Special Issue "Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Peter Dillon
Website
Guest Editor
CSIRO Hon Fellow, NCGRT (Adj Chair), WGA Pty Ltd, Co-Chair IAH Commission on MAR
Interests: hydrogeology; water quality protection; risk management; policy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Gudrun Massmann
Website
Guest Editor
Carl con Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Hydrogeology & Landscape Hydrology, IBU, Fk. V, Gebäude A1, Germany
Interests: hydrogeology; groundwater; organic trace pollutants; coastal aquifers; ecohydrology
Dr. Sharon B. Megdal
Website
Guest Editor
University of Arizona, Water Resources Research Center, Tucson, AZ, USA
Interests: water management and policy; groundwater; water banking and recharge; water governance and institutions; transboundary water
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Enrique Fernández Escalante
Website
Guest Editor
Tragsa R&D, WB Consulter, Co-Chair IAH MAR Commission
Interests: IWRM; hydrogeology; technical solutions on water management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

MAR is part of the palette of solutions to water shortage, water security, water quality decline, falling water tables, and endangered groundwater dependent ecosystems. It is often the most economic, most benign, most resilient, and most socially acceptable solution, but has not been considered out of lack of awareness, inadequate knowledge of aquifers, immature perception of risk, and incomplete policies for integrated water management, including linking MAR with demand management. MAR can achieve much towards solving the myriad of local water problems that have collectively been termed “the global water crisis” if it is included among the options evaluated locally. This Special Issue strives to make transparent the effectiveness, benefits, constraints, limitations, and applicability of MAR, together with its supporting scientific advances, to a wide variety of situations that have global relevance. This special issue was initiated by the IAH Commission on Managing Aquifer Recharge to capture and extend from selected papers at the 10th International Symposium on Managed Aquifer Recharge (ISMAR10) held in Madrid, Spain 20-24 May 2019. It also gives an opportunity for including additional highly relevant and timely papers submitted to J Water.

Topics include MAR and:

1. Integrated water resources assessment 11. Monitoring
2. Adaptation to climate change 12. Modeling
3. Case studies 13. Ecosystems
4. Mapping 14. Coastal areas
5. Economics 15. Environmental impacts and risks
6. Commerce and energy 16. Water quality and hydrogeochemistry
7. Water reuse 17. Health aspects
8. Sustainable technical solutions 18. Urban rainwater and stormwater
9. Clogging 19. R&D projects
10. Regulations and policies 20. Education and training and social impacts

Dr. Peter Dillon
Dr. Gudrun Massmann
Dr. Sharon B. Megdal
Dr. Enrique Fernandez Escalante
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • groundwater biogeochemical processes
  • groundwater replenishment
  • water quality improvement
  • water security and risk
  • governance and economics

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Managed Aquifer Recharge at a Farm Level: Evaluating the Performance of Direct Well Recharge Structures
Water 2020, 12(4), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041069 - 09 Apr 2020
Abstract
A field study evaluated the performance of direct well recharge structures (DWRS) in order to harvest and filter farm runoff and its discharge into open dug wells to augment groundwater recharge. This was undertaken between 2016 and 2018 using a total of 11 [...] Read more.
A field study evaluated the performance of direct well recharge structures (DWRS) in order to harvest and filter farm runoff and its discharge into open dug wells to augment groundwater recharge. This was undertaken between 2016 and 2018 using a total of 11 wells in the Dharta watershed, situated in a semi-arid hardrock region of Udaipur district, Rajasthan, India. The depth to water level in each DWRS well was monitored weekly for 1 to 3 years before and after the DWRS was established, and water samples were taken for water quality analysis (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, fluoride, and Escherichia coli) before and during the monsoon period. For each DWRS well, two control wells in close proximity were also monitored and sampled. Five of the DWRS established in 2018 also had flow meters installed in order to measure discharge from the filter to the well. The volume of water recharged through DWRS into individual wells during the 2018 monsoon ranged from 2 to 176 m3 per well. Although the mean rise in water levels over the monsoon was higher in DWRS wells than in nearby control wells, the difference was not significant. Values of pH, EC, TDS, and F decreased in DWRS and control wells as each monsoon progressed, whereas the turbidity of wells with DWRS increased slightly. There was no significant difference between DWRS and control wells for pH, EC/TDS, turbidity, or fluoride. The presence of E. coli in DWRS wells was higher than in control wells, however, E. coli exceeded drinking water guidelines in all sampled wells. On the basis of this study, it is recommended that rural runoff should not be admitted to wells that are used for, or close to, wells used for drinking water supplies, even though salinity and fluoride concentrations may be reduced. For this study, none of the 11 DWRS wells produced sufficient additional recharge to potentially increase dry season irrigation supplies to justify expenditure on DWRS. This even applies to the DWRS well adjacent to a small ephemeral stream that had a significantly larger catchment area than those drawing on farmers’ fields alone. An important and unexpected finding of this study was that no sampled open dug well met drinking water standards. This has led to a shift in local priorities to implement well-head water quality protection measures for wells used for drinking water supplies. It is recommended that parapet walls be built around the perimeter of such dug wells, as well as having covers be installed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Managed Aquifer Recharge of Monsoon Runoff Using Village Ponds: Performance Assessment of a Pilot Trial in the Ramganga Basin, India
Water 2020, 12(4), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041028 - 04 Apr 2020
Abstract
The managed aquifer recharge (MAR) of excess monsoonal runoff to mitigate downstream flooding and enhance groundwater storage has received limited attention across the Indo-Gangetic Plain of the Indian subcontinent. Here, we assess the performance of a pilot MAR trial carried out in the [...] Read more.
