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Special Issue "Advances in Water and Wastewater Monitoring and Treatment Technology"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and Wastewater Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 June 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Changseok Han

Department of Environmental Engineering, INHA University, Incheon 22212, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: advanced oxidation processes; photocatalysis; toxins; contaminants of emerging concern; nutrients recovery; water treatment
Guest Editor
Prof. Daphne Hermosilla Redondo

Departmento de Ingeniería Agrícola y Forestal, Universidad de Valladolid, 47002 Valladolid, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: water treatment; water management; advanced oxidation processes; photocatalysis; membranes; physico-chemical processes; biological treatment; clean technologies; energy and water use; sustainable production
Guest Editor
Dr. Hodon Ryu

United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: health-related water microbiology: Physical removal and inactivation of waterborne pathogens and rapid detection of infectious microorganisms; microbial ecology: Development of microbial source tracking markers and microbial community characterization; sustainable energy saving biological treatment processes: Microbial electrochemical (MEC) technologies
Guest Editor
Prof. Yang Deng

Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: innovative water treatment and reuse technologies; sustainable stormwater treatment; landfill leachate treatment and management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water contamination, water treatment and water resource management are topics of great interest nowadays, due to the adverse effects that contaminated water produce with respect to the environment and human health; and sanitary problems as a result of insufficient clean portable water. Furthermore, it is essential to increase knowledge regarding the monitoring and control of water quality due to the presence of different priorities and emerging contaminants and to develop innovative water and wastewater treatment technologies. As a consequence, we will focus this Special Issue on the current stage of technologies to monitor, control and remove pollutants in water and wastewater.

Dr. Changseok Han
Prof. Daphne Hermosilla Redondo
Dr. Hodon Ryu
Prof. Yang Deng
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Water and Wastewater Treatment
  • Contaminants of Emerging Concern and Priority Pollutants
  • Monitoring of Water

