinner”. Therefore, the requirements of handling robots are developing in the direction of large scale, high speed, and high precision. This paper [...] Read more.
The development of “large display, high performance and low cost” in the FPD industry demands glass substrates to be “larger and thinner”. Therefore, the requirements of handling robots are developing in the direction of large scale, high speed, and high precision. This paper presents a novel construction of a glass substrate handling robot, which has a 2.5 m/s travelling speed. It innovatively adopts bionic end-suction technology to grasp the glass substrate more firmly. The structure design is divided into the following three parts: a travel track, a robot body, and an end-effector. The manipulator can be smoothly and rapidly extended by adjusting the transmission ratio of the reducer to 1:2:1, using only one motor to drive two sections of the arm. This robot can transfer two pieces of glass substrate at one time, and improves the working efficiency. The kinematic and dynamic models of the robot are built based on the DH coordinate. Through the positioning accuracy experiment and vibration experiment of the end-effector, it is found that the robot has high precision during handling. The robots developed in this study can be used in large-scale glass substrate handling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Review
Non-Invasive Inspections: A Review on Methods and Tools
Sensors 2021, 21(24), 8474; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21248474 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 6
Abstract
Non-Invasive Inspection (NII) has become a fundamental tool in modern industrial maintenance strategies. Remote and online inspection features keep operators fully aware of the health of industrial assets whilst saving money, lives, production and the environment. This paper conducted crucial research to identify [...] Read more.
Non-Invasive Inspection (NII) has become a fundamental tool in modern industrial maintenance strategies. Remote and online inspection features keep operators fully aware of the health of industrial assets whilst saving money, lives, production and the environment. This paper conducted crucial research to identify suitable sensing techniques for machine health diagnosis in an NII manner, mainly to detect machine shaft misalignment and gearbox tooth damage for different types of machines, even those installed in a hostile environment, using literature on several sensing tools and techniques. The researched tools are critically reviewed based on the published literature. However, in the absence of a formal definition of NII in the existing literature, we have categorised NII tools and methods into two distinct categories. Later, we describe the use of these tools as contact-based, such as vibration, alternative current (AC), voltage and flux analysis, and non-contact-based, such as laser, imaging, acoustic, thermographic and radar, under each category in detail. The unaddressed issues and challenges are discussed at the end of the paper. The conclusions suggest that one cannot single out an NII technique or method to perform health diagnostics for every machine efficiently. There are limitations with all of the reviewed tools and methods, but good results possible if the machine operational requirements and maintenance needs are considered. It has been noted that the sensors based on radar principles are particularly effective when monitoring assets, but further comprehensive research is required to explore the full potential of these sensors in the context of the NII of machine health. Hence it was identified that the radar sensing technique has excellent features, although it has not been comprehensively employed in machine health diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Assessment of Sensitivity and Profitability of an Intravaginal Sensor for Remote Calving Prediction in Dairy Cattle
Sensors 2021, 21(24), 8348; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21248348 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 5
Abstract
One critical point of dairy farm management is calving and neonatal first care. Timely calving assistance is associated with the reduction of calf mortality and postpartum uterine disease, and with improved fertility in dairy cattle. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and [...] Read more.
One critical point of dairy farm management is calving and neonatal first care. Timely calving assistance is associated with the reduction of calf mortality and postpartum uterine disease, and with improved fertility in dairy cattle. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and profitability of an intravaginal sensor for the prediction of stage II of labor in dairy farms, thus allowing proper calving assistance. Seventy-three late-gestating Italian Holstein cows were submitted to the insertion of an intravaginal device, equipped with light and temperature sensors, connected with a Central Unit for the commutation of a radio-signal into a cell phone alert. The remote calving alarm correctly identified the beginning of the expulsive phase of labor in 86.3% of the monitored cows. The mean interval from alarm to complete expulsion of the fetus was 71.56 ± 52.98 min, with a greater range in cows with dystocia (p = 0.012). The sensor worked correctly in both cold and warm weather conditions, and during day- or night-time. The intravaginal probe was well tolerated, as any cow showed lesions to the vaginal mucosa after calving. Using sex-sorted semen in heifers and beef bull semen in cows at their last lactation, the economic estimation performed through PrecisionTree™ software led to an income improvement of 119 € and 123 €/monitored delivery in primiparous and pluriparous cows, respectively. Remote calving alarm devices are key components of “precision farming” management and proven to improve animal welfare, to reduce calf losses and to increase farm incomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Importance-Based Key Basic Event Identification and Evolution Mechanism Investigation of Hydraulic Support Failure to Protect Employee Health
Sensors 2021, 21(21), 7240; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217240 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: Although hydraulic support can help enterprises in their production activities, it can also cause fatal accidents. Methods: This study established a composite risk-assessment method for hydraulic support failure in the mining industry. The key basic event of hydraulic support failure was identified [...] Read more.