The managed aquifer recharge (MAR) of excess monsoonal runoff to mitigate downstream flooding and enhance groundwater storage has received limited attention across the Indo-Gangetic Plain of the Indian subcontinent. Here, we assess the performance of a pilot MAR trial carried out in the Ramganga basin in India. The pilot consisted of a battery of 10 recharge wells, each 24 to 30 m deep, installed in a formerly unused village pond situated adjacent to an irrigation canal that provided river water during the monsoon season. Over three years of pilot testing, volumes ranging from 26,000 to 62,000 m3 were recharged each year over durations ranging from 62 to 85 days. These volumes are equivalent to 1.3–3.6% of the total recharge in the village, and would be sufficient to irrigate 8 to 18 hectares of rabi season crop. High inter-year variation in performance was observed, with yearly average recharge rates ranging from 430 to 775 m3 day−1 (164–295 mm day−1) and overall average recharge rates of 580 m3 day−1 (221 mm day−1). High intra-year variation was also observed, with recharge rates at the end of recharge period reducing by 72%, 88% and 96% in 2016, 2017 and 2018 respectively, relative to the initial recharge rates. The observed inter- and intra-year variability is due to the groundwater levels that strongly influence gravity recharge heads and lateral groundwater flows, as well as the source water quality, which leads to clogging. The increase in groundwater levels in response to MAR was found to be limited due to the high specific yield and transmissivity of the alluvial aquifer, and, in all but one year, was difficult to distinguish from the overall groundwater level rise due to a range of confounding factors. The results from this study provide the first systematic, multi-year assessment of the performance of pilot-scale MAR harnessing village ponds in the intensively groundwater irrigated, flood prone, alluvial aquifers of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle
Reactive Barriers for Renaturalization of Reclaimed Water during Soil Aquifer Treatment
Water 2020, 12(4), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041012 - 02 Apr 2020
Abstract
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is known to increase available water quantity and to improve water quality. However, its implementation is hindered by the concern of polluting aquifers, which might lead to onerous treatment and regulatory requirements for the source water. These requirements might [...] Read more.
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is known to increase available water quantity and to improve water quality. However, its implementation is hindered by the concern of polluting aquifers, which might lead to onerous treatment and regulatory requirements for the source water. These requirements might make MAR unsustainable both economically and energetically. To address these concerns, we tested reactive barriers laid at the bottom of infiltration basins to enhance water quality improvement during soil passage. The goal of the barriers was to (1) provide a range of sorption sites to favor the retention of chemical contaminants and pathogens; (2) favor the development of a sequence of redox states to promote the degradation of the most recalcitrant chemical contaminants; and (3) promote the growth of plants both to reduce clogging, and to supply organic carbon and sorption sites. We summarized our experience to show that the barriers did enhance the removal of organic pollutants of concern (e.g., pharmaceuticals and personal care products). However, the barriers did not increase the removal of pathogens beyond traditional MAR systems. We reviewed the literature to suggest improvements on the design of the system to improve pathogen attenuation and to address antibiotic resistance gene transfer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Water Balance Modelling for Risk Assessment and Decision Support on MAR Potential in Botswana
Water 2020, 12(3), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030721 - 06 Mar 2020
Abstract
Botswana experiences a water stressed situation due to the climate and a continuously increasing water demand. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is considered, among other measures, to improve the situation. To evaluate the possibility for increased water supply security, a probabilistic and dynamic water [...] Read more.
