Special Issue "Advances in Water and Wastewater Monitoring and Treatment Technology 2.0"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2022) | Viewed by 7675

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Changseok Han
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Engineering, INHA University, Incheon 22212, Korea
Interests: advanced oxidation processes; photocatalysis; toxins; contaminants of emerging concern; nutrients recovery; water treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Daphne Hermosilla Redondo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departmento de Ingeniería Agrícola y Forestal, Universidad de Valladolid, 47002 Valladolid, Spain
Interests: water treatment; water management; advanced oxidation processes; photocatalysis; membranes; physico-chemical processes; biological treatment; clean technologies; energy and water use; sustainable production
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Hodon Ryu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
Interests: health-related water microbiology: Physical removal and inactivation of waterborne pathogens and rapid detection of infectious microorganisms; microbial ecology: Development of microbial source tracking markers and microbial community characterization; sustainable energy saving biological treatment processes: Microbial electrochemical (MEC) technologies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Woo Hyoung Lee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Environmental and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
Interests: smart water and wastewater treatment and management; water quality monitroing sensor; renewable energy production from wastes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Miguel Angel Mueses
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Cartagena, Chemical Engineering Program, MAOx-Research Group, Zip Code 1382-Postal 195, Cartagena, Colombia.
Interests: photocatalysis and engineering of solar photoreactors; mathematical modeling of solar photocatalysis; advanced oxidation processes in environmental applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water quality monitoring, water contamination, and water treatment are topics of great importance nowadays, due to the presence of different organic/inorganic environmental contaminants such as naturally formed toxins, pesticides, personal care products, and heavy metals that cause adverse effects to the health of the environment, animals, and humans. Due to water scarcity, it is essential that resources for clean potable water are secured. In order to fulfill our role as environmental engineers in solving these problems, it is of great importance to compile the wealth of information from experts in the field of water quality monitoring and water treatment. Last year, we successfully closed the SI “Advances in Water and Wastewater Monitoring and Treatment Technology 1.0” with 17 papers, and we still eager to document more recent research data on technologies for monitoring, controlling, and removing pollutants in water and wastewater. As consequence, we are again collecting papers on the current water monitoring and treatment technologies.

Dr. Changseok Han
Dr. Daphne Hermosilla Redondo
Dr. Hodon Ryu
Dr. Woo Hyoung Lee
Dr. Miguel Angel Mueses
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water and wastewater treatment
  • contaminants of emerging concern and priority pollutants
  • water quality monitoring

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
UV/TiO2 Photocatalysis as an Efficient Livestock Wastewater Quaternary Treatment for Antibiotics Removal
Water 2022, 14(6), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060958 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 705
Abstract
Antibiotics are the most common pharmaceutical compounds, and they have been extensively used for the prevention and treatment of bacterial diseases for more than 50 years. However, merely a small fraction of antibiotics is metabolized in the body, while the rest is discharged [...] Read more.
Antibiotics are the most common pharmaceutical compounds, and they have been extensively used for the prevention and treatment of bacterial diseases for more than 50 years. However, merely a small fraction of antibiotics is metabolized in the body, while the rest is discharged into the environment through excretion, which can cause potential ecological problems and human health risks. In this study, the elimination of seventeen antibiotics from real livestock wastewater effluents was investigated by UV/TiO2 advanced oxidation process. The effect of process parameters, such as TiO2 loadings, solution pHs, and antibiotic concentrations, on the efficiency of the UV/TiO2 process was assessed. The degradation efficiency was affected by the solution pH, and higher removal efficiency was observed at pH 5.8 and 9.9, while the catalyst loading had no significant effect on the degradation efficiency at these experimental conditions. UV photolysis showed a good removal efficiency of the antibiotics. However, the highest removal efficiency was shown by the UV/photocatalyst system due to their synergistic effects. The results showed that more than 90% of antibiotics were removed by UV/TiO2 system during the 60 min illumination, while the corresponding TOC and COD removal was only 10 and 13%, respectively. The results of the current study indicated that UV/TiO2 advanced oxidation process is a promising method for the elimination of various types of antibiotics from real livestock wastewater effluents. Full article
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Article
Bismuth-Chitosan Nanocomposite Sensors for Trace Level Detection of Ni(II) and Co(II) in Water Samples
Water 2022, 14(3), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030302 - 20 Jan 2022
Viewed by 784
Abstract
Trace minerals play an essential role in methane production via anaerobic digestion (AD). It is important to monitor Ni(II) and Co(II) concentrations and the Ni/Co concentration ratio for the rapid diagnosis of the ecological status or activity of methanogens in AD. Electrochemical detection [...] Read more.
