Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 69331

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Core Member, Renewable Energy and Water Research Group (Sustainability and Resilience Theme), School of Engineering, Design and Built Environment, Western Sydney University, Penrith, Australia
Interests: water and environmental engineering; hydrology; climate change impacts; floods; water-sensitive urban design; rainwater harvesting; engineering education
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water is life, and no one can ignore the necessities of water in our life while humankind is facing both global and local water challenges such as climate change, water diversity loss, fresh drinking water scarcity and pollution. The need for sustainable water futures gains momentum as environmental and resource scarcity is increasing due to climate change. The transition and actions to the circular economy could be a nature-positive way of promoting a sustainable water future. Meanwhile, trickle-down economics could be reshaped following a bottom-up approach in the light of doughnut economics and circular economics in reducing the gap between people, water, nature, culture and civic engagement. The innovations and novel research work without undermining the planet by engineers, planners, architects, social and natural scientists could play a pivotal role in keeping positive planetary boundaries. Because the water, drinking water, water-related resources, water-based livelihoods, waterways and communities come under threat due to global warming and severe climate change, resource degradation, population growth, the inequitable distribution resources distribution and so on, therefore, transitioning to the Circular Economy and tackling the impacts of climate change is a high need of the hour to meet Sustainable Water Futures.

Objectives

  1. Our call for papers aims to study how economic activities from the consumption of water and water-related resources can be decoupled to build resilience, generate economic opportunities and provide global to local environmental and societal benefits.
  2. The call for paper has a mission to understand how community-led and community-driven conservation, management and restoration activities of water and waterways can ensure the community's wellbeing and provide access to fresh water in the city to the county.
  3. The aim is to assess how nature-based blue economies and circular solutions can address and alleviate global to local challenges such as climate change, water diversity loss, scarcity and pollution.
  4. The aim is also to cover articles that view water as a part of environmental and social needs covering holistic water management such as water-sensitive urban design, the recreational use of water and social hydrology.

Prof. Dr. Ataur Rahman
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • circular innovation for water, community, and climate
  • wastewater treatment and recycling, sustainable manufacturing
  • waterways, Wetlands management and conservation, circularity
  • rainwater, irrigation, AgTech, small-scale water resources planning
  • hydroponics, floating gardening, flood adaptation, hydrology
  • drought, groundwater crisis, water stress, financing water
  • drinking water, water hazards, indigenous water knowledge
  • aquaculture, water resources processing and management
  • water heritage, environmental folkloristics, and local communities
  • riverine ecosystems, water planning and climate policy
  • blue economy, integrated planning, and sustainability
  • drinking water, water-related resources, water-based livelihoods
  • water ecosystems, water governance, and circular economy
  • water sensitive urban design, social hydrology
  • rural water supply, life cycle analysis of water projects

Published Papers (19 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

13 pages, 1832 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Permeable Pavement Systems for Removing Heavy Metals from Stormwater
by Upeka Kuruppu and Ataur Rahman
Water 2023, 15(8), 1573; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081573 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
This study examines a modified permeable pavement system (PPS) for enhanced heavy metal attenuation from stormwater. A laboratory model consisting of six PPS columns has been tested under varying rainfall intensities. The PPS structures are arranged based on the following hypotheses for enhancing [...] Read more.