Botswana experiences a water stressed situation due to the climate and a continuously increasing water demand. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is considered, among other measures, to improve the situation. To evaluate the possibility for increased water supply security, a probabilistic and dynamic water supply security model was developed. Statistically generated time series of source water availability are used in combination with the dynamic storages in dams and aquifers, and the possible supply is compared with the demand to simulate the magnitude and probability of water supply shortages. The model simulates the system and possible mitigation measures from 2013 to 2035 (23 years), using one-month time steps. The original system is not able to meet the demand, and the estimated volumetric supply reliability in the year 2035 is 0.51. An additional surface water dam (now implemented) will increase the reliability to 0.88 but there will still be a significant water shortage problem. Implementing large-scale MAR can further improve the reliability to at least 0.95. System properties limiting the effect of MAR are identified using the model and show how to further improve the effect of MAR. The case study results illustrate the importance and benefit of using an integrated approach, including time-dependence and future scenarios, when evaluating the need and potential of MAR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle
Mapping Economic Feasibility of Managed Aquifer Recharge
Water 2020, 12(3), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030680 - 02 Mar 2020
Abstract
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) constitutes a potential and promising solution to deal with several water management issues: water shortage, water level depletion, groundwater pollution, and saline water intrusion. Among others, the proper siting and cost evaluation of such a solution constitutes sources of [...] Read more.
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) constitutes a potential and promising solution to deal with several water management issues: water shortage, water level depletion, groundwater pollution, and saline water intrusion. Among others, the proper siting and cost evaluation of such a solution constitutes sources of uncertainty for the implementation of MAR schemes. In this study, we proposed a methodology for the assessment of the levelised cost of recharged water through an infiltration basin, including investment and operating costs. The method was implemented in a GIS-tool in order to build maps of levelised costs at the aquifer scale. The sensitivity analysis allows for the identification of the main natural characteristics (water quality and availability, etc.), technical (system life duration, recharge volume objective, etc.), and economic parameters (energy price, discount rate, etc.) that dominate the final cost estimate. The method was applied to a specific case study on an alluvial aquifer in Southern France. This new information on the economic feasibility of MAR scheme should be incorporated with more classical GIS-MCDA (relying on soil characteristics, aquifer storage capacity, land use, etc.) in order to properly site the system. Further information on financial and economic feedback from MAR implementation and research on the fate of recharged water are needed for a better benefits evaluation of this solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Potential for Managed Aquifer Recharge to Enhance Fish Habitat in a Regulated River
Water 2020, 12(3), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030673 - 01 Mar 2020
Abstract
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is typically used to enhance the agricultural water supply but may also be promising to maintain summer streamflows and temperatures for cold-water fish. An existing aquifer model, water temperature data, and analysis of water administration were used to assess [...] Read more.
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is typically used to enhance the agricultural water supply but may also be promising to maintain summer streamflows and temperatures for cold-water fish. An existing aquifer model, water temperature data, and analysis of water administration were used to assess potential benefits of MAR to cold-water fisheries in Idaho’s Snake River. This highly-regulated river supports irrigated agriculture worth US $10 billion and recreational trout fisheries worth $100 million. The assessment focused on the Henry’s Fork Snake River, which receives groundwater from recharge incidental to irrigation and from MAR operations 8 km from the river, addressing (1) the quantity and timing of MAR-produced streamflow response, (2) the mechanism through which MAR increases streamflow, (3) whether groundwater inputs decrease the local stream temperature, and (4) the legal and administrative hurdles to using MAR for cold-water fisheries conservation in Idaho. The model estimated a long-term 4%–7% increase in summertime streamflow from annual MAR similar to that conducted in 2019. Water temperature observations confirmed that recharge increased streamflow via aquifer discharge rather than reduction in river losses to the aquifer. In addition, groundwater seeps created summer thermal refugia. Measured summer stream temperature at seeps was within the optimal temperature range for brown trout, averaging 14.4 °C, whereas ambient stream temperature exceeded 19 °C, the stress threshold for brown trout. Implementing MAR for fisheries conservation is challenged by administrative water rules and regulations. Well-developed and trusted water rights and water-transaction systems in Idaho and other western states enable MAR. However, in Idaho, conservation groups are unable to engage directly in water transactions, hampering MAR for fisheries protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Bank-Filtration Occurrence in the Province of Quebec (Canada) with a GIS Approach
Water 2020, 12(3), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030662 - 01 Mar 2020
Abstract
Due to the abundance of surface water in the province of Quebec, Canada, it is suspected that many groundwater wells are pumping a mixture of groundwater and surface water via induced bank filtration (IBF). The regulatory framework in Quebec provides comprehensive guidelines for [...] Read more.