Background: Although hydraulic support can help enterprises in their production activities, it can also cause fatal accidents. Methods: This study established a composite risk-assessment method for hydraulic support failure in the mining industry. The key basic event of hydraulic support failure was identified based on fault tree analysis and gray relational analysis, and the evolution mechanism of hydraulic support failure was investigated based on chaos theory, a synthetic theory model, and cause-and-effect-layer-of-protection analysis (LOPA). Results: After the basic events of hydraulic support failure are identified based on fault tree analysis, structure importance (SI), probability importance (PI), critical importance (CI), and Fussell–Vesely importance (FVI) can be calculated. In this study, we proposed the Fussell–Vesely–Xu importance (FVXI) to reflect the comprehensive impact of basic event occurrence and nonoccurrence on the occurrence probability of the top event. Gray relational analysis was introduced to determine the integrated importance (II) of basic events and identify the key basic events. According to chaos theory, hydraulic support failure is the result of cross-coupling and infinite amplification of faults in the employee, object, environment, and management subsystems, and the evolutionary process has an obvious butterfly effect and inherent randomness. With the help of the synthetic theory model, we investigated the social and organizational factors that may lead to hydraulic support failure. The key basic event, jack leakage, was analyzed in depth based on cause-and-effect-LOPA, and corresponding independent protection layers (IPLs) were identified to prevent jack leakage. Implications: The implications of these findings with respect to hydraulic support failure can be regarded as the foundation for accident prevention in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Infrastructure as Software in Micro Clouds at the Edge
Sensors 2021, 21(21), 7001; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217001 - 22 Oct 2021
Abstract
Edge computing offers cloud services closer to data sources and end-users, making the foundation for novel applications. The infrastructure deployment is taking off, bringing new challenges: how to use geo-distribution properly, or harness the advantages of having resources at a specific location? New [...] Read more.
Edge computing offers cloud services closer to data sources and end-users, making the foundation for novel applications. The infrastructure deployment is taking off, bringing new challenges: how to use geo-distribution properly, or harness the advantages of having resources at a specific location? New real-time applications require multi-tier infrastructure, preferably doing data preprocessing locally, but using the cloud for heavy workloads. We present a model, able to organize geo-distributed nodes into micro clouds dynamically, allowing resource reorganization to best serve population needs. Such elasticity is achieved by relying on cloud organization principles, adapted for a different environment. The desired state is specified descriptively, and the system handles the rest. As such, infrastructure is abstracted to the software level, thus enabling “infrastructure as software” at the edge. We argue about blending the proposed model into existing tools, allowing cloud providers to offer future micro clouds as a service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Predictive Maintenance: An Autoencoder Anomaly-Based Approach for a 3 DoF Delta Robot
Sensors 2021, 21(21), 6979; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21216979 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Performing predictive maintenance (PdM) is challenging for many reasons. Dealing with large datasets which may not contain run-to-failure data (R2F) complicates PdM even more. When no R2F data are available, identifying condition indicators (CIs), estimating the health index (HI), and thereafter, calculating a [...] Read more.