This study examines a modified permeable pavement system (PPS) for enhanced heavy metal attenuation from stormwater. A laboratory model consisting of six PPS columns has been tested under varying rainfall intensities. The PPS structures are arranged based on the following hypotheses for enhancing heavy metal attenuation: (i) addition of a natural zeolite layer in the subbase for promoting heavy metal attenuation by adsorption and ion exchange; (ii) addition of a bark chip layer as an organic carbon source for promoting biosorption of heavy metals; (iii) maintaining a saturated zone in order to maintain the required humidity level and decrease the level of oxygen for increased biodegradation; and (iv) inclusion of thin sand layers to restrict the transport of oxygen to create an anoxic zone in the PPS and to enhance filtration. Successful treatment of metals such as Ba, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn has been observed under various rainfall conditions using a conventional PPS. The rainfall intensity greatly influences the attenuation of Al, Cr, Cu, Mo and Sr. During heavy rains through the conventional PPS structure, chromium is found to be leached back into the infiltrate. The results indicate that by changing the subbase material and layer setting, biosorption of heavy metals can be encouraged in the PPS structure. The results of this study suggest that the PPS structure be amended by adding into its subbase a saturated region, an organic carbon donor and thin sand layers for enhanced heavy metal attenuation. Compared to the conventional structure, the proposed structure reduces Cr desorption and improves the attenuation of Al, Cu and Mo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 1424 KiB  
Article
Circulatory Pathways in the Water and Wastewater Sector in the Latin American Region
by Paula Cecilia Soto-Rios, Nidhi Nagabhatla and Brenda Acevedo-Juárez
Water 2023, 15(6), 1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061092 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2998
Abstract
The Circular Economy (CE) is noted as an emerging framework to support sustainable production and consumption agendas. In addition, the CE aims to be a trigger for redefining economic growth pathways as sustainable, inclusive, and sensitive to ecological and environmental agendas, and to [...] Read more.
The Circular Economy (CE) is noted as an emerging framework to support sustainable production and consumption agendas. In addition, the CE aims to be a trigger for redefining economic growth pathways as sustainable, inclusive, and sensitive to ecological and environmental agendas, and to focus its operational standards on co-creating societal benefits. Concerning the guiding principles and the standards of practice applied to implement and scale circular economy, this study will provide an overview of water sector-specific circularity roadmaps and strategies in the Latin American Region (LAR). By using a semi-systematic review, document analysis, and qualitative assessment approach, we highlight framings and operational pathways, gaps, and needs within existing practices of circularity in the water sector. The results provide an overview of CE pathways at the national level of selected countries in the LAR, urging those nations to reflect various levels of advancement (low to high) with CE-focused innovations and policy support structures specific to the water and wastewater sectors. Towards the end, the study points to the ‘call for action’ to integrate outstanding advances and innovations in the circular economy within sectoral mandates for water and wastewater management, making an argument that circularity in the water sector could serve as an accelerator towards implementing the agenda outlined in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and in particular for SDG 6 (water security for all). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2542 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Chambal River Water Quality Parameters: A MATLAB Simulation Analysis
by Mukesh Kumar Gupta, Rahul Kumar, M. K. Banerjee, Naveen Kumar Gupta, Tabish Alam, Sayed M. Eldin and Mohd Yawar Ali Khan
Water 2022, 14(24), 4040; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244040 - 11 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4644
Abstract
In this research work, environmental monitoring processes and assessments are carried out by the modeling and analysis of the water quality of the Chambal River in the state of Rajasthan. Various samples were collected from different locations along the course of the river [...] Read more.
In this research work, environmental monitoring processes and assessments are carried out by the modeling and analysis of the water quality of the Chambal River in the state of Rajasthan. Various samples were collected from different locations along the course of the river flow. This water is used for different kinds of human, animal, and agriculture corp. activities. Comparative analyses were conducted on the water parameters, viz. biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, total coliform, and conductivity, for the of consecutive years 2020 and 2021. A model was developed with the help of MATLAB Simulink software (Version R2019a) to find the causes of oxygen deficiency and reoxygenation in water with time and distance. The results of two consecutive years help to predict the responsible factors for the degradation of the river’s water quality. The water quality modeling and simulation results conclude that the water quality of the Chambal River flowing through Rajasthan can rejuvenate itself during an alarming oxygen deficit within a short period. According to the results of this study, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water of the Chambal River is high enough to support the survival of the endangered species that inhabit the area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1724 KiB  
Article
Comparison between Quantile Regression Technique and Generalised Additive Model for Regional Flood Frequency Analysis: A Case Study for Victoria, Australia
by Farhana Noor, Orpita U. Laz, Khaled Haddad, Mohammad A. Alim and Ataur Rahman
Water 2022, 14(22), 3627; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223627 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
For design flood estimation in ungauged catchments, Regional Flood Frequency Analysis (RFFA) is commonly used. Most of the RFFA methods are primarily based on linear modelling approaches, which do not account for the inherent nonlinearity of rainfall-runoff processes. Using data from 114 catchments [...] Read more.