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Intelligent Control/Operational Strategies in WWTPs through an Integrated Q-Learning Algorithm with ASM2d-Guided Reward
Water 2019, 11(5), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050927
Received: 10 March 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
The operation of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a typical complex control problem, with nonlinear dynamics and coupling effects among the variables, which renders the implementation of real-time optimal control an enormous challenge. In this study, a Q-learning algorithm with activated sludge [...] Read more.
The operation of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a typical complex control problem, with nonlinear dynamics and coupling effects among the variables, which renders the implementation of real-time optimal control an enormous challenge. In this study, a Q-learning algorithm with activated sludge model No. 2d-guided (ASM2d-guided) reward setting (an integrated ASM2d-QL algorithm) is proposed, and the widely applied anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (AAO) system is chosen as the research paradigm. The integrated ASM2d-QL algorithms equipped with a self-learning mechanism are derived for optimizing the control strategies (hydraulic retention time (HRT) and internal recycling ratio (IRR)) of the AAO system. To optimize the control strategies of the AAO system under varying influent loads, Q matrixes were built for both HRTs and IRR optimization through the pair of <max reward-action> based on the integrated ASM2d-QL algorithm. 8 days of actual influent qualities of a certain municipal AAO wastewater treatment plant in June were arbitrarily chosen as the influent concentrations for model verification. Good agreement between the values of the model simulations and experimental results indicated that this proposed integrated ASM2d-QL algorithm performed properly and successfully realized intelligent modeling and stable optimal control strategies under fluctuating influent loads during wastewater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water and Wastewater Monitoring and Treatment Technology)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Application of the Mathematical Simulation Methods for the Assessment of the Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation Work Reliability
Water 2019, 11(5), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050873
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
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Abstract
The aim of the present work was the modeling of the wastewater treatment plant operation work using Monte Carlo method and different random variables probability distributions modeling. The analysis includes the following pollutants indicators; BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), CODCr (Chemical Oxygen [...] Read more.
The aim of the present work was the modeling of the wastewater treatment plant operation work using Monte Carlo method and different random variables probability distributions modeling. The analysis includes the following pollutants indicators; BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), CODCr (Chemical Oxygen Demand), Total Suspended Solids (SSt), Total Nitrogen (TN), and Total Phosphorus (TP). The Anderson–Darling (A–D) test was used for the assessment of theoretical and empirical distributions compatibility. The selection of the best-fitting statistical distributions was performed using peak-weighted root mean square (PWRMSE) parameter. Based on the performed calculations, it was stated that pollutants indicators in treated sewage were characterized by a significant variability. Obtained results indicate that the best-fitting pollutants indicators statistical distribution is Gauss Mixed Model (GMM) function. The results of the Monte Carlo simulation method confirmed that some problems related to the organic and biogenic pollutants reduction may be observed in the Wastewater Treatment Plant, in Jaworzno. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water and Wastewater Monitoring and Treatment Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Diethylene Glycol-Assisted Organized TiO2 Nanostructures for Photocatalytic Wastewater Treatment Ceramic Membranes
Water 2019, 11(4), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040750
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
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Abstract
A high-performance photocatalytic ceramic membrane was developed by direct growth of a TiO2 structure on a macroporous alumina support using a hydrothermal method. The morphological nanostructure of TiO2 on the support was successfully controlled via the interaction between the TiO2 [...] Read more.
A high-performance photocatalytic ceramic membrane was developed by direct growth of a TiO2 structure on a macroporous alumina support using a hydrothermal method. The morphological nanostructure of TiO2 on the support was successfully controlled via the interaction between the TiO2 precursor and a capping agent, diethylene glycol (DEG). The growth of anatase TiO2 nanorods was observed both on the membrane surface and pore walls. The well-organized nanorods TiO2 reduced the perturbation of the alumina support, thus controlling the hydrolysis rate of the TiO2 precursor and reducing membrane fouling. However, a decrease in the amount of the DEG capping agent significantly reduced membrane permeability, owing to the formation of nonporous clusters of TiO2 on the support. Distribution of the organized TiO2 nanorods on the support was very effective for the improvement of the organic removal efficiency and antifouling under ultraviolet illumination. The TiO2 nanostructure associated with the reactive crystalline phase, rather than the amount of layered TiO2 formed on the support, which was found to be the key to controlling photocatalytic membrane reactivity. These experimental findings would provide a new approach for the development of efficacious photocatalytic membranes with improved performance for wastewater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water and Wastewater Monitoring and Treatment Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Feed Spacer Geometries and Permeability Coefficients. Effect on the Performance in BWRO Spriral-Wound Membrane Modules
Water 2019, 11(1), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010152
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
Reverse osmosis (RO) is the most widely used technology to desalinate brackish water and seawater. Significant efforts have been made in recent decades to improve RO efficiency. Feed spacer geometry design is a very important factor in RO membrane performance. In this work, [...] Read more.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is the most widely used technology to desalinate brackish water and seawater. Significant efforts have been made in recent decades to improve RO efficiency. Feed spacer geometry design is a very important factor in RO membrane performance. In this work, correlations based on computational fluid dynamics and experimental work were applied in an algorithm to simulate the effect of different feed spacer geometries in full-scale brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) membranes with different permeability coefficients. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of feed spacers in conjunction with the permeability coefficients on membrane performance. The results showed a greater impact of feed spacer geometries in the membrane with the highest water permeability coefficient (A). Studying only one single element in a series, variations due to feed spacer geometries were observed in specific energy consumption ( S E C ) and permeate concentration ( C p ) of about 6.83% and 10.42%, respectively. Allowing the rolling of commercial membranes with different feed spacer geometries depending on the operating conditions could optimize the RO process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water and Wastewater Monitoring and Treatment Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Multilevel Adaptive Control of Alternating Aeration Cycles in Wastewater Treatment to Improve Nitrogen and Phosphorous Removal and to Obtain Energy Saving
Water 2019, 11(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010060
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 31 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents an adaptive control of the process of alternating aeration/non-aeration cycles for wastewater treatment. It is aimed at improving nitrogen and phosphorous removal efficiency and reducing energy consumption. It comprises two control levels. The first decides when to switch on and [...] Read more.
This work presents an adaptive control of the process of alternating aeration/non-aeration cycles for wastewater treatment. It is aimed at improving nitrogen and phosphorous removal efficiency and reducing energy consumption. It comprises two control levels. The first decides when to switch on and off aeration by comparing the Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and the Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) with two activation thresholds. The second, a supervisory control, continuously adapt their values by analyzing the working conditions of the reactor (organic matter and ammonium loads). These working conditions are described by four parameters obtained from the DO and ORP curves: Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR), Oxygen Rise Average Slope (ORAS), ORParrow and Nitrate and Oxygen Uptake Rate (NOUR). It also adjusts the aeration system power to adapt it to those conditions. This adaptive control has been implemented in a laboratory scale prototype and its performance compared with that provided by another control with fixed thresholds and aeration power implemented in a similar prototype. The adaptive control clearly outperforms that without adaptation in nitrogen and phosphorous removal efficiency and requires lower energy consumption. Similar efficiencies were obtained for organic matter removal (higher than 90% in both cases). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water and Wastewater Monitoring and Treatment Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Barium-Encapsulated Biodegradable Polycaprolactone for Sulfate Removal
Water 2018, 10(12), 1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121789
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 17 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
Various compositions of barium carbonate (BaCO3) loaded polycaprolactone (PCL) composites were prepared, including 2.5/97.5, 10/90, 30/70, 50/50 and 90/10 (PCL/BaCO3), via re-precipitation technique. Small-scale column tests were conducted to study the efficiency of sulfate removal using the PCL/BaCO3 [...] Read more.
Various compositions of barium carbonate (BaCO3) loaded polycaprolactone (PCL) composites were prepared, including 2.5/97.5, 10/90, 30/70, 50/50 and 90/10 (PCL/BaCO3), via re-precipitation technique. Small-scale column tests were conducted to study the efficiency of sulfate removal using the PCL/BaCO3 composites. The composites before and after their use to remove sulfate were extensively characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HR-TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). As PCL is a biodegradable polymer, these composites are environmentally friendly and have several advantages over barium sulfate precipitation in overcoming clogging issues in filters or resins due to collection of natural organic matter (NOM). The media used in this study exhibited high capacity and was able to remove more than 90% sulfate from synthetic sulfate containing waters and NOM samples collected from the Ohio River. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water and Wastewater Monitoring and Treatment Technology)
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