Performing predictive maintenance (PdM) is challenging for many reasons. Dealing with large datasets which may not contain run-to-failure data (R2F) complicates PdM even more. When no R2F data are available, identifying condition indicators (CIs), estimating the health index (HI), and thereafter, calculating a degradation model for predicting the remaining useful lifetime (RUL) are merely impossible using supervised learning. In this paper, a 3 DoF delta robot used for pick and place task is studied. In the proposed method, autoencoders (AEs) are used to predict when maintenance is required based on the signal sequence distribution and anomaly detection, which is vital when no R2F data are available. Due to the sequential nature of the data, nonlinearity of the system, and correlations between parameter time-series, convolutional layers are used for feature extraction. Thereafter, a sigmoid function is used to predict the probability of having an anomaly given CIs acquired from AEs. This function can be manually tuned given the sensitivity of the system or optimized by solving a minimax problem. Moreover, the proposed architecture can be used for fault localization for the specified system. Additionally, the proposed method can calculate RUL using Gaussian process (GP), as a degradation model, given HI values as its input. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Optimal Training Configurations of a CNN-LSTM-Based Tracker for a Fall Frame Detection System
Sensors 2021, 21(19), 6485; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196485 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
In recent years, there has been an immense amount of research into fall event detection. Generally, a fall event is defined as a situation in which a person unintentionally drops down onto a lower surface. It is crucial to detect the occurrence of [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been an immense amount of research into fall event detection. Generally, a fall event is defined as a situation in which a person unintentionally drops down onto a lower surface. It is crucial to detect the occurrence of fall events as early as possible so that any severe fall consequences can be minimized. Nonetheless, a fall event is a sporadic incidence that occurs seldomly that is falsely detected due to a wide range of fall conditions and situations. Therefore, an automated fall frame detection system, which is referred to as the SmartConvFall is proposed to detect the exact fall frame in a video sequence. It is crucial to know the exact fall frame as it dictates the response time of the system to administer an early treatment to reduce the fall’s negative consequences and related injuries. Henceforth, searching for the optimal training configurations is imperative to ensure the main goal of the SmartConvFall is achieved. The proposed SmartConvFall consists of two parts, which are object tracking and instantaneous fall frame detection modules that rely on deep learning representations. The first stage will track the object of interest using a fully convolutional neural network (CNN) tracker. Various training configurations such as optimizer, learning rate, mini-batch size, number of training samples, and region of interest are individually evaluated to determine the best configuration to produce the best tracker model. Meanwhile, the second module goal is to determine the exact instantaneous fall frame by modeling the continuous object trajectories using the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network. Similarly, the LSTM model will undergo various training configurations that cover different types of features selection and the number of stacked layers. The exact instantaneous fall frame is determined using an assumption that a large movement difference with respect to the ground level along the vertical axis can be observed if a fall incident happened. The proposed SmartConvFall is a novel technique as most of the existing methods still relying on detection rather than the tracking module. The SmartConvFall outperforms the state-of-the-art trackers, namely TCNN and MDNET-N trackers, with the highest expected average overlap, robustness, and reliability metrics of 0.1619, 0.6323, and 0.7958, respectively. The SmartConvFall also managed to produce the lowest number of tracking failures with only 43 occasions. Moreover, a three-stack LSTM delivers the lowest mean error with approximately one second delay time in locating the exact instantaneous fall frame. Therefore, the proposed SmartConvFall has demonstrated its potential and suitability to be implemented for a real-time application that could help to avoid any crucial fall consequences such as death and internal bleeding if the early treatment can be administered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Sensor Selection Framework for Designing Fault Diagnostics System
Sensors 2021, 21(19), 6470; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196470 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 7
Abstract
In a world of rapidly changing technologies, reliance on complex engineered systems has become substantial. Interactions associated with such systems as well as associated manufacturing processes also continue to evolve and grow in complexity. Consider how the complexity of manufacturing processes makes engineered [...] Read more.
In a world of rapidly changing technologies, reliance on complex engineered systems has become substantial. Interactions associated with such systems as well as associated manufacturing processes also continue to evolve and grow in complexity. Consider how the complexity of manufacturing processes makes engineered systems vulnerable to cascading and escalating failures; truly a highly complex and evolving system of systems. Maintaining quality and reliability requires considerations during product development, manufacturing processes, and more. Monitoring the health of the complex system while in operation/use is imperative. These considerations have compelled designers to explore fault-mechanism models and to develop corresponding countermeasures. Increasingly, there has been a reliance on embedded sensors to aid in prognosticating failures, to reduce downtime, during manufacture and system operation. However, the accuracy of estimating the remaining useful life of the system is highly dependent on the quality of the data obtained. This can be enhanced by increasing the number of sensors used, according to information theory. However, adding sensors increases total costs with the cost of the sensors and the costs associated with information-gathering procedures. Determining the optimal number of sensors, associated operating and data acquisition costs, and sensor-configuration are nontrivial. It is also imperative to avoid redundant information due to the presence of additional sensors and the efficient display of information to the decision-maker. Therefore, it is necessary to select a subset of sensors that not only reduce the cost but are also informative. While progress has been made in the sensor selection process, it is limited to either the type of the sensor, number of sensors or both. Such approaches do not address specifications of the required sensors which are integral to the sensor selection process. This paper addresses these shortcomings through a new method, OFCCaTS, to avoid the increased cost associated with health monitoring and to improve its accuracy. The proposed method utilizes a scalable multi-objective framework for sensor selection to maximize fault detection rate while minimizing the total cost of sensors. A wind turbine gearbox is considered to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Real-Time Learning and Recognition of Assembly Activities Based on Virtual Reality Demonstration
Sensors 2021, 21(18), 6201; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186201 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Teaching robots to learn through human demonstrations is a natural and direct method, and virtual reality technology is an effective way to achieve fast and realistic demonstrations. In this paper, we construct a virtual reality demonstration system that uses virtual reality equipment for [...] Read more.