For design flood estimation in ungauged catchments, Regional Flood Frequency Analysis (RFFA) is commonly used. Most of the RFFA methods are primarily based on linear modelling approaches, which do not account for the inherent nonlinearity of rainfall-runoff processes. Using data from 114 catchments in Victoria, Australia, this study employs the Generalised Additive Model (GAM) in RFFA and compares the results with linear method known as Quantile Regression Technique (QRT). The GAM model performance is found to be better for smaller return periods (i.e., 2, 5 and 10 years) with a median relative error ranging 16–41%. For higher return periods (i.e., 20, 50 and 100 years), log-log linear regression model (QRT) outperforms the GAM model with a median relative error ranging 31–59%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 6688 KiB  
Article
Identification of Suitable Sites Using GIS for Rainwater Harvesting Structures to Meet Irrigation Demand
by Preeti Preeti, Yuri Shendryk and Ataur Rahman
Water 2022, 14(21), 3480; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213480 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5112
Abstract
This study uses a multi-criteria decision analysis approach based on geographic information system (GIS) to identify suitable sites for rainwater harvesting (RWH) structures (such as farm dam, check dam and contour bund) to meet irrigation demand in Greater Western Sydney region, New South [...] Read more.
This study uses a multi-criteria decision analysis approach based on geographic information system (GIS) to identify suitable sites for rainwater harvesting (RWH) structures (such as farm dam, check dam and contour bund) to meet irrigation demand in Greater Western Sydney region, New South Wales, Australia. Data on satellite image, soil, climate, and digital elevation model (DEM) were stored in GIS layers and merged to create a ranking system, which were then used to identify suitable RWH (rainwater harvesting) areas. The resulting thematic layers (such as rainfall, land use/land cover, soil type, slope, runoff depth, drainage density, stream order and distance from road) were combined into one overlay to produce map of RWH suitability. The results showed that 9% of the study region is ‘very highly suitable’ and 25% is ‘highly suitable’. On the other hand, 36% of the area, distributed in the north-west, west and south-west of the study region, is ‘moderately suitable’. While 21% of the region, distributed in east and south-east part of the region, has ‘low suitability’ and 9% is found as ‘unsuitable area’. The findings of this research will contribute towards wider adoption of RWH in Greater Western Sydney region to meet irrigation demand. The developed methodology can be adapted to any other region/country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 6210 KiB  
Article
Comparing Performance of ANN and SVM Methods for Regional Flood Frequency Analysis in South-East Australia
by Amir Zalnezhad, Ataur Rahman, Nastaran Nasiri, Mehdi Vafakhah, Bijan Samali and Farhad Ahamed
Water 2022, 14(20), 3323; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203323 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
Design flood estimations at ungauged catchments are a challenging task in hydrology. Regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA) is widely used for this purpose. This paper develops artificial intelligence (AI)-based RFFA models (artificial neural networks (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM)) using data from [...] Read more.
Design flood estimations at ungauged catchments are a challenging task in hydrology. Regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA) is widely used for this purpose. This paper develops artificial intelligence (AI)-based RFFA models (artificial neural networks (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM)) using data from 181 gauged catchments in South-East Australia. Based on an independent testing, it is found that the ANN method outperforms the SVM (the relative error values for the ANN model range 33–54% as compared to 37–64% for the SVM). The ANN and SVM models generate more accurate flood quantiles for smaller return periods; however, for higher return periods, both the methods present a higher estimation error. The results of this study will help to recommend new AI-based RFFA methods in Australia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 8153 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on Rainwater Harvesting: A Case Study for Eight Australian Capital Cities
by Preeti Preeti, Khaled Haddad and Ataur Rahman
Water 2022, 14(19), 3123; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193123 - 3 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2143
Abstract
Due to climate change, freshwater supply will be limited at many locations around the globe. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) has emerged as an alternative and sustainable freshwater source. In this study, the impacts of climate change on water saving as well as the reliability [...] Read more.