Trace minerals play an essential role in methane production via anaerobic digestion (AD). It is important to monitor Ni(II) and Co(II) concentrations and the Ni/Co concentration ratio for the rapid diagnosis of the ecological status or activity of methanogens in AD. Electrochemical detection of Ni(II) and Co(II) was investigated by coating the Bi-chitosan nanocomposite on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) via the electrodeposition technique. A square-wave adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry technique (SWAdCSV) was applied and optimized when dimethylglyoxime (DMG) was used as the chelating agent for Ni(II) and Co(II) measurements. The SWAdCSV results showed that the current peaks for Co(II) detection are 6.1 times greater than the current peaks for Ni(II) measurements, probably due to the different affinity of DMG molecules between Ni(II) and Co(II). DMG molecules demonstrated higher selectivity toward Co(II) cations compared to Ni(II). The modified Bi-chitosan GCE developed in this study showed a relatively wide range of the Ni(II) and Co(II) concentrations (2–100 µg L−1) with a limit of detection of 3.6 µg L−1 for Ni(II) and 2.4 µg L−1 for Co(II), respectively. The developed sensor was applied to Ni(II) and Co(II) spiked natural water samples and showed good performance of detection with 12 consecutive measurements. Overall, the fabricated sensor showed excellent sensitivity toward Ni(II) and Co(II) in natural water samples. Full article
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Article
Sensitivity Analysis of the Catalytic Ozonation under Different Kinetic Modeling Approaches in the Diclofenac Degradation
Water 2021, 13(21), 3003; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213003 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
Optimization and sensitivity analysis of the kinetic parameters of the catalytic ozonation process is crucial to improve water treatment, reactor design, and construction. This study evaluated the optimization of the kinetic constants for Diclofenac (DCF) degradation during catalytic ozonation with Goethite (FeOOH, as [...] Read more.
Optimization and sensitivity analysis of the kinetic parameters of the catalytic ozonation process is crucial to improve water treatment, reactor design, and construction. This study evaluated the optimization of the kinetic constants for Diclofenac (DCF) degradation during catalytic ozonation with Goethite (FeOOH, as a catalyst) through different kinetic modeling approaches. A central composite design was used to evaluate the effect of ozone dose and catalyst loading. The results showed that FeOOH did not significantly influence the degradation of DCF, while the reactivity of DCF with ozone was high (with >90% degradations in 20 min). However, the variation in catalyst loading significantly affected TOC removal (>10%) and ozone use, with ozone efficiency in ozone transfer (RU) 5% higher than ozonation. After evaluating the different kinetic models of reaction speed by optimizing kinetic parameters and performing sensitivity analysis for the treatment of DCF by catalytic ozonation, it can be concluded that the addition of FeOOH improved the kinetics of the decomposition of ozone and the yield in the production of hydroxyl radicals. Full article
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Article
Photocatalytic Treatment of Stained Wastewater Coming from Handicraft Factories. A Case Study at the Pilot Plant Level
Water 2021, 13(19), 2705; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192705 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 786
Abstract
UV/H2O2 process and TiO2-based photocatalysis were studied in the present work. The effectiveness of these methods was tested in the treatment of effluents taken from handicraft factories. Microorganisms, dyes, and different organic pollutants were detected in the industrial [...] Read more.
UV/H2O2 process and TiO2-based photocatalysis were studied in the present work. The effectiveness of these methods was tested in the treatment of effluents taken from handicraft factories. Microorganisms, dyes, and different organic pollutants were detected in the industrial effluents. The experimental procedure for the wastewater treatment was carried out in a patented sunlight reactor on a pilot plant scale. From this study, UV/H2O2 was found to be the best treatment for dye elimination. The optimal peroxide dosage for the degradation of dyes and the elimination of bacteria was 0.07 M. In this case, 70.80% of discoloration was achieved after 7 h of sunlight exposure, under an average sunlight intensity of 3.42 W/m2. The photocatalytic treatment based on TiO2 achieved the highest elimination of coliform bacteria and the lowest TOC value; however, the presence of this material in the reactor had a detrimental effect on the overall elimination of dyes. A combination of both UV/H2O2 and TiO2 treatments significantly improves the dyes discoloration, the elimination of bacteria, and the organic compounds degradation. Some of the results of this study were presented at the 4th Congreso Colombiano de Procesos Avanzados de Oxidación, 4CCPAOx. Full article
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Article
ZnO/Ag3PO4 and ZnO–Malachite as Effective Photocatalysts for the Removal of Enteropathogenic Bacteria, Dyestuffs, and Heavy Metals from Municipal and Industrial Wastewater
Water 2021, 13(16), 2264; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162264 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1249
Abstract
Different composites based on ZnO/Ag3PO4 and ZnO–malachite (Cu2(OH)2CO3) were synthesized in order to determine their effectiveness in the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters (mainly polluted by enteropathogenic bacteria, dyes, and heavy metals). The [...] Read more.
Different composites based on ZnO/Ag3PO4 and ZnO–malachite (Cu2(OH)2CO3) were synthesized in order to determine their effectiveness in the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters (mainly polluted by enteropathogenic bacteria, dyes, and heavy metals). The addition of Ag3PO4 and malachite did not significantly modify the physicochemical properties of ZnO; however, the optical properties of this oxide were modified as a result of its coupling with the modifiers. The modification of ZnO led to an improvement in its effectiveness in the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater. In general, the amount of malachite or silver phosphate and the effluent to be treated were the determining factors in the effectiveness of the wastewater treatment. The highest degree of elimination of bacteria from municipal wastewater and discoloration of textile staining wastewater were achieved by using ZnO/Ag3PO4 (5%), but an increase in the phosphate content had a detrimental effect on the treatment. Likewise, the highest Fe and Cu photoreduction from coal mining wastewater was observed by using ZnO–malachite (2.5%) and ZnO/Ag3PO4 (10%), respectively. Some of the results of this work were presented at the fourth Congreso Colombiano de Procesos Avanzados de Oxidación (4CCPAOx). Full article
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Article
Use of CdS from Teaching-Laboratory Wastes as a Photocatalyst for the Degradation of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics in Water
Water 2021, 13(16), 2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162154 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 916
Abstract
Laboratory wastes containing Cd2+ and water polluted by pharmaceuticals represent an environmental concern. In this work, a proof concept, consisting of the use of teaching-laboratory wastes to synthesize CdS and its subsequent use as a photocatalyst to degrade fluoroquinolone antibiotics, was developed. [...] Read more.
Laboratory wastes containing Cd2+ and water polluted by pharmaceuticals represent an environmental concern. In this work, a proof concept, consisting of the use of teaching-laboratory wastes to synthesize CdS and its subsequent use as a photocatalyst to degrade fluoroquinolone antibiotics, was developed. The CdS was prepared by extraction with thioacetamide and calcination (at 450 °C) and characterized using several techniques. The photocatalytic activity of the CdS, to degrade levofloxacin and norfloxacin, was tested, and the routes involved in the process and the primary transformations of the fluoroquinolones were established. Moreover, the ability of CdS-photocatalysis to eliminate levofloxacin in simulated matrices of fresh urine and hospital wastewater was evaluated. The characterization analyses indicated that the CdS semiconductor was synthesized successfully. Effectively, the CdS acted as a photocatalyst toward degradation of levofloxacin, involving the action of superoxide anion radical, holes, and singlet oxygen mainly. The process induced transformations on the methyl-piperazyl moiety, plus hydroxylation of the fluoroquinolone nucleus on levofloxacin. Additionally, CdS-photocatalysis was highly selective for the elimination of the target pollutant in both tested matrices. Our research indicated the good potentiality of recycling teaching-laboratory wastes to generate photocatalysts to degrade organic pollutants. This work was presented at 4° Congreso Colombiano de Procesos Avanzados de Oxidación (4CCPAOx). Full article
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Article
Mechanistic Model and Optimization of the Diclofenac Degradation Kinetic for Ozonation Processes Intensification
Water 2021, 13(12), 1670; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121670 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
This work focused on estimating the rate constants for three ozone-based processes applied in the degradation of diclofenac. The ozonation (Oz) and its intensification with catalysis (COz) and photocatalysis (PCOz) were studied. Three mathematical models were evaluated with a genetic algorithm (GA) to [...] Read more.
This work focused on estimating the rate constants for three ozone-based processes applied in the degradation of diclofenac. The ozonation (Oz) and its intensification with catalysis (COz) and photocatalysis (PCOz) were studied. Three mathematical models were evaluated with a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimal values for the kinetics constants. The Theil inequality coefficient (TIC) worked as a criterion to assess the models’ deviation. The diclofenac consumption followed a slow kinetic regime according to the Hatta number (Ha<0.3). However, it strongly contrasted with earlier studies. The obtained values for the volumetric rate of photon absorption (VRPA) corresponding to the PCOz process (1.75×106 & 6.54×107 Einstein L1 min1) were significantly distant from the maximum (2.59×105 Einstein L1 min1). The computed profiles of chemical species proved that no significant amount of hydroxyl radicals was produced in the Oz, whereas the PCOz achieved the highest production rate. According to this, titanium dioxide significantly contributed to ozone decomposition, especially at low ozone doses. Although the models’ prediction described a good agreement with the experimental data (TIC<0.3), the optimization algorithm was likely to have masked the rate constants as they had highly deviated from already reported values. Full article
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