Teaching robots to learn through human demonstrations is a natural and direct method, and virtual reality technology is an effective way to achieve fast and realistic demonstrations. In this paper, we construct a virtual reality demonstration system that uses virtual reality equipment for assembly activities demonstration, and using the motion data of the virtual demonstration system, the human demonstration is deduced into an activity sequence that can be performed by the robot. Through experimentation, the virtual reality demonstration system in this paper can achieve a 95% correct rate of activity recognition. We also created a simulated ur5 robotic arm grasping system to reproduce the inferred activity sequence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Estimation with Uncertainty via Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks
Sensors 2021, 21(18), 6194; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186194 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Conventional predictive Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) commonly employ deterministic weight matrices; therefore, their prediction is a point estimate. Such a deterministic nature in ANNs causes the limitations of using ANNs for medical diagnosis, law problems, and portfolio management in which not only discovering [...] Read more.
Conventional predictive Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) commonly employ deterministic weight matrices; therefore, their prediction is a point estimate. Such a deterministic nature in ANNs causes the limitations of using ANNs for medical diagnosis, law problems, and portfolio management in which not only discovering the prediction but also the uncertainty of the prediction is essentially required. In order to address such a problem, we propose a predictive probabilistic neural network model, which corresponds to a different manner of using the generator in the conditional Generative Adversarial Network (cGAN) that has been routinely used for conditional sample generation. By reversing the input and output of ordinary cGAN, the model can be successfully used as a predictive model; moreover, the model is robust against noises since adversarial training is employed. In addition, to measure the uncertainty of predictions, we introduce the entropy and relative entropy for regression problems and classification problems, respectively. The proposed framework is applied to stock market data and an image classification task. As a result, the proposed framework shows superior estimation performance, especially on noisy data; moreover, it is demonstrated that the proposed framework can properly estimate the uncertainty of predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Domain Adaptation Network with Double Adversarial Mechanism for Intelligent Fault Diagnosis
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 7983; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11177983 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Due to the mechanical equipment working under variable speed and load for a long time, the distribution of samples is different (domain shift). The general intelligent fault diagnosis method has a good diagnostic effect only on samples with the same sample distribution, but [...] Read more.
Due to the mechanical equipment working under variable speed and load for a long time, the distribution of samples is different (domain shift). The general intelligent fault diagnosis method has a good diagnostic effect only on samples with the same sample distribution, but cannot correctly predict the faults of samples with domain shift in a real situation. To settle this problem, a new intelligent fault diagnosis method, domain adaptation network with double adversarial mechanism (DAN-DAM), is proposed. The DAN-DAM model is mainly composed of a feature extractor, two label classifiers and a domain discriminator. The feature extractor and the two label classifiers form the first adversarial mechanism to achieve class-level alignment. Moreover, the discrepancy between the two classifiers is measured by Wasserstein distance. Meanwhile, the feature extractor and the domain discriminator form the second adversarial mechanism to realize domain-level alignment. In addition, maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) is used to reduce the distance between the extracted features of two domains. The DAN-DAM model is verified by multiple transfer experiments on some datasets. According to the transfer experiment results, the DAN-DAM model has a good diagnosis effect for the domain shift samples. Moreover, the diagnostic accuracy is generally higher than other mainstream diagnostic methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Capacitive Online Corn Moisture Content Sensor Considering Porosity Distributions: Modeling, Design, and Experiments
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7655; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167655 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
An online corn moisture content measurement device would be a key technology for providing accurate feedback information for industrial drying processes to enable the dynamic tracking and closed-loop control of the process. To overcome the problem of large measurement error caused by the [...] Read more.