Due to climate change, freshwater supply will be limited at many locations around the globe. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) has emerged as an alternative and sustainable freshwater source. In this study, the impacts of climate change on water saving as well as the reliability of a RWH system are investigated using data from eight Australian capital cities. Both historical and projected rainfall data were incorporated into a daily water balance model to evaluate the performance of a RWH system in relation to its reliability, water savings and scarcity. Indoor (toilet and laundry), outdoor (irrigation) and combined (indoor plus outdoor) water demands were considered for a 5 m3 tank size. It has been found that in the future period, the water savings and reliability of a RWH system will reduce slightly across the selected cities. Different capital cities of Australia will experience different level of performance for a RWH system depending on their locations, water uses and seasons. The findings of this study will be useful to water authorities and policy makers to plan for a sustainable RWH system under changing climate conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 38321 KiB  
Article
Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Modeling in Arid Environment, Al-Lusub Watershed, Saudi Arabia
by Nassir Al-Amri, Jaka Budiman and Amro Elfeki
Water 2022, 14(19), 3075; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193075 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2391
Abstract
Coupling surface and groundwater for a better understanding of the hydrologic response in arid basins is essential for managing water resources. The study aims to integrate surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) modeling in an arid environment and to identify groundwater sources at [...] Read more.
Coupling surface and groundwater for a better understanding of the hydrologic response in arid basins is essential for managing water resources. The study aims to integrate surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) modeling in an arid environment and to identify groundwater sources at Hadat Ash-Sham farm station in the Al-Lusub watershed, located in the western part of Saudi Arabia. The curve number (CN) method for SW modeling is primarily used to estimate GW potential recharge based on a developed correlation equation between event-based rainfall and potential recharge, which is processed in the Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) software. Monthly potential recharge is utilized to compute GW modeling in MODFLOW. Van Mullem’s equation is used to calculate hydraulic conductivity (K) from CN. The calibration of steady-state GW modeling reveals that the K (from Van Mullem’s equation) is within the range of measured K in the field. The transient groundwater modeling phase concludes that the groundwater system in the Al-Lusub watershed can be interpreted based on two different scenarios. The first is that an extra recharge from a nearby watershed flows through the geological structure into a downstream area. The second scenario involves potential recharge from surface water flowing on the Al-Lusub watershed’s mainstream bed. Validation reveals a strong relationship between predicted and observed water tables. The root mean square error (RMSE) for Scenarios 1 and 2 are 0.6 m and 0.7 m, respectively. Further investigation is needed to determine the region’s most common scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 3338 KiB  
Article
A Review and Analysis of Water Research, Development, and Management in Bangladesh
by Ataur Rahman, Sayka Jahan, Gokhan Yildirim, Mohammad A. Alim, Md Mahmudul Haque, Muhammad Muhitur Rahman and A. H. M. Kausher
Water 2022, 14(12), 1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121834 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6457
Abstract
This paper presents a review of water research, development, and management in Bangladesh, with examples drawn from the past and present. A bibliometric analysis is adopted here to analyze the water-related publication data of Bangladesh. Water-quality-related research is the dominating research field in [...] Read more.
This paper presents a review of water research, development, and management in Bangladesh, with examples drawn from the past and present. A bibliometric analysis is adopted here to analyze the water-related publication data of Bangladesh. Water-quality-related research is the dominating research field in Bangladesh as compared to water-quantity (floods and droughts)-related ones. The most productive author was found to be Ahmed KM for water-related publication in Bangladesh. The arsenic contamination in Bangladesh has received the highest attention (13 out of the top 15 highly cited papers are related to arsenic contamination). Climate-change-related topics have been showing an increasing trend in research publications over the last 5 years. Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100, prepared recently, is a visionary master plan that is expected to shape water management in Bangladesh in the coming decades to adapt to climate change. A set of recommendations is made here to achieve sustainable water management in Bangladesh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 7921 KiB  
Article
Community-Scale Rural Drinking Water Supply Systems Based on Harvested Rainwater: A Case Study of Australia and Vietnam
by Tara T. Ross, Mohammad A. Alim and Ataur Rahman
Water 2022, 14(11), 1763; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111763 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6081
Abstract
Rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems can be used to produce drinking water in rural communities, particularly in developing countries that lack a clean drinking water supply. Most previous research has focused on the application of RWH systems for individual urban households. This paper develops [...] Read more.
Rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems can be used to produce drinking water in rural communities, particularly in developing countries that lack a clean drinking water supply. Most previous research has focused on the application of RWH systems for individual urban households. This paper develops a yield-after-spillage water balance model (WBM) which can calculate the reliability, annual drinking water production (ADWP) and benefit–cost ratio (BCR) of a community-scale RWH system for rural drinking water supply. We consider multiple scenarios regarding community aspects, including 150–1000 users, 70–4800 kL rainwater storage, 20–50 L/capita/day (LCD) drinking water usage levels, local rainfall regimes and economic parameters of Australia (developed country) and Vietnam (developing country). The WBM analysis shows a strong correlation between water demand and water supply with 90% system reliability, which allows both Australian and Vietnamese systems to achieve the similar capability of ADWP and economic values of the produced drinking water. However, the cost of the Vietnamese system is higher due to the requirement of larger rainwater storage due to larger household size and lower rainfall in the dry season, which reduces the BCR compared to the Australian systems. It is found that the RWH systems can be feasibly implemented at the water price of 0.01 AUD/L for all the Vietnamese scenarios and for some Australian scenarios with drinking water demand over 6 kL/day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 5973 KiB  
Article
Analyzing the Water Pollution Control Cost-Sharing Mechanism in the Yellow River and Its Two Tributaries in the Context of Regional Differences
by Yaohong Yang, Ying Liu, Zhen Yuan, Jing Dai, Yi Zeng and Mohd Yawar Ali Khan
Water 2022, 14(11), 1678; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111678 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2161
Abstract
A river basin is a complex system of tributaries and a mainstream. It is vital to cooperatively manage the mainstream and the tributaries to alleviate water pollution and the ecological environment in the basin. On the other hand, existing research focuses primarily on [...] Read more.
A river basin is a complex system of tributaries and a mainstream. It is vital to cooperatively manage the mainstream and the tributaries to alleviate water pollution and the ecological environment in the basin. On the other hand, existing research focuses primarily on upstream and downstream water pollution control mechanisms, ignoring coordinated control of the mainstream and tributaries, and does not consider the impacts of different environmental and economic conditions in each region on pollution control strategies. This study designed a differential game model for water pollution control in the Yellow River and two of its tributaries, taking regional differences into account and discussing the best pollution control strategies for each region under two scenarios: Nash noncooperative and cost-sharing mechanisms. Furthermore, the factors influencing regional differences in pollution control costs are analyzed, and their impacts on the cost-sharing mechanism of pollution control are discussed. The results show that: (1) The cost-sharing mechanism based on cooperative management can improve pollutant removal efficiency in the watershed and achieve Pareto improvement in environment and economy. (2) The greater the economic development pressure between the two tributaries, the fewer the effects of the cost-sharing mechanisms and the higher the proportion of pollution control costs paid by the mainstream government. (3) Industry water consumption, the proportion of the urban population to the total population at the end of the year, the value-added of secondary sectors as a percentage of regional GDP, the volume of industrial wastewater discharge, and granted patent applications all influence industrial wastewater pollution treatment investment. (4) The greater the coefficient of variation in pollution control costs between the two tributary areas, the less favorable the solution to water pollution management synergy. These findings can help governments in the basin regions negotiate cost-sharing arrangements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3127 KiB  
Article
Regional Flood Frequency Analysis Using the FCM-ANFIS Algorithm: A Case Study in South-Eastern Australia
by Amir Zalnezhad, Ataur Rahman, Mehdi Vafakhah, Bijan Samali and Farhad Ahamed
Water 2022, 14(10), 1608; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101608 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2294
Abstract
Regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA) is widely used to estimate design floods in ungauged catchments. Both linear and non-linear methods are adopted in RFFA. The development of the non-linear RFFA method Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) using data from 181 gauged catchments in [...] Read more.
Regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA) is widely used to estimate design floods in ungauged catchments. Both linear and non-linear methods are adopted in RFFA. The development of the non-linear RFFA method Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) using data from 181 gauged catchments in south-eastern Australia is presented in this study. Three different types of ANFIS models, Fuzzy C-mean (FCM), Subtractive Clustering (SC), and Grid Partitioning (GP) were adopted, and the results were compared with the Quantile Regression Technique (QRT). It was found that FCM performs better (with relative error (RE) values in the range of 38–60%) than the SC (RE of 44–69%) and GP (RE of 42–78%) models. The FCM performs better for smaller to medium ARIs (2 to 20 years) (ARI of five years having the best performance), and in New South Wales, over Victoria. In many aspects, the QRT and FCM models perform very similarly. These developed RFFA models can be used in south-eastern Australia to derive more accurate flood quantiles. The developed method can easily be adapted to other parts of Australia and other countries. The results of this study will assist in updating the Australian Rainfall Runoff (national guide)-recommended RFFA technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 16353 KiB  
Article
Mapping Groundwater Potential Zones Using Analytical Hierarchical Process and Multicriteria Evaluation in the Central Eastern Desert, Egypt
by Mohd Yawar Ali Khan, Mohamed ElKashouty and Fuqiang Tian
Water 2022, 14(7), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071041 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4064
Abstract
Exploring alternative freshwater resources other than those surrounding the Nile is critical to disperse Egypt’s population to other uninhabited desert areas. This study aims to locate groundwater potential zones (GWPZs) in the water-scarce desert between the Qina and Safga-Bir Queh regions to build [...] Read more.
Exploring alternative freshwater resources other than those surrounding the Nile is critical to disperse Egypt’s population to other uninhabited desert areas. This study aims to locate groundwater potential zones (GWPZs) in the water-scarce desert between the Qina and Safga-Bir Queh regions to build groundwater wells, thereby attracting and supporting people’s demand for water, food, and urban development. Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) and analytical hierarchical process (AHP) techniques based on remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to map GWPZs. The outcome of the GWPZs map was divided into six different classes. High and very-high aquifer recharge potentials were localized in the middle and western parts, spanning 19.3% and 17% (16.4% and 15.7%) by MCE (AHP). Low and very low aquifer recharge potentials were distributed randomly in the eastern part over an area of 29% and 14.3% (26.9% and 6.1%) by MCE (AHP). Validation has been undertaken between the collected Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) and with the calculated GWPZs, indicating that the highest and lowest TDS concentrations of most aquifers are correlated with low to very low and high to very high aquifer potential, respectively. The study is promising and can be applied anywhere with similar setups for groundwater prospect and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 6385 KiB  
Article
Production of Fresh Water by a Solar Still: An Experimental Case Study in Australia
by Elizabeth Nomor, Rafiqul Islam, Mohammad A. Alim and Ataur Rahman
Water 2021, 13(23), 3373; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233373 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3030
Abstract
There is a scarcity of fresh water in many rural communities where solar stills can be used to produce drinking water at a minimal cost. These stills use solar energy, which is a sustainable form of energy, and hence this can contribute towards [...] Read more.
There is a scarcity of fresh water in many rural communities where solar stills can be used to produce drinking water at a minimal cost. These stills use solar energy, which is a sustainable form of energy, and hence this can contribute towards achievement of United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This study aims to develop empirical models of a solar stills based on experimental data obtained at Werrington South, New South Wales, Australia. Two solar stills were used in the experiment, a conventional design (Con-Still) and a con-still modified with adding extra thermal mass inside the still (mod-still). Regression analysis was adopted to develop prediction equations using Pi (productivity in L/m2/day) as the response variable and ambient temperature (Ta), sky temperature (Ts19), global radiation (Gh), and wind velocity (W) as the predictor variables. The mean and median productivity values of the mod-still were found to be 17%, and 22% higher than that those for the con-still. The proposed mod-still can be further improved and used in rural areas to produce fresh water from sea water and other forms of contaminated water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

22 pages, 1578 KiB  
Review
A Review on Chlorination of Harvested Rainwater
by Sajeeve Latif, Mohammad A. Alim, Ataur Rahman and Md Mahmudul Haque
Water 2023, 15(15), 2816; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152816 - 3 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2632
Abstract
The supply of safe drinking water to rural communities has always been challenging, unlike in most large cities where government authorities have constructed central water supply systems. In many rural areas, primary water sources such as surface water and groundwater are at risk [...] Read more.
