Community-Scale Rural Drinking Water Supply Systems Based on Harvested Rainwater: A Case Study of Australia and Vietnam
2. Literature Review
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Study Areas and Data Selection
3.2. Design of Community-Scale Drinking Water Supply System Based on Harvested Rainwater
- Rainwater collection apparatus
- Rainwater storage tank
- Multi-step rainwater treatment system
- Storage tank to hold daily produced drinking water
- Solar energy system and water pumps
3.3. Water Balance and Economic Analysis
3.3.1. Reliability Analysis
- Rural community sizes: due to different population sizes and densities between Australia and Vietnam, five scenarios of rural community with 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 households were considered in the model.
- Household sizes: Vietnamese scenarios are based on household size of four people, rounded up from the average rural household size of 3.9 in the statistic of Vietnam Population and Housing Census survey . However, three occupants per household is considered in Australian scenarios because households in Australia are getting smaller; the average number of people per household fell from 4.5 to 2.6 during 1911–2016 .
- Daily drinking water usage: In order to follow the UN requirements regarding the right to water, we selected drinking water demand in rural areas in the range of 20–50 L/capita/day (LCD). This range of drinking water demand for a person in a day can be sufficient for a range of activities (such as 10 L for drinking, 20 L for drinking and cooking, 30 L for drinking, cooking and personal washing, 40 L for drinking, cooking, personal washing and cloth washing, and 50 L for drinking, cooking, personal washing, cloth washing and cleaning home [76,77,78]). The study analysed multiple scenarios with 5 LCD intervals within the range of drinking water demand (i.e., 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 LCD). As the study considered the rural areas with limited/no access to mains water supply, the analysis was performed to understand whether an RWH system could meet the drinking water demand for a rural community in the lowest expectation of emergencies and/or in the highest expectation of sustainable developments.
- Rainwater tank size: a wide range of tank sizes from 25–1600 kL was tested in the model to evaluate trends of reliability and the capacity of water supplied by the proposed RWH system.
- The runoff coefficient (C) is a dimensionless coefficient relating the amount of runoff to the amount of precipitation received. It depends on roof gradient and gutter characteristics. It is recommended that the C value for the roof is 0.75–0.95. The designers must determine the most appropriate C value within this range ; here we selected a typical value of 0.85.
- According to the guidance on the use of rainwater tanks by the Australian Government Department of Health, the average roof area can range from 100–150 m2 for a small house, 150–200 m2 for a medium house and greater than 200 m2 for a large house . In this study, the average roof area for a medium house in the rural community is considered at 200 m2.
- First flush is the initial surface runoff from a rainfall event. There is considerable literature dedicated to the study of first flush phenomena. The classic study by Yaziz et al. (1989), with a number of experiments based on fixed volumes, described a rule-of-thumb of diverting 5 L of first flush . Other publications have recommended first flush should be between 1–2 gallons per 100 square feet of roofing or 20–25 L for an average-sized roof . Studies on quantifying the first flush phenomenon reported that for each 1 mm of first flush the contaminate load will halve. It is possible to remove up to 85% of incoming pollution material while retaining 85% of the roof harvested rainwater if the first flush device is designed carefully [83,84]. Moreover, other research showed that bypassing the first 2 mm of rainfall gives harvested rainwater the most quality parameters compliant with the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines . In this study, it is assumed that the rural community can apply well-designed first flush devices, and the first 1 mm of rainfall in a rain event can be the robust average first flush loss value that was applied in the MATLAB model.
- Finally, modelling outputs for the proposed RWH system were calculated as follows.
- Number of consumers = number of houses x number of occupants per household.
- Water demand (WD) = number of consumers x daily drinking water usage per person.
- Runoff, effective runoff, overflow, water demand, water supply and track changes in storage volume from the rainwater tank can be simulated on a daily time step by the YAS algorithm (Equations (1)–(7)).
3.3.2. Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA)
4.4. Sensitivity Analysis for the Produced Water Price
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Rainfall Record Periods||Annual Rainfall|
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Ross, T.T.; Alim, M.A.; Rahman, A. Community-Scale Rural Drinking Water Supply Systems Based on Harvested Rainwater: A Case Study of Australia and Vietnam. Water 2022, 14, 1763. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111763
Ross TT, Alim MA, Rahman A. Community-Scale Rural Drinking Water Supply Systems Based on Harvested Rainwater: A Case Study of Australia and Vietnam. Water. 2022; 14(11):1763. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111763Chicago/Turabian Style
Ross, Tara T., Mohammad A. Alim, and Ataur Rahman. 2022. "Community-Scale Rural Drinking Water Supply Systems Based on Harvested Rainwater: A Case Study of Australia and Vietnam" Water 14, no. 11: 1763. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111763