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Open AccessArticle

Anthropic and Meteorological Controls on the Origin and Quality of Water at a Bank Filtration Site in Canada

1
Polytechnique Montréal, Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
2
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UMR G-EAU, 34090 Montpellier, France
3
Geotop-UQAM, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Montreal, QC H2X 3Y7, Canada
4
Loire sécurité risques, Direction Départementale des Territoires de la Nièvre (Ministère de la Transition Écologique et solidaire), 58020 Nevers CEDEX, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(12), 2510; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122510
Received: 2 October 2019 / Revised: 1 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 28 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
At many bank filtration (BF) sites, mixing ratios between the contributing sources of water are typically regarded as values with no temporal variation, even though hydraulic conditions and pumping regimes can be transient. This study illustrates how anthropic and meteorological forcings influence the origin of the water of a BF system that interacts with two lakes (named A and B). The development of a time-varying binary mixing model based on electrical conductivity (EC) allowed the estimation of mixing ratios over a year. A sensitivity analysis quantified the importance of considering the temporal variability of the end-members for reliable results. The model revealed that the contribution from Lake A may vary from 0% to 100%. At the wells that were operated continuously at >1000 m3/day, the contribution from Lake A stabilized between 54% and 78%. On the other hand, intermittent and occasional pumping regimes caused the mixing ratios to be controlled by indirect anthropic and/or meteorological forcing. The flow conditions have implications for the quality of the bank filtrate, as highlighted via the spatiotemporal variability of total Fe and Mn concentrations. We therefore propose guidelines for rapid decision-making regarding the origin and quality of the pumped drinking water. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthropic forcing; meteorological forcing; lake bank filtration; mixing ratios; environmental tracer; time-varying mixing model; sensitivity analysis anthropic forcing; meteorological forcing; lake bank filtration; mixing ratios; environmental tracer; time-varying mixing model; sensitivity analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Masse-Dufresne, J.; Baudron, P.; Barbecot, F.; Patenaude, M.; Pontoreau, C.; Proteau-Bédard, F.; Menou, M.; Pasquier, P.; Veuille, S.; Barbeau, B. Anthropic and Meteorological Controls on the Origin and Quality of Water at a Bank Filtration Site in Canada. Water 2019, 11, 2510.

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