The supply of safe drinking water to rural communities has always been challenging, unlike in most large cities where government authorities have constructed central water supply systems. In many rural areas, primary water sources such as surface water and groundwater are at risk of contamination with rapid agricultural and industrial growth and climate change-related issues. Rainwater harvesting is an ancient practice for rural communities, and the momentum around its use is continually growing in recent years. However, the lack of sustainable treatment facilities on a small scale encourages dwellers to consume harvested rainwater (HRW) without any treatment even though drinking untreated HRW may have multiple health impacts in many cases. There are several methods of treating HRW. While chlorination is extensively used to disinfect water in large volumes, e.g., central drinking water supply systems), it has not been widely adopted for treating water on a small scale. We present a scoping review to explore whether chlorination could be a viable option for disinfecting HRW at a domestic level. It is found that inadequate treatment prior to chlorine disinfection could produce chlorine disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Limited data on DBP concentrations in HRW are available to assess its health implications. Based on this review, it is argued that chlorination could be an option for treating HRW at a domestic level when limitations associated with this method (such as safe storage, appropriate sustainable technology, and lessening DBPs by lowering total organic carbon before chlorination through other treatment methods) are resolved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2409 KiB  
Review
Regional Flood Frequency Analysis: A Bibliometric Overview
by Ali Ahmed, Gokhan Yildirim, Khaled Haddad and Ataur Rahman
Water 2023, 15(9), 1658; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091658 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3112
Abstract
In water resources management, environmental and ecological studies, estimation of design streamflow is often needed. For gauged catchments, at-site flood frequency analysis is used for this purpose; however, for ungauged catchments, regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA) is the preferred method. RFFA attempts to [...] Read more.
In water resources management, environmental and ecological studies, estimation of design streamflow is often needed. For gauged catchments, at-site flood frequency analysis is used for this purpose; however, for ungauged catchments, regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA) is the preferred method. RFFA attempts to transfer flood characteristics from gauged to ungauged catchments based on the assumption of regional homogeneity. A bibliometric analysis on RFFA is presented here using Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus databases. A total of 626 articles were selected from these databases. From the bibliometric analysis, it has been found that Journal of Hydrology and Water Resources Research are the two leading journals reporting RFFA research. In RFFA research, leading countries include Canada, USA, UK, Italy and Australia. In terms of citations, the top performing researchers are Ouarda T, Burn D, Rahman A, Haddad K and Chebana F. Future research should be directed towards the identification of homogeneous regions, application of efficient artificial intelligence (AI)-based RFFA models, incorporation of climate change impacts and uncertainty analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2009 KiB  
Review
A Systemic Review of the Cybersecurity Challenges in Australian Water Infrastructure Management
by Abubakar Bello, Sayka Jahan, Farnaz Farid and Farhad Ahamed
Water 2023, 15(1), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010168 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3379
Abstract
Cybersecurity risks have become obstinate problems for critical water infrastructure management in Australia and worldwide. Water management in Australia involves a vast complex of smart technical control systems interconnected with several networks, making the infrastructure susceptible to cyber-attacks. Therefore, ensuring the use of [...] Read more.