An online corn moisture content measurement device would be a key technology for providing accurate feedback information for industrial drying processes to enable the dynamic tracking and closed-loop control of the process. To overcome the problem of large measurement error caused by the characteristics of the corn flow state and the pore distribution when a parallel plate capacitor is applied to the online moisture content measurement process, in this study, we summarized the constraint conditions of the sensor’s structure parameters by mathematical modeling and calculated the optimal sensor design size. Moreover, the influence of porosity variation on moisture content measurement was studied by using the designed sensor. In addition, a mathematical model for calculating corn moisture content was obtained for the moisture content range of 14.7% to 26.4% w.b., temperature of 5 °C to 35 °C, and porosity of 38.4% to 44.6%. The results indicated that the fluctuation in the online moisture content measurement value was obviously reduced after the porosity compensation. The absolute error of the measured moisture content value was −0.62 to 0.67% w.b., and the average of absolute values of error was 0.32% w.b. The main results provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the development of intelligent industrial grain–drying equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Conceptual Design Evaluation Considering Confidence Based on Z-AHP-TOPSIS Method
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7400; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167400 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
In concept design, effective decision making and management of schemes can shorten the design cycle and improve product quality. The decision maker (DM)’s confidence is one of the critical factors affecting the conceptual design evaluation. Although many studies use quantitative linguistic evaluation for [...] Read more.
In concept design, effective decision making and management of schemes can shorten the design cycle and improve product quality. The decision maker (DM)’s confidence is one of the critical factors affecting the conceptual design evaluation. Although many studies use quantitative linguistic evaluation for design scheme decision-making, which improves product conceptual design decision-making efficiency and effectiveness, few studies consider the confidence level of a decision. A conceptual design evaluation method based on Z-numbers is proposed to solve this problem, considering the customer requirements and the DM’s confidence. Firstly, the evaluation criteria are determined by analyzing customer requirements; then, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process in the Z-numbers environment (Z-AHP) is used to determine the criteria weight; Finally, the fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method in the Z-numbers environment (Z-TOPSIS) is used to evaluate the design schemes to obtain the optimal scheme. The proposed method is applied to the selection of the design scheme of the waste containers in the kitchen. The results show that considering the DM’s self-confidence can achieve a more reasonable and practical evaluation of the conceptual design scheme, and it is easier to obtain the best scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Innovative Approach to Preventive Maintenance of Production Equipment Based on a Modified TPM Methodology for Industry 4.0
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6953; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156953 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Preventive maintenance (PM) in the production industry is one of the most essential measures to eliminate accidental machinery failures by replacing/repairing worn out machines or parts. The decision of when and where to perform preventive maintenance is non-trivial due to the complex and [...] Read more.
Preventive maintenance (PM) in the production industry is one of the most essential measures to eliminate accidental machinery failures by replacing/repairing worn out machines or parts. The decision of when and where to perform preventive maintenance is non-trivial due to the complex and stochastic nature of the industry where PM is implemented. This article deals with the theoretical and practical implementation of preventive maintenance based on a unique modification of the total productive maintenance (TPM) methodology. The innovative approach of preventive maintenance management was implemented in the real production hall of ITT (Czech Republic) and has been verified. Within preventive maintenance, the new concept brings in an innovative method of managing the maintenance process as a whole, from abstract methodical conception to practical usage. The whole new approach has been verified and implemented on industrial equipment. A challenging task while implementing Industry 4.0 technologies is the issue of how to fully gather and analyse operational data from various items of equipment and users under various conditions, which would result in innovative services of equipment maintenance for clients. The solution to this problem is based on an innovative approach to preventive maintenance of complex equipment and could help many industrial companies to increase production and maintenance efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Needs, Requirements and a Concept of a Tool Condition Monitoring System for the Aerospace Industry
Sensors 2021, 21(15), 5086; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21155086 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this paper, we describe the needs and specific requirements of the aerospace industry in the field of metal machining; specifically, the concept of an edge-computing-based production supervision system for the aerospace industry using a tool and cutting process condition monitoring system. The [...] Read more.
