Special Issue "Removal and Inactivation of Waterborne Pathogens during Water Treatment Processes"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Hodon Ryu
Website
Guest Editor
United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
Interests: health-related water microbiology: Physical removal and inactivation of waterborne pathogens and rapid detection of infectious microorganisms; microbial ecology: Development of microbial source tracking markers and microbial community characterization; sustainable energy saving biological treatment processes: Microbial electrochemical (MEC) technologies
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Brooke Mayer
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Marquette University, 1637 W. Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53233 USA
Interests: pathogen removal and inactivation; viruses; physicochemical drinking water treatment; nutrient removal and recovery

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The occurrence of enteric microbial pathogens and indicators, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoan parasites, in environmental water has been examined worldwide, and their removal or inactivation efficacy during water treatment processes has been investigated over the past several decades. A general strategy to resolve health-related concerns and issues pertaining to treated waters, such as drinking water and reclaimed wastewater, includes source control and application of advanced treatment processes. A great deal of attention has focused on the treatibility of commonly known pathogens and microbial indicators, and conventional treatment processes for both drinking water and wastewater have demonstrated efficiency in the removal and/or inactivation of a variety of microorganisms. However, research gaps for further studies still exist, particularily related to new treatment technologies and emerging pathogens. Reflecting the removal and inactivation efficacy of microorganisms in water, this Special Issue will welcome contributions in areas including, but not limited to: Microbial removal and disinfection in drinking water, wastewater, and reclaimed water; alternative treatment processes and current trends in advanced water treatment including advanced oxidation, UV-LEDs, Cu-Ag ionization, ferrate, etc.; water treatment processes used in centralized utilities, point-of-use devices and secondary water treatment for premise plumbing water systems; sustainable energy saving treatment and economical strategies specifically applicable in developing countries; and quantitative microbial risk assessment. This special issue can provide current state-of-the-art research on microbial treatment technologies, insights on clean and safe water production for public health, and future research directions on better treatability of waterborne pathogens.

Dr. Hodon Ryu
Dr. Brooke Mayer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • microbial removal and disinfection
  • water treatment processes
  • clean water
  • public health
  • microbial risk assessment
  • advanced treatment
  • waterborne pathogens
  • microbial indicators

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Cryptosporidium Oocysts Removal by Upflow Direct Filtration: Pilot Scale Assessment
Water 2020, 12(5), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051328 - 08 May 2020
Abstract
Studies on the removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts by direct filtration suggested that high removal efficiencies (>3.0 log) can be achieved, but the vast majority of the studies focused on the assessment of downflow direct filtration. However, in comparison with downflow direct filtration, filters [...] Read more.
Studies on the removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts by direct filtration suggested that high removal efficiencies (>3.0 log) can be achieved, but the vast majority of the studies focused on the assessment of downflow direct filtration. However, in comparison with downflow direct filtration, filters in upflow direct filtration systems use lower filtration rates, deeper stratified bed, and water flows from coarse to fine sand grain, which may improve the removal of oocysts. In this context, we evaluated the removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts using upflow direct filtration, on a pilot scale, to treat Paranoá Lake water (Brazil) seeded with Cryptosporidium oocysts. The experiments were conducted with raw water with low turbidity (3.2–5.7 NTU) and induced higher turbidity (28–30 NTU). Non-parametric statistical analysis was used to verify correlations between the filtered water values and removal of oocysts, particles, and turbidity. In general, no correlation was observed between the parameters analyzed, nor between their removals. The exception was the correlation between residual values of Cryptosporidium oocysts and particles of 2 to 7 µm during ripening, an aspect that needs further evaluation. Under stable operation, average removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts by upflow direct filtration was >3.87 log. During ripening, removal of oocysts was around 1 log lower. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Electrocoagulation as a Pretreatment for Electroxidation of E. coli
Water 2019, 11(12), 2509; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122509 - 28 Nov 2019
Abstract
Insufficient funding and operator training, logistics of chemical transport, and variable source water quality can pose challenges for small drinking water treatment systems. Portable, robust electrochemical processes may offer a strategy to address these challenges. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) and electrooxidation (EO) [...] Read more.
Insufficient funding and operator training, logistics of chemical transport, and variable source water quality can pose challenges for small drinking water treatment systems. Portable, robust electrochemical processes may offer a strategy to address these challenges. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) and electrooxidation (EO) were investigated using two model surface waters and two model groundwaters to determine the efficacy of sequential EC-EO for mitigating Escherichia coli. EO alone (1.67 mA/cm2, 1 min) provided 0.03 to 3.9 logs mitigation in the four model waters. EC alone (10 mA/cm2, 5 min) achieved ≥1 log E. coli mitigation in all model waters. Sequential EC-EO did not achieve greater mitigation than EC alone. To enhance removal of natural organic matter, the initial pH was decreased. Lower initial pH (pH 5–6) improved E. coli mitigation during both stages of EC-EO. EC-EO also had slightly greater E. coli mitigation than EC alone at lower pH. However, EO alone provided more energy efficient E. coli mitigation than either EC or EC-EO. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predictive Water Virology: Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling for Estimating Virus Inactivation Curve
Water 2019, 11(10), 2187; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102187 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) are a series of actions to be taken to ensure product consumption safety. In food poisoning risk management, researchers in the field of predictive microbiology calculate the values that provide minimum stress (e.g., temperature and contact [...] Read more.
Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) are a series of actions to be taken to ensure product consumption safety. In food poisoning risk management, researchers in the field of predictive microbiology calculate the values that provide minimum stress (e.g., temperature and contact time in heating) for sufficient microbe inactivation based on mathematical models. HACCP has also been employed for health risk management in sanitation safety planning (SSP), but the application of predictive microbiology to water-related pathogens is difficult because the variety of pathogen types and the complex composition of the wastewater matrix does not allow us to make a simple mathematical model to predict inactivation efficiency. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to construct predictive inactivation curves using free chlorine for enteric viruses based on a hierarchical Bayesian model using parameters such as water quality. Our model considered uncertainty among virus disinfection tests and difference in genotype-dependent sensitivity of a virus to disinfectant. The proposed model makes it possible to identify critical disinfection stress capable of reducing virus concentration that is below the tolerable concentration to ensure human health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes (UV-LED) to Full-Scale Drinking-Water Disinfection
Water 2019, 11(9), 1894; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091894 - 11 Sep 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) have recently emerged as a viable technology for water disinfection. However, the performance of the technology in full-scale drinking-water treatment systems remains poorly characterised. Furthermore, current UV disinfection standards and protocols have been developed specifically for conventional mercury UV [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) have recently emerged as a viable technology for water disinfection. However, the performance of the technology in full-scale drinking-water treatment systems remains poorly characterised. Furthermore, current UV disinfection standards and protocols have been developed specifically for conventional mercury UV systems and so do not necessarily provide an accurate indication of UV-LED disinfection performance. Hence, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that a full-scale UV-LED reactor can match the Cryptosporidium inactivation efficiency of conventional mercury UV reactors. Male-specific bacteriophage (MS2) was used as the Cryptosporidium spp. surrogate microorganism. The time-based inactivation efficiency of the full-scale reactor was firstly compared to that of a bench-scale (batch-type) UV-LED reactor. This was then related to mercury UV reactors by comparing the fluence-based efficiency of the bench-scale reactor to the USEPA 90% prediction interval range of expected MS2 inactivation using mercury UV lamps. The results showed that the full-scale UV-LED reactor was at least as effective as conventional mercury UV reactors at the water-quality and drive-current conditions considered. Nevertheless, comparisons between the bench- and full-scale UV-LED reactors indicated that improvements in the hydraulic flow profile and power output of the full-scale reactor could help to further improve the efficiency of UV-LED reactors for municipal drinking water disinfection. This represents the world’s first full-scale UV-LED reactor that can be applied at municipal water treatment works for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms from drinking water. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Legionellosis and Recent Advances in Technologies for Legionella Control in Premise Plumbing Systems: A Review
Water 2020, 12(3), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030676 - 02 Mar 2020
Abstract
This review discusses Legionella, among the most prolific and publicly well-known waterborne pathogens, and advances in potential treatment technologies. The number of cases associated with Legionella continues to rise, as does its public awareness. Currently, cases associated with premise plumbing account for [...] Read more.
This review discusses Legionella, among the most prolific and publicly well-known waterborne pathogens, and advances in potential treatment technologies. The number of cases associated with Legionella continues to rise, as does its public awareness. Currently, cases associated with premise plumbing account for the largest number of legionellosis cases in the United States. So, while it is important to understand Legionella as such, it is also important to investigate how to treat drinking water in premise plumbing for Legionella and other waterborne pathogens. While there are currently several methods recognized as potential means of inactivating waterborne pathogens, several shortcomings continue to plague its implementation. These methods are generally of two types. Firstly, there are chemical treatments such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ozone, and copper-silver ionization. Secondly, there are physical treatments such as thermal inactivation and media filtration. Their shortcomings range from being labor-intensive and costly to having negative health effects if not properly operated. Recently developed technologies including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation using light emitting diodes (LEDs) and innovative carbon nanotube (CNT) filters can better control waterborne pathogens by allowing for the simultaneous use of different treatment measures in plumbing systems. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

 

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