Due to the abundance of surface water in the province of Quebec, Canada, it is suspected that many groundwater wells are pumping a mixture of groundwater and surface water via induced bank filtration (IBF). The regulatory framework in Quebec provides comprehensive guidelines for the development and monitoring of surface water and groundwater drinking water production systems. However, the regulations do not specifically address hybrid groundwater-surface water production systems such as IBF sites. More knowledge on the use of IBF in the province is needed to adjust the regulations with respect to the particularities of these systems. In order to provide a first evaluation of municipal wells potentially using IBF and the corresponding population served by these wells, a Geographic Information Science framework (GISc) was used to implement an IBF spatial database and calculate the distance from each well to the nearest surface water body. GISc is based on open source GIS programs and openly available data, to facilitate the reproducibility of the work. From this provincial scale approach, we show that nearly one million people are supplied by groundwater from municipal wells located <500 m from a surface water body, and half a million have a significant probability to be supplied by IBF wells. A more focused look at the watershed scale distribution of wells allows us to improve our interpretations by considering the aquifer type and other regional factors. This approach reveals strong spatial variability in the distribution of wells in proximity to surface water. Of the three selected regions, one has a high potential for IBF (Laurentides), one requires additional information do draw precise conclusions (Nicolet), and the third region (Vaudreuil-Soulanges) is unlikely to have widespread use of IBF. With this study, we demonstrate that extensive use of IBF is likely and that there is a need for improved understanding and management of these sites in order to properly protect the drinking water supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle
New Methods for Microbiological Monitoring at Riverbank Filtration Sites
Water 2020, 12(2), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020584 - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
Water suppliers aim to achieve microbiological stability throughout their supply system by regular monitoring of water quality. Monitoring temporal biomass dynamics at high frequency is time consuming due to the labor-intensive nature and limitations of conventional, cultivation-based detection methods. The goal of this [...] Read more.
Water suppliers aim to achieve microbiological stability throughout their supply system by regular monitoring of water quality. Monitoring temporal biomass dynamics at high frequency is time consuming due to the labor-intensive nature and limitations of conventional, cultivation-based detection methods. The goal of this study was to assess the value of new rapid monitoring methods for quantifying and characterizing dynamic fluctuations in bacterial biomass. Using flow cytometry and two precise enzymatic detection methods, bacterial biomass-related parameters were monitored at three riverbank filtration sites. Additionally, the treatment capacity of an ultrafiltration pilot plant was researched using online flow-cytometry. The results provide insights into microbiological quality of treated water and emphasize the value of rapid, easy and sensitive alternatives to traditional bacterial monitoring techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle
Specific Types and Adaptability Evaluation of Managed Aquifer Recharge for Irrigation in the North China Plain
Water 2020, 12(2), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020562 - 18 Feb 2020
Abstract
The North China Plain is the main grain production district in China, with a large area of well irrigation resulting in a large groundwater depression cone. In the 1970s and 1980s, small-scale managed aquifer recharge (MAR) projects were developed to recharge shallow groundwater, [...] Read more.
The North China Plain is the main grain production district in China, with a large area of well irrigation resulting in a large groundwater depression cone. In the 1970s and 1980s, small-scale managed aquifer recharge (MAR) projects were developed to recharge shallow groundwater, which played an important role in ensuring stable and high crop yields. MAR projects are divided into 10 types based on local water conservancy characteristics. The combined use of well–canal irrigation has been widespread in the Yellow River Irrigation District of Shandong Province for nearly 40 years, where canals play multiple roles of transporting and storing Yellow River water or local surface water, recharging groundwater and providing canal irrigation. Moreover, the newly developed open channel–underground perforated pipe–shaft–water saving irrigation system can further expand the scope and amount of groundwater recharge and prevent system clogging through three measures. Finally, an adaptability zoning evaluation system of water spreading has been established in Liaocheng City of Shandong Province based on the following five factors: groundwater depth, thickness of fine sand, specific yield, irrigation return flow, and groundwater extraction intensity. The results show that MAR is more adaptable to the western region than to the eastern and central regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Soil Tillage Equipment on the Recharge Capacity of Infiltration Ponds
Water 2020, 12(2), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020541 - 15 Feb 2020
Abstract
The Dan Region Reclamation Project (Shafdan) reclaims ~125 millions of cubic meters per year (Mm3/year) of treated wastewater from the Tel Aviv Metropolitan area. Following secondary treatment, the effluent is recharged into a sandy aquifer for soil aquifer treatment (SAT). Over [...] Read more.
The Dan Region Reclamation Project (Shafdan) reclaims ~125 millions of cubic meters per year (Mm3/year) of treated wastewater from the Tel Aviv Metropolitan area. Following secondary treatment, the effluent is recharged into a sandy aquifer for soil aquifer treatment (SAT). Over the past three years, a decrease in recharge capacity was noticed. Several operational causes were considered including reservations regarding the tillage procedure of recharge ponds. Tillage of the recharge ponds facilitates aeration, breaking surface crusts and the removal of vegetation. The procedure includes deep (40–60 cm) plowing and shallow (10–20 cm) sweep-knives (SK) cultivator or discus. In this research, the existing tillage equipment was compared to a new equipment, which includes a deep subsoiler and a chisel-knives (CK) cultivator. The effects of each tool on the infiltration rate (IR), recharge capacity, and soil compaction were examined. The results suggest a significant improvement in the recharge capacity, up to 95% and 15% on average following subsoiler and CK cultivator treatments, respectively, with respect to the existing plowing treatment. In addition, the depth of the compacted soil layer increased from ~30 to ~55 cm after subsoiler treatment. It seems that this shallow layer, developed under an improper tillage regime, played a major role in the reduction of the recharge capacity. Essential understanding of other operational factors such as drying periods, preparation of the field, and soil micro-topography was also achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle
Lessons from 10 Years of Experience with Australia’s Risk-Based Guidelines for Managed Aquifer Recharge
Water 2020, 12(2), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020537 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Australian Managed Aquifer Recharge Guidelines, published in 2009, were the world’s first Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) Guidelines based on risk-management principles that also underpin the World Health Organisation’s Water Safety Plans. In 2015, a survey of Australian MAR project proponents, consultants and [...] Read more.
The Australian Managed Aquifer Recharge Guidelines, published in 2009, were the world’s first Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) Guidelines based on risk-management principles that also underpin the World Health Organisation’s Water Safety Plans. In 2015, a survey of Australian MAR project proponents, consultants and regulators revealed that in those states advancing MAR, the Guidelines were lauded for giving certainty on approval processes. They were also considered to be pragmatic to use, but there was feedback on onerous data requirements. The rate of uptake of MAR has varied widely among Australian state jurisdictions, for reasons that are not explained by the drivers for and feasibility of MAR. The states where MAR has progressed are those that have adopted the Guidelines into state regulations or policy. It was originally intended that these Guidelines would be revised after five to ten years, informed by experience of any hazards not considered in the guidelines, and by new scientific developments including advances in monitoring and control methods for risk management. As such revision has not yet occurred, this paper was prepared to give a precis of these Guidelines and review ten years of experience in their application and to identify issues and suggest improvements for consideration in their revision by Australian water regulators. This paper also discusses the factors affecting their potential international applicability, including the capabilities required for implementation, and we use India as an example for which an intermediate level water quality guideline for MAR was developed. This paper is intended to be useful information for regulators in other countries considering adopting or developing their own guidelines. Note that the purpose of these Guidelines is to protect human health and the environment. It is not a guide to how to site, design, build and operate a managed aquifer recharge project, for which there are many other sources of information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
An Overview of Managed Aquifer Recharge in Mexico and Its Legal Framework
Water 2020, 12(2), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020474 - 10 Feb 2020
Abstract
In Mexico, one hundred of the 188 most important aquifers dedicated to agriculture and human consumption are over-exploited and 32 are affected by seawater intrusion in coastal areas. Considering that Mexico relies on groundwater, it is vital to develop a portfolio of alternatives [...] Read more.
In Mexico, one hundred of the 188 most important aquifers dedicated to agriculture and human consumption are over-exploited and 32 are affected by seawater intrusion in coastal areas. Considering that Mexico relies on groundwater, it is vital to develop a portfolio of alternatives to recover aquifers and examine policies and programs regarding reclaimed water and stormwater. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) may be useful for increasing water availability and adapting to climate change in semi-arid regions of Mexico. In this paper, we present an overview of water recharge projects that have been conducted in Mexico in the last 50 years, their methods for recharge, water sources, geographical distribution, and the main results obtained in each project. We found three types of MAR efforts: (1) exploratory and suitability studies for MAR, (2) pilot projects, and (3) MAR facilities that currently operate. This study includes the examination of the legal framework for MAR to identify some challenges and opportunities that Mexican regulation contains in this regard. We find that beyond the technical issues that MAR projects normally address, the regulatory framework is a barrier to increasing MAR facilities in Mexico. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of MAR Methods for Semi-Arid, Cold Regions
Water 2019, 11(12), 2548; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122548 - 02 Dec 2019
Abstract
Mongolia is a semi-arid, highly continental region with highly variable precipitation and river discharge. The groundwater aquifer located near Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, is the only one source for city water supply consumption, and it is important to ensure that groundwater [...] Read more.
