Next Article in Journal
Residential Flood Loss Assessment and Risk Mapping from High-Resolution Simulation
Next Article in Special Issue
Application of the Mathematical Simulation Methods for the Assessment of the Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation Work Reliability
Previous Article in Journal
Improved Approach for the Investigation of Submarine Groundwater Discharge by Means of Radon Mapping and Radon Mass Balancing
Previous Article in Special Issue
Feed Spacer Geometries and Permeability Coefficients. Effect on the Performance in BWRO Spriral-Wound Membrane Modules
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Diethylene Glycol-Assisted Organized TiO2 Nanostructures for Photocatalytic Wastewater Treatment Ceramic Membranes

1,2,†, 3,†, 3,* and 1,*
Department of Environmental Engineering, Inha University, Inharo-100, Michuholgu, Incheon 22212, Korea
Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Lahore Campus, Defense Road, Off Raiwind Road, Lahore 45550, Pakistan
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Water 2019, 11(4), 750;
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water and Wastewater Monitoring and Treatment Technology)
PDF [8941 KB, uploaded 23 April 2019]
  |     |  


A high-performance photocatalytic ceramic membrane was developed by direct growth of a TiO2 structure on a macroporous alumina support using a hydrothermal method. The morphological nanostructure of TiO2 on the support was successfully controlled via the interaction between the TiO2 precursor and a capping agent, diethylene glycol (DEG). The growth of anatase TiO2 nanorods was observed both on the membrane surface and pore walls. The well-organized nanorods TiO2 reduced the perturbation of the alumina support, thus controlling the hydrolysis rate of the TiO2 precursor and reducing membrane fouling. However, a decrease in the amount of the DEG capping agent significantly reduced membrane permeability, owing to the formation of nonporous clusters of TiO2 on the support. Distribution of the organized TiO2 nanorods on the support was very effective for the improvement of the organic removal efficiency and antifouling under ultraviolet illumination. The TiO2 nanostructure associated with the reactive crystalline phase, rather than the amount of layered TiO2 formed on the support, which was found to be the key to controlling photocatalytic membrane reactivity. These experimental findings would provide a new approach for the development of efficacious photocatalytic membranes with improved performance for wastewater treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: diethylene glycol; photocatalytic membrane; antifouling; photodegradation; nanostructure diethylene glycol; photocatalytic membrane; antifouling; photodegradation; nanostructure

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmad, R.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, J. Diethylene Glycol-Assisted Organized TiO2 Nanostructures for Photocatalytic Wastewater Treatment Ceramic Membranes. Water 2019, 11, 750.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top