Potential Benefits of Managed Aquifer Recharge MAR on the Island of Gotland, Sweden
2. Materials and Methods
- The aquifer storage capacity of the soil and bedrock were previously estimated by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) on a national scale (Figure 1b) and should be used with caution on scales below 1:100,000 on Gotland. The groundwater storage capacity is based on assessments of porosity of soil and bedrock types, soil thickness, groundwater surface and possible drawdown caused by groundwater withdrawal . A modeled annual groundwater recharge map for Sweden (national scale, coarse resolution) was made in 2006 . Values of natural groundwater recharge on Gotland used in this analysis were either 200 or 260 mm/year, depending on location. A raster containing the ratio between groundwater recharge and groundwater storage capacity was created, and values below 1.0 indicate areas with potential to store more groundwater than the natural recharge, i.e., they might be suitable for MAR. This raster is abbreviated as GS and is shown in Figure 1c.
- The geological 3D model for Gotland includes a bedrock surface. A GIS analysis identified depressions in the bedrock surface, assuming that these areas are generally favorable for storage of groundwater. Some of these areas coincide with lakes, whereas others are “hidden” depressions with little or no surface expression because they have been infilled by soils. A selection was made to show only closed depressions larger than 1 hectare and with no contact with the Baltic Sea. Water has a higher potential in these areas for storage without being lost as a shallow groundwater outflow through the permeable soil (Figure 1d). The resulting raster is named Closed Depressions (CD).
- Through selection from the lithological 3D model of Gotland, areas with >4 m thickness of sand and/or gravel (Figure 1e) were identified. This geological environment is important on both local and regional scales because these high permeability deposits increase infiltration to the bedrock aquifer. The resulting raster is abbreviated as IA.
- To assess the possibility of storing surface water in dams, areas with over 4 m thickness of till and or clay were selected from the lithological 3D model of Gotland (Figure 1e). In these areas the construction of sufficiently large storage dams will be a relatively easy and cheap operation since the construction material can be sourced on site. The resulting raster is abbreviated as ST (Surface water storage).
- Because of arable land drainage, thin soil cover and relatively impermeable bedrock, most streams and rivers on Gotland have high flow rates during the winter (November–March; ). Even small streams can serve as good sources of water supply if the water can be stored (e.g., in man-made dams or wetlands) until the spring and summer. Lakes are rare on the island and mostly very shallow. Lakes and streams may both be regulated to increase the available source but that is not discussed in this paper. A GIS-based analysis of proximity to surface waters was made with a buffer of 0.2 km on smaller streams (sometimes intermittent) and 0.5 km for perennial rivers and lakes (Figure 1f, raster abbreviation S). This difference in distance reflects a variation in the estimation of cost effectiveness and can be further explored.
3.1. Mapping of Suitable MAR and Source Areas
3.1.1. Infiltration Areas and Areas for Groundwater Storage (IA + GS + CD)
3.1.2. Source and Suitable Areas for Surface Water Storage (S + ST)
3.1.3. Areas with Combination of Infiltration, Groundwater Storage, Source and Surface Water Storage (IA + GS + CD + S + ST)
3.2. Estimation of Increased Groundwater Recharge and Groundwater Extraction at MAR Favorable Groundwater Catchments in Use Today
3.3. Comparative Study of Alternative Measures
- The best conditions for infiltration and groundwater storage occur in a total area of ca 2000 ha (0.7% of Gotland), second best in 14,400 ha (4.8% of Gotland), and third best in 43,000 ha (14% of Gotland).
- Areas with both proximity to a raw water source and conditions for storage in dams occur in a total area of ca 10,000 ha (3.3% of Gotland).
- An area of ca 7700 ha (2.5% of Gotland) has good local conditions for MAR and an area of ca 22,700 ha (7.5% of Gotland) has moderate local conditions for MAR.
- Decision support is provided by comparing MAR with other measures in a marginal abatement cost curve, contributing to informed prioritizations and decisions on water resource improvement on Gotland.
- MAR is not the alternative with the largest water availability potential, but it has significantly lower marginal costs compared, for example, with desalination, and the potential will increase if also considering new well fields and in preventing adverse consequences of increased abstraction.
- The water supply potential of MAR in existing well fields (public water supply) was estimated to be about 35% of the forecasted drinking water supply and 7% of the total water demand gap in year 2045. The total water supply potential of MAR on Gotland is much larger and is expected to exceed the demand.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Class||Groundwater||Surface Water||Area (ha)|
|1||IA + GS + CD||S + ST||Not present due to construction of analysis||0|
|2:1||IA + GS + CD||S||Good local conditions for MAR||980|
|1||IA + GS + CD||ST||Not present, due to construction of analysis||0|
|2:2||Two of IA, GS, CD||S + ST||Good local conditions for MAR||512|
|2:3||Two of IA, GS, CD||S||Good local conditions for MAR||7207|
|4:1||Two of IA, GS, CD||ST||No source within chosen distance||209|
|3:1||One of IA, GS, CD||S + ST||Probable local conditions for MAR||3579|
|3:2||One of IA, GS, CD||S||Probable local conditions for MAR||19,131|
|4:2||One of IA, GS, CD||ST||No source within chosen distance||2556|
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Dahlqvist, P.; Sjöstrand, K.; Lindhe, A.; Rosén, L.; Nisell, J.; Hellstrand, E.; Holgersson, B. Potential Benefits of Managed Aquifer Recharge MAR on the Island of Gotland, Sweden. Water 2019, 11, 2164. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102164
Dahlqvist P, Sjöstrand K, Lindhe A, Rosén L, Nisell J, Hellstrand E, Holgersson B. Potential Benefits of Managed Aquifer Recharge MAR on the Island of Gotland, Sweden. Water. 2019; 11(10):2164. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102164Chicago/Turabian Style
Dahlqvist, Peter, Karin Sjöstrand, Andreas Lindhe, Lars Rosén, Jakob Nisell, Eva Hellstrand, and Björn Holgersson. 2019. "Potential Benefits of Managed Aquifer Recharge MAR on the Island of Gotland, Sweden" Water 11, no. 10: 2164. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102164