Mongolia is a semi-arid, highly continental region with highly variable precipitation and river discharge. The groundwater aquifer located near Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, is the only one source for city water supply consumption, and it is important to ensure that groundwater is available now and in the future. The main watercourse near the capital city is the Tuul River, fed by precipitation in the Khentii Mountains. The semi-arid and cold environment shows high variability in precipitation and river discharge. However, due to absence of precipitation in winter and spring, the riverbed usually runs dry during these times of the year, and weather observations show that the dry period has been extending in recent years. However, in parallel with urban development, the extended groundwater aquifer has shown a clear decline, and the groundwater levels have dropped significantly. Therefore, a groundwater management system based on managed aquifer recharge is proposed, and a strategy to implement these measures in the Tuul River valley is presented in this paper. This strategy consists of the enhancement of natural recharge rates during the wet summer from the northern drainage canal, an additional increase in groundwater recharge through melting the ice storage in the dry period, as well as the construction of underground dams to accumulate groundwater and a surface water reservoir that releases a constant discharge in the outlet. To increase natural recharge rates of groundwater during the early dry period through the melting ice storage period, the MATLAB icing code, which was written for ice storage for limited and unlimited areas, was considered through finite element subsurface FLOW (FEFLOW) simulation scenarios as a water source in ice form on the surface. A study of the artificial permafrost of underground as an ice dam was processed in FEFLOW simulation scenarios for accumulating groundwater resources. The results of these artificial recharging methods were individually calculated, combined, and compared with the surface reservoir, which releases a constant discharge through the dam. In this paper, new ideas are presented involving managed aquifer recharge—MAR methods, and include application to aufeis, a mass of layered ice for groundwater recharge by melting. Additionally, the accumulation of groundwater using artificial permafrost is used as an underground dam. In addition, was considered recharging scenario only with constant release water amount from water reservoir also with all MAR methods together with reservoir combination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle
Anthropic and Meteorological Controls on the Origin and Quality of Water at a Bank Filtration Site in Canada
Water 2019, 11(12), 2510; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122510 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
At many bank filtration (BF) sites, mixing ratios between the contributing sources of water are typically regarded as values with no temporal variation, even though hydraulic conditions and pumping regimes can be transient. This study illustrates how anthropic and meteorological forcings influence the [...] Read more.
At many bank filtration (BF) sites, mixing ratios between the contributing sources of water are typically regarded as values with no temporal variation, even though hydraulic conditions and pumping regimes can be transient. This study illustrates how anthropic and meteorological forcings influence the origin of the water of a BF system that interacts with two lakes (named A and B). The development of a time-varying binary mixing model based on electrical conductivity (EC) allowed the estimation of mixing ratios over a year. A sensitivity analysis quantified the importance of considering the temporal variability of the end-members for reliable results. The model revealed that the contribution from Lake A may vary from 0% to 100%. At the wells that were operated continuously at >1000 m3/day, the contribution from Lake A stabilized between 54% and 78%. On the other hand, intermittent and occasional pumping regimes caused the mixing ratios to be controlled by indirect anthropic and/or meteorological forcing. The flow conditions have implications for the quality of the bank filtrate, as highlighted via the spatiotemporal variability of total Fe and Mn concentrations. We therefore propose guidelines for rapid decision-making regarding the origin and quality of the pumped drinking water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle
Suitability Mapping for Managed Aquifer Recharge: Development of Web-Tools
Water 2019, 11(11), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112254 - 28 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Suitability maps for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) are increasingly used and hold the potential to be integrated into sustainable groundwater management plans. However, the quality of the maps strongly depends on the input data quality as well as the expertise of the decision-maker. [...] Read more.
Suitability maps for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) are increasingly used and hold the potential to be integrated into sustainable groundwater management plans. However, the quality of the maps strongly depends on the input data quality as well as the expertise of the decision-maker. The maps are commonly derived through GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis (GIS-MCDA). To date, there is no common understanding of how suitability mapping should be conducted, as there is considerable variability concerning used GIS data and MCDA methodology. This study presents two web-tools that were conceptualized based on a review of GIS-MCDA studies in the context of MAR suitability mapping. The data retrieved from the review was compiled into a web-based query tool making the MAR- and MCDA-relevant information easily accessible. Based on the most commonly used MCDA practices in the assessed studies, we conceptualized and implemented a second web tool that comprises a simplified web GIS as well as supporting tools for weight assignment and standardization of the criteria. Both web tools will enable decision-makers to engage in MCDA for MAR mapping in a more structured and informed way. As the tools are open-source and web-based, they can facilitate the collaboration between multiple stakeholders and the easy sharing of results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle
Migration of Pharmaceuticals from the Warta River to the Aquifer at a Riverbank Filtration Site in Krajkowo (Poland)
Water 2019, 11(11), 2238; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112238 - 26 Oct 2019
Abstract
Studies on the presence of pharmaceuticals in water were carried out on the riverbank filtration site, Krajkowo–Poznań (Poland). A preliminary investigation conducted in 3 sampling points showed the presence of pharmaceuticals in both surface water and bank filtrate. Based on the above, an [...] Read more.
