Special Issue "Rainwater and Stormwater Harvesting for Sustainable Water Cycle Management"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021) | Viewed by 16896

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Ataur Rahman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia
Interests: water and environmental engineering; hydrology; climate change impacts; floods; water-sensitive urban design; rainwater harvesting; engineering education
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will cover recent developments in both rainwater harvesting from roof catchments and stormwater harvesting from both pervious and impervious surfaces. It will cover all relevant issues on this field, such as mathematical modelling, risk assessment, flooding, water quality, sustainability, life cycle assessment, food–energy nexus and climate change-related issues.

Prof. Dr. Ataur Rahman
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Rainwater harvesting
  • Stormwater harvesting
  • Harvested water quality
  • Sustainable water harvesting
  • Life cycle assessment
  • Impacts of climate change on rainwater harvesting
  • Design curves and regionalization of rainwater harvesting
  • Agricultural water use from harvested rainwater
  • Drinking water production from harvested rainwater

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Rainwater Harvesting for Sustainable Developments: Non-Potable Use, Household Irrigation and Stormwater Management
Water 2021, 13(23), 3460; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233460 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
At present, nearly 47% of the world’s population live in areas that are affected by water scarcity at least one month in a year [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Improving Household Agriculture with Roof-Harvested Rainwater: A Case Study in Sydney and Nairobi
Water 2021, 13(20), 2920; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202920 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
The production and distribution of a sufficient quantity of food and water of satisfactory quality is at the heart of sustainable development. At the small domestic scale, roof-harvested rainwater can make a significant contribution to food supply and distribution systems (production, handling, storage, [...] Read more.
The production and distribution of a sufficient quantity of food and water of satisfactory quality is at the heart of sustainable development. At the small domestic scale, roof-harvested rainwater can make a significant contribution to food supply and distribution systems (production, handling, storage, and transportation). In this paper, we compare the potential crop production of a small garden plot using three methods of watering: (1) rainfed only with no irrigation; (2) irrigated with the ideal amount of water; and (3) rainwater tanks of various sizes installed and used to irrigate the plot. Yield was determined on the basis of the yield calculation method presented in FAO 33. It was found that yields can be increased considerably by installing a correctly managed rainwater storage system (RSS). A 3 kL RSS connected to a 120 m2 roof can increase yields in Nairobi from 40 kg to 96 kg. In Sydney, a larger roof of 200 m2 can increase yields from 66 kg to 143 kg. This study makes an important contribution to water and food security-related sustainable development goals. Full article
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Article
A Case Study on Reliability, Water Demand and Economic Analysis of Rainwater Harvesting in Australian Capital Cities
Water 2021, 13(19), 2606; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192606 - 22 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
This paper presents reliability, water demand and economic analysis of rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems for eight Australian capital cities (Adelaide, Brisbane, Canberra, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney). A Python-based tool is developed based on a daily water balance modelling approach, which uses [...] Read more.
This paper presents reliability, water demand and economic analysis of rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems for eight Australian capital cities (Adelaide, Brisbane, Canberra, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney). A Python-based tool is developed based on a daily water balance modelling approach, which uses input data such as daily rainfall, roof area, overflow losses, daily water demand and first flush. Ten different tank volumes are considered (1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, 75 and 100 m3). It is found that for a large roof area and tank size, the reliability of RWH systems for toilet and laundry use is high, in the range of 80–100%. However, the reliability for irrigation use is highly variable across all the locations. For combined use, Adelaide shows the smallest reliability (38–49%), while Hobart demonstrates the highest reliability (61–77%). Furthermore, economic analysis demonstrates that in a few cases, benefit–cost ratio values greater than one can be achieved for the RWH systems. The findings of this study will help the Australian Federal Government to enhance RWH policy, programs and subsidy levels considering climate-sensitive inputs in the respective cities. Full article
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Article
Effects of Probability-Distributed Losses on Flood Estimates Using Event-Based Rainfall-Runoff Models
Water 2021, 13(15), 2049; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152049 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 813
Abstract
Probability distributions of initial losses are investigated using a large dataset of catchments throughout Australia. The variability in design flood estimates caused by probability-distributed initial losses and associated uncertainties are investigated. Based on historic data sets in Australia, the Gamma and Beta distributions [...] Read more.
Probability distributions of initial losses are investigated using a large dataset of catchments throughout Australia. The variability in design flood estimates caused by probability-distributed initial losses and associated uncertainties are investigated. Based on historic data sets in Australia, the Gamma and Beta distributions are found to be suitable for describing initial loss data. It has also been found that the central tendency of probability-distributed initial loss is more important in design flood estimation than the form of the probability density function. Findings from this study have notable implications on the regionalization of initial loss data, which is required for the application of Monte Carlo methods for design flood estimation in ungauged catchments. Full article
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Article
A Critical Evaluation of the Water Supply and Stormwater Management Performance of Retrofittable Domestic Rainwater Harvesting Systems
Water 2020, 12(4), 1184; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041184 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1720
Abstract
Rainwater harvesting systems are often used as both an alternative water source and a stormwater management tool. Many studies have focused on the water-saving potential of these systems, but research into aspects that impact stormwater retention—such as demand patterns and climate change—is lacking. [...] Read more.
Rainwater harvesting systems are often used as both an alternative water source and a stormwater management tool. Many studies have focused on the water-saving potential of these systems, but research into aspects that impact stormwater retention—such as demand patterns and climate change—is lacking. This paper investigates the short-term impact of demand on both water supply and stormwater management and examines future and potential performance over a longer time scale using climate change projections. To achieve this, data was collected from domestic rainwater harvesting systems in Broadhempston, UK, and used to create a yield-after-spillage model. The validation process showed that using constant demand as opposed to monitored data had little impact on accuracy. With regards to stormwater management, it was found that monitored households did not use all the non-potable available water, and that increasing their demand for this was the most effective way of increasing retention capacity based on the modelling study completed. Installing passive or active runoff control did not markedly improve performance. Passive systems reduced the outflow to greenfield runoff for the longest time, whereas active systems increased the outflow to a level substantially above roof runoff in the 30 largest events. Full article
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Article
Incorporating Rainwater Harvesting Systems in Iran’s Potable Water-Saving Scheme by Using a GIS-Simulation Based Decision Support System
Water 2020, 12(3), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030752 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2991
Abstract
Rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs) have been accepted as a simple and effective approach to ease the worsening of urban water stress. However, in arid and semiarid regions, a comprehensive method for promoting domestic RWHSs in a large-scale water-saving scheme that incorporates water consumption [...] Read more.
Rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs) have been accepted as a simple and effective approach to ease the worsening of urban water stress. However, in arid and semiarid regions, a comprehensive method for promoting domestic RWHSs in a large-scale water-saving scheme that incorporates water consumption reducing equipment (WCRE) and gray water reuse (GWR), has not been well developed. For this, based on the case study of Guilan Province, Iran, this study addressed the temporal-spatial complex of rainfall and proposed a GIS-simulation-based decision support system (DSS). Herein, two scenarios, i.e., the typical RWHS and the modified RWHS for arid areas, were tested; and the associated economic analysis was performed and compared with WCRE and GWR. Moreover, for larger-scale implementation, the multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) technique was further applied to address the social-environmental complexity of these water-saving methods. Guilan Province has thereby been classified into three priority levels, providing a straightforward understanding of how to promote the large-scale water-saving scheme. Compared with the traditional generalized method, sensitivity analysis verified that this DSS enhanced the information value. Hence, the DSS that provides more holistic and comprehensive support has been identified as a useful tool to ease the threat of urban water stress. Full article
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Article
Roof-Harvested Rainwater Use in Household Agriculture: Contributions to the Sustainable Development Goals
Water 2020, 12(2), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020332 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2489
Abstract
Food and water are at the heart of sustainable development. Roof-harvested rainwater kept in rainwater storage systems (RSS) and used in household agriculture (HA) has the potential to increase yields and supplement household nutrition. Combined systems may contribute to at least eight of [...] Read more.
Food and water are at the heart of sustainable development. Roof-harvested rainwater kept in rainwater storage systems (RSS) and used in household agriculture (HA) has the potential to increase yields and supplement household nutrition. Combined systems may contribute to at least eight of the United Nations’ 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this paper, a daily analysis tool, ERain, is used to assess what area of vegetables can be reliably irrigated by roof-harvested rainwater. A socio-economic context is built around an orphanage in the semi-humid region of Nakuru, Kenya. Comparisons are made with the semi-arid region of East Pokot. A 225 kL closed masonry tank and a 1 ML open reservoir with an additional 8 kL/day of recycled water entering are analyzed for various roof sizes. The 225 kL RSS connected to 1000 m2 of roof and irrigating 1000 m2 could increase yields from 1850 to 4200 kg/year in Nakuru. If evaporation was controlled, the 1 mL RSS and recycled water system could support 4000 m2 of land, yielding nearly 20,000 kg/year, which is enough to meet the WHO recommended vegetable dietary requirements of the orphanage. A combination of crops, some for consumption and some for sale, could be grown. Full article
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Review

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Review
Rainwater Harvesting for Agricultural Irrigation: An Analysis of Global Research
Water 2019, 11(7), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071320 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 5462
Abstract
Within a context of scarce water resources for agriculture, rainwater harvesting constitutes a promising alternative that has been studied by different disciplines in recent years. This article analyses the dynamics of global research on rainwater harvesting for agricultural irrigation over the last two [...] Read more.
Within a context of scarce water resources for agriculture, rainwater harvesting constitutes a promising alternative that has been studied by different disciplines in recent years. This article analyses the dynamics of global research on rainwater harvesting for agricultural irrigation over the last two decades. To do this, qualitative systematic analysis and quantitative bibliometric analysis have been carried out. The results reveal that this line of research is becoming increasingly important within research on irrigation. Environmental sciences and agricultural and biological sciences are the most relevant subject areas. Agricultural Water Management, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, and Irrigation and Drainage are the journals that have published the most articles on the subject. India, China, the United States (USA), South Africa, and the Netherlands are the countries that lead this line of research. Although significant progress has been made in this subject area, it is necessary to increase the number of studies on the capacity of rainwater harvesting systems to cover irrigation needs in different farming contexts, the factors that determine their adoption by farmers, the economic and financial feasibility of their implementation, and their contribution to mitigating global climate change. Full article
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