In this paper, we describe the needs and specific requirements of the aerospace industry in the field of metal machining; specifically, the concept of an edge-computing-based production supervision system for the aerospace industry using a tool and cutting process condition monitoring system. The new concept was developed based on experience gained during the implementation of research projects in Poland’s Aviation Valley at aerospace plants such as Pratt & Whitney and Lockheed Martin. Commercial tool condition monitoring (TCM) and production monitoring systems do not effectively meet the requirements and specificity of the aerospace industry. The main objective of the system is real-time diagnostics and sharing of data, knowledge, and system configurations among technologists, line bosses, machine tool operators, and quality control. The concept presented in this paper is a special tool condition monitoring system comprising a three-stage (natural wear, accelerated wear, and catastrophic tool failure) set of diagnostic algorithms designed for short-run machining and aimed at protecting the workpiece from damage by a damaged or worn tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Digital Twin Modeling of a Solar Car Based on the Hybrid Model Method with Data-Driven and Mechanistic
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6399; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146399 - 11 Jul 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Solar cars are energy-sensitive and affected by many factors. In order to achieve optimal energy management of solar cars, it is necessary to comprehensively characterize the energy flow of vehicular components. To model these components which are hard to formulate, this study stimulates [...] Read more.
Solar cars are energy-sensitive and affected by many factors. In order to achieve optimal energy management of solar cars, it is necessary to comprehensively characterize the energy flow of vehicular components. To model these components which are hard to formulate, this study stimulates a solar car with the digital twin (DT) technology to accurately characterize energy. Based on the hybrid modeling approach combining mechanistic and data-driven technologies, the DT model of a solar car is established with a designed cloud platform server based on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to realize data interaction between physical and virtual entities. The DT model is further modified by the offline optimization data of drive motors, and the energy consumption is evaluated with the DT system in the real-world experiment. Specifically, the energy consumption error between the experiment and simulation is less than 5.17%, which suggests that the established DT model can accurately stimulate energy consumption. Generally, this study lays the foundation for subsequent performance optimization research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Automation Pyramid as Constructor for a Complete Digital Twin, Case Study: A Didactic Manufacturing System
Sensors 2021, 21(14), 4656; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21144656 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 12
Abstract
Nowadays, the concept of Industry 4.0 aims to improve factories’ competitiveness. Usually, manufacturing production is guided by standards to segment and distribute its processes and implementations. However, industry 4.0 requires innovative proposals for disruptive technologies that engage the entire production process in factories, [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the concept of Industry 4.0 aims to improve factories’ competitiveness. Usually, manufacturing production is guided by standards to segment and distribute its processes and implementations. However, industry 4.0 requires innovative proposals for disruptive technologies that engage the entire production process in factories, not just a partial improvement. One of these disruptive technologies is the Digital Twin (DT). This advanced virtual model runs in real-time and can predict, detect, and classify normal and abnormal operating conditions in factory processes. The Automation Pyramid (AP) is a conceptual element that enables the efficient distribution and connection of different actuators in enterprises, from the shop floor to the decision-making levels. When a DT is deployed into a manufacturing system, generally, the DT focuses on the low-level that is named field level, which includes the physical devices such as controllers, sensors, and so on. Thus, the partial automation based on the DT is accomplished, and the information between all manufacturing stages could be decremented. Hence, to achieve a complete improvement of the manufacturing system, all the automation pyramid levels must be included in the DT concept. An artificial intelligent management system could create an interconnection between them that can manage the information. As a result, this paper proposed a complete DT structure covering all automation pyramid stages using Artificial Intelligence (AI) to model each stage of the AP based on the Digital Twin concept. This work proposes a virtual model for each level of the traditional AP and the interactions among them to flow and control information efficiently. Therefore, the proposed model is a valuable tool in improving all levels of an industrial process. In addition, It is presented a case study where the DT concept for modular workstations underpins the development of technologies within the framework of the Automation Pyramid model is implemented into a didactic manufacturing system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Human–Robot Collaborative Assembly Based on Eye-Hand and a Finite State Machine in a Virtual Environment
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5754; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125754 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 8
Abstract
With the development of the global economy, the demand for manufacturing is increasing. Accordingly, human–robot collaborative assembly has become a research hotspot. This paper aims to solve the efficiency problems inherent in traditional human-machine collaboration. Based on eye–hand and finite state machines, a [...] Read more.
With the development of the global economy, the demand for manufacturing is increasing. Accordingly, human–robot collaborative assembly has become a research hotspot. This paper aims to solve the efficiency problems inherent in traditional human-machine collaboration. Based on eye–hand and finite state machines, a collaborative assembly method is proposed. The method determines the human’s intention by collecting posture and eye data, which can control a robot to grasp an object, move it, and perform co-assembly. The robot’s automatic path planning is based on a probabilistic roadmap planner. Virtual reality tests show that the proposed method is more efficient than traditional methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
Seamless Human–Robot Collaborative Assembly Using Artificial Intelligence and Wearable Devices
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5699; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125699 - 19 Jun 2021
Cited by 16
Abstract
Seamless human–robot collaboration requires the equipping of robots with cognitive capabilities that enable their awareness of the environment, as well as the actions that take place inside the assembly cell. This paper proposes an AI-based system comprised of three modules that can capture [...] Read more.
Seamless human–robot collaboration requires the equipping of robots with cognitive capabilities that enable their awareness of the environment, as well as the actions that take place inside the assembly cell. This paper proposes an AI-based system comprised of three modules that can capture the operator and environment status and process status, identify the tasks that are being executed by the operator using vision-based machine learning, and provide customized operator support from the robot side for shared tasks, automatically adapting to the operator’s needs and preferences. Moreover, the proposed system is able to assess the ergonomics in human–robot shared tasks and adapt the robot pose to improve ergonomics using a heuristics-based search algorithm. An industrial case study derived from the elevator manufacturing sector using a high payload collaborative robot is presented to demonstrate that collaboration efficiency can be enhanced through the use of the discussed system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
A Spatio-Temporal Ensemble Deep Learning Architecture for Real-Time Defect Detection during Laser Welding on Low Power Embedded Computing Boards
Sensors 2021, 21(12), 4205; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21124205 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 10
Abstract
In modern production environments, advanced and intelligent process monitoring strategies are required to enable an unambiguous diagnosis of the process situation and thus of the final component quality. In addition, the ability to recognize the current state of product quality in real-time is [...] Read more.
In modern production environments, advanced and intelligent process monitoring strategies are required to enable an unambiguous diagnosis of the process situation and thus of the final component quality. In addition, the ability to recognize the current state of product quality in real-time is an important prerequisite for autonomous and self-improving manufacturing systems. To address these needs, this study investigates a novel ensemble deep learning architecture based on convolutional neural networks (CNN), gated recurrent units (GRU) combined with high-performance classification algorithms such as k-nearest neighbors (kNN) and support vector machines (SVM). The architecture uses spatio-temporal features extracted from infrared image sequences to locate critical welding defects including lack of fusion (false friends), sagging, lack of penetration, and geometric deviations of the weld seam. In order to evaluate the proposed architecture, this study investigates a comprehensive scheme based on classical machine learning methods using manual feature extraction and state-of-the-art deep learning algorithms. Optimal hyperparameters for each algorithm are determined by an extensive grid search. Additional work is conducted to investigate the significance of various geometrical, statistical and spatio-temporal features extracted from the keyhole and weld pool regions. The proposed method is finally validated on previously unknown welding trials, achieving the highest detection rates and the most robust weld defect recognition among all classification methods investigated in this work. Ultimately, the ensemble deep neural network is implemented and optimized to operate on low-power embedded computing devices with low latency (1.1 ms), demonstrating sufficient performance for real-time applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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Article
A Parametric Product Design Framework for the Development of Mass Customized Head/Face (Eyewear) Products
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5382; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125382 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study led to the development of a parametric design method for mass-customised head/face products. A systematic review of different approaches for mass customization was conducted, identifying advantages and limitations for their application to new product development. A parametric modelling algorithm of a [...] Read more.
This study led to the development of a parametric design method for mass-customised head/face products. A systematic review of different approaches for mass customization was conducted, identifying advantages and limitations for their application to new product development. A parametric modelling algorithm of a 3D human face was developed using selected scanned 3D head models. The algorithm was developed from a set of measurable and adjustable parameter points related to the facial geometry. These parameters were defined using planimetry. Using the assigned parameter values as input, the parametric model generated 3D models of a human face that served as a reference for the design of customized eyewear. The current challenges and opportunities of mass customized head/face products are described, along with the possibilities for new parametric product design approaches to enable rapid manufacturing and mass customization. This study also explored whether a new parametric design framework for mass customization could be effectively implemented as an early-stage new product development strategy for head/face products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Frontiers in Industry 4.0)
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