Studies on the presence of pharmaceuticals in water were carried out on the riverbank filtration site, Krajkowo–Poznań (Poland). A preliminary investigation conducted in 3 sampling points showed the presence of pharmaceuticals in both surface water and bank filtrate. Based on the above, an extended analysis was made in July, August and October 2018 and included surface water and wells located at a different distance (5–250 m) and travel time (1–150 days) from source water (Warta River). Firstly, 75 compounds (antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs, psychotropic drugs, x-ray agents and β-blockers) were tested and 25 of them were detected in the river or bank filtrate. The highest concentrations were observed in source water and then were reduced along the flow path. The sampling points located close to the river (<38 m) are characterized by low removal. Higher removal is visible in wells located 64–82 m away from the river, while 250 m from the river most compounds are completely attenuated. Carbamazepine, gabapentin, tramadol, oxypurinol, fluconazole, and lamotrigine are the most common compounds. Some of the tested parameters occur only in the river water, e.g., iopromide, diclofenac, iohexol, clindamycin, fexofenadine and valsartan. The research shows that at the site, a significant attenuation of pharmaceuticals can be achieved at travel times of 40–50 days and distances of 60–80 m, although higher values are ensured when the well is located more than 250 m away. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Benefits of Managed Aquifer Recharge MAR on the Island of Gotland, Sweden
Water 2019, 11(10), 2164; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102164 - 17 Oct 2019
Abstract
The Island of Gotland (3000 km2), east of mainland Sweden, suffers from insufficient water availability each summer. Thin soils and lack of coherent reservoirs in the sedimentary bedrock lead to limited reservoir capacity. The feasibility of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is [...] Read more.
The Island of Gotland (3000 km2), east of mainland Sweden, suffers from insufficient water availability each summer. Thin soils and lack of coherent reservoirs in the sedimentary bedrock lead to limited reservoir capacity. The feasibility of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is explored by identifying suitable areas and estimating their possible contribution to an increased water availability. MAR is compared to alternative water management measures, e.g., increased groundwater abstraction, in terms of costs and water availability potential. Results from GIS analyses of infiltration areas and groundwater storage, respectively proximity to surface water sources and surface water storage were classified into three categories of MAR suitability. An area of ca 7700 ha (2.5% of Gotland) was found to have good local conditions for MAR and an area of ca 22,700 ha (7.5% of Gotland) was found to have moderate local conditions for MAR. These results reveal the MAR potential on Gotland. The water supply potential of MAR in existing well fields was estimated to be about 35% of the forecasted drinking water supply and 7% of the total water demand gap in year 2045. It is similar in costs and water supply potential to increased surface water extraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle
Sites and Indicators of MAR as a Successful Tool to Mitigate Climate Change Effects in Spain
Water 2019, 11(9), 1943; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091943 - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
In this article, the authors will support Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) as a tool to combat Climate Change (CC) adverse impacts on the basis of real sites, indicators, and specific cases located Spain. MAR has been used in Spain in combination with other [...] Read more.
In this article, the authors will support Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) as a tool to combat Climate Change (CC) adverse impacts on the basis of real sites, indicators, and specific cases located Spain. MAR has been used in Spain in combination with other measures of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) to mitigate and adapt to Climate Change (CC) challenges. The main effects of CC are that the rising of the average atmospheric temperature together with the decreasing average annual precipitation rate cause extreme weather and induce sea level rise. These pattern results in a series of negative impacts reflected in an increase of certain events or parameters, such as evaporation, evapotranspiration, water demand, fire risk, run-off, floods, droughts, and saltwater intrusion; and a decrease of others such as availability of water resources, the wetland area, and the hydro-electrical power production. Solutions include underground storage, lowering the temperature, increasing soil humidity, reclaimed water infiltration, punctual and directed infiltration, self-purification and naturalization, off-river storage, wetland restoration and/or establishment, flow water distribution by gravity, power saving, eventual recharge of extreme flows, multi-annual management and positive barrier wells against saline water intrusion. The main advantages and disadvantages for each MAR solution have been addressed. As success must be measured, some indicators have been designed or adopted and calculated to quantify the actual effect of these solutions and their evolution. They have been expressed in the form of volumes, lengths, areas, percentages, grades, euros, CO2 emissions, and years. Therefore, MAR in Spain demonstrably supports its usefulness in battling CC adverse impacts in a broad variety of environments and circumstances. This situation is comparable to other countries where MAR improvements have also been assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle
Managed Aquifer Recharge as a Strategic Storage and Urban Water Management Tool in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
Water 2019, 11(9), 1869; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091869 - 09 Sep 2019
Abstract
Population growth and increased irrigation demand have caused a decline in groundwater levels that limit water supply in the Darwin rural area. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a practical solution that can be adopted to augment stressed groundwater systems and subsequently increase the [...] Read more.