Cybersecurity risks have become obstinate problems for critical water infrastructure management in Australia and worldwide. Water management in Australia involves a vast complex of smart technical control systems interconnected with several networks, making the infrastructure susceptible to cyber-attacks. Therefore, ensuring the use of security mechanisms in the control system modules and communication networks for sensors and actuators is vital. The statistics show that Australia is facing frequent cyber-attacks, most of which are either undetected or overlooked or require immediate response. To address these cyber risks, Australia has changed from a country with negligible recognition of attacks on critical infrastructure to a country with improved capability to manage cyber warfare. However, little attention is paid to reducing the risk of attacks to the critical water infrastructure. This study aims to evaluate Australia’s current cybersecurity attack landscape and the implemented controls for water infrastructure using a systematic literature review (SLR). This study also compares Australia in the context of global developments and proposes future research directions. The synthesis of the evidence from 271 studies in this review indicates the importance of managing security vulnerabilities and threats in SCADA water control systems, including the need to upgrade the contemporary water security architecture to mitigate emerging risks. Moreover, human resource development with a specific focus on security awareness and training for SCADA employees is found to be lacking, which will be essential for alleviating cyber threats to the water infrastructure in Australia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 8408 KiB  
Review
Review of Rainwater Harvesting Research by a Bibliometric Analysis
by Gokhan Yildirim, Mohammad A Alim and Ataur Rahman
Water 2022, 14(20), 3200; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203200 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6491
Abstract
This study presents a review of recent rainwater harvesting (RWH) research by a bibliometric analysis (based on performance analysis and science mapping method). Following the inclusion/exclusion criteria, a total of 3226 publications were selected for this bibliometric analysis. From the selected publications, the [...] Read more.
This study presents a review of recent rainwater harvesting (RWH) research by a bibliometric analysis (based on performance analysis and science mapping method). Following the inclusion/exclusion criteria, a total of 3226 publications were selected for this bibliometric analysis. From the selected publications, the top journals were identified according to number of publications and number of citations, as well as the authors with the highest number of publications. It has been found that publication rate on RWH has been increasing steadily since 2005. Water (MDPI) journal has published the highest number of publications (128). Based on the literature considered in this review, the top five authors are found as Ghisi, E., Han, M., Rahman, A., Butler, D. and Imteaz, M.A. in that order. With respect to research collaborations, the top performing countries are USA–China, USA–Australia, USA–UK, Australia–UK and Australia–China. Although, the most dominant keywords are found to be ‘rain’, ‘rainwater’, ‘water supply’ and ‘rainwater harvesting’, since 2016, a higher emphasis has been attributed to ‘floods’, ‘efficiency’, ‘climate change’, ‘performance assessment’ and ‘housing’. It is expected that RWH research will continue to rise in future following the current trends as it is regarded as a sustainable means of water cycle management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 7533 KiB  
Review
A Bibliometric Analysis of Drought Indices, Risk, and Forecast as Components of Drought Early Warning Systems
by Gokhan Yildirim, Ataur Rahman and Vijay P. Singh
Water 2022, 14(2), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020253 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3530
Abstract
In this study, we apply a bibliometric analysis to characterize publication data on droughts, mainly focusing on drought indices (DIs), drought risk (DR), and drought forecast (DF). Data on publications on these selected topics were obtained through the Scopus database, covering the period [...] Read more.
In this study, we apply a bibliometric analysis to characterize publication data on droughts, mainly focusing on drought indices (DIs), drought risk (DR), and drought forecast (DF). Data on publications on these selected topics were obtained through the Scopus database, covering the period from 1963 to June 2021. The DI-related publications, based on meteorological, soil moisture, hydrological, remote sensing, and composite/modeled Dis, accounted for 57%, 8%, 4%, 29%, and 2% of the scientific sources, respectively. DI-related studies showed a notable increase since the 1990s, due perhaps to a higher number of major droughts during the last three decades. It was found that USA and China were the two leading countries in terms of publication count and academic influence on the DI, DR, and DF studies. A network analysis of the country of residence of co-authors on DR and DF research highlighted the top three countries, which were the USA, China, and the United Kingdom. The most productive journal for the DI studies was found to be the International Journal of Climatology, whereas Natural Hazards was identified as the first-ranked journal for the DR and DF studies. In relation to individual researchers, Singh VP from the USA was found to be the most prolific author, having the greatest academic influence on DF study, whereas Zhang Q from China was identified as the most productive author on DR study. This bibliometric analysis reveals that further research is needed on droughts in the areas of risk management, water management, and drought management. This review maps trends of previous research in drought science, covering several important aspects, such as drought indices, geographic regions, authors and their collaboration paths, and sub-topics of interest. This article is expected to serve as an index of the current state of knowledge on drought warning systems and as guidance for future research needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Futures: Climate, Community and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop