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Open AccessArticle

Sites and Indicators of MAR as a Successful Tool to Mitigate Climate Change Effects in Spain

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Tragsa, Innovation Subdirectorate, Maldonado 58, 28006 Madrid, Spain
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Tragsatec, Architecture and Enginering Area, Julián Camarillo 6b, 28037 Madrid, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(9), 1943; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091943
Received: 6 August 2019 / Revised: 12 September 2019 / Accepted: 15 September 2019 / Published: 18 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managed Aquifer Recharge for Water Resilience)
In this article, the authors will support Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) as a tool to combat Climate Change (CC) adverse impacts on the basis of real sites, indicators, and specific cases located Spain. MAR has been used in Spain in combination with other measures of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) to mitigate and adapt to Climate Change (CC) challenges. The main effects of CC are that the rising of the average atmospheric temperature together with the decreasing average annual precipitation rate cause extreme weather and induce sea level rise. These pattern results in a series of negative impacts reflected in an increase of certain events or parameters, such as evaporation, evapotranspiration, water demand, fire risk, run-off, floods, droughts, and saltwater intrusion; and a decrease of others such as availability of water resources, the wetland area, and the hydro-electrical power production. Solutions include underground storage, lowering the temperature, increasing soil humidity, reclaimed water infiltration, punctual and directed infiltration, self-purification and naturalization, off-river storage, wetland restoration and/or establishment, flow water distribution by gravity, power saving, eventual recharge of extreme flows, multi-annual management and positive barrier wells against saline water intrusion. The main advantages and disadvantages for each MAR solution have been addressed. As success must be measured, some indicators have been designed or adopted and calculated to quantify the actual effect of these solutions and their evolution. They have been expressed in the form of volumes, lengths, areas, percentages, grades, euros, CO2 emissions, and years. Therefore, MAR in Spain demonstrably supports its usefulness in battling CC adverse impacts in a broad variety of environments and circumstances. This situation is comparable to other countries where MAR improvements have also been assessed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Managed Aquifer Recharge; MAR; climate change; water management; IWRM; adaptation measures; indicators; Spain Managed Aquifer Recharge; MAR; climate change; water management; IWRM; adaptation measures; indicators; Spain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Escalante, E.F.; Sauto, J.S.S.; Gil, R.C. Sites and Indicators of MAR as a Successful Tool to Mitigate Climate Change Effects in Spain. Water 2019, 11, 1943.

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