Population growth and increased irrigation demand have caused a decline in groundwater levels that limit water supply in the Darwin rural area. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a practical solution that can be adopted to augment stressed groundwater systems and subsequently increase the security of water supply. Aquifer storage capacity is considered to be the primary constraint to MAR where unconfined dolostone aquifers rapidly recharge during the tropical, wet season and drain again in the dry season. As a result, there is a general understanding that aquifers of this nature recharge to full capacity each wet season. However, the aquifer storage capacity and the potential for niche opportunities for MAR to alleviate declining groundwater levels has not previously been examined. This paper uses the Darwin rural area’s Proterozoic Koolpinyah Dolostone aquifer and the existing Koolpinyah Groundwater System to evaluate the prospects of MAR using both infiltration and injection techniques. Direct injection wells in an aquifer storage transfer and recovery (ASTR) scheme were favoured in this area, as injection wells occupy a smaller surface footprint than infiltration basins. This assessment suggested MAR during the early to mid-dry season could alleviate the impact of the dry season decline in groundwater levels in the Darwin rural area. The use of a larger aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) system (5,000,000 m3/year) was also assessed as a potentially viable technical solution in the northern part of the aquifer where it is understood to be confined. The ASR scheme could potentially be scaleable to augment the urban water system and provide strategic long-term storage. Consideration must also be given not only to the strategic positioning of the ASR water bank, but also to the hydrogeology of the aquifers in which the systems would be developed. Not all locations or aquifer systems can successfully support a strategic storage ASR system. Scheme-scale feasibility assessment of an ASR water bank is required. The study reported here is an early phase of a series of investigations that would typically be required to demonstrate the viability of any proposal to apply MAR to increase the reliability of conjunctive groundwater and surface water supplies in stressed water resources systems. It focusses on assessing suitable storage areas in a lateritic aquifer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle
Clogging Issues with Aquifer Storage and Recovery of Reclaimed Water in the Brackish Werribee Aquifer, Melbourne, Australia
Water 2019, 11(9), 1807; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091807 - 30 Aug 2019
Abstract
As part of an integrated water-cycle management strategy, City West Water (CWW) is conducting research to develop an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) scheme utilizing recycled water. In this contribution, we address the risk of well clogging based on two ASR bore pilots, each [...] Read more.
As part of an integrated water-cycle management strategy, City West Water (CWW) is conducting research to develop an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) scheme utilizing recycled water. In this contribution, we address the risk of well clogging based on two ASR bore pilots, each with intensive monitoring. Well clogging is a critical aspect of the strategy due to a projected high injection rate, a high clogging potential of recycled water, and a small diameter injection borehole. Microscopic and geochemical analysis of suspended solids in the injectant and backflushed water, demonstrate a significant contribution of diatoms, algae and colloidal or precipitating Fe(OH)3, Al(OH)3 and MnO2. CWW is, therefore, testing additional prefiltration that includes a 20 μm spin Klin disc and 1–5 μm bag filter operating in series. In this paper, we present optimized methods to (i) detect the contribution of the injectant and aquifer particles to total suspended solids in backflushed water by hydrogeochemical analysis; and (ii) predict and reduce the risk of physical and biological clogging, by combination of the membrane filter index (MFI) method of Buik and Willemsen, a modification of the total suspended solids method of Bichara and an amendment of the exponential bacterial growth method of Huisman and Olsthoorn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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Open AccessPerspective
An Overview of Managed Aquifer Recharge in Brazil
Water 2020, 12(4), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041072 - 09 Apr 2020
Abstract
In order to face the severe climate conditions in semiarid regions, many managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and rainwater storage systems have been implemented by local communities. Governmental programs have helped to propagate the concept of MAR. Based on a systematic review, popular initiatives, [...] Read more.
In order to face the severe climate conditions in semiarid regions, many managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and rainwater storage systems have been implemented by local communities. Governmental programs have helped to propagate the concept of MAR. Based on a systematic review, popular initiatives, current legislation, and research lines and programs were compiled and analyzed. Although the MAR global inventory points to the prevalence of in-channel modifications among ninety MAR sites, the Barraginhas Project alone has been responsible for the construction of more than 500,000 infiltration ponds up to 2013. In urban areas, aquifer recharge initiatives mostly aim to reduce runoff peak flows. In some cases these initiatives have been stimulated by urban drainage public policies. Compared to countries such as the USA and Australia, Brazil is still at an early stage in MAR initiatives and needs to overcome technical, legal, and socio-cultural challenges to adopt MAR approaches, in order to help in facing water security challenges in a future climate change scenario. This article aims to provide an overview of the state of the art concerning technological, scientific, and legal issues around MAR in Brazil and the respective challenges for the adoption of this approach at a national level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
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