Next Article in Journal
Exploration of the Snow Ablation Process in the Semiarid Region in China by Combining Site-Based Measurements and the Utah Energy Balance Model—A Case Study of the Manas River Basin
Next Article in Special Issue
Controlling Factors of Surface Water Ionic Composition Characteristics in the Lake Genggahai Catchment, NE Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, China
Previous Article in Journal
Experimental Hydraulic Investigation of Angled Fish Protection Systems—Comparison of Circular Bars and Cables
Previous Article in Special Issue
Groundwater Quality Assessment in a Volcanic Mountain Range (South of Gran Canaria Island, Spain)
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

A Revised Method of Surface Water Quality Evaluation Based on Background Values and Its Application to Samples Collected in Heilongjiang Province, China

1,2, 1,3, 1,3,*, 1,3 and 1,3
1
Department of Water Environment, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
2
College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051057
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Chemistry of Water Quality Monitoring)
  |  
PDF [2830 KB, uploaded 21 May 2019]
  |  

Abstract

In China, the use of certain standards to evaluate surface water quality in areas with high background values due to natural factors rather than to human activities results in water quality underestimation and thus affects regional water quality management and decision-making. Herein, we examined river source water function zones of the Heilongjang province characterised by high background values and analysed the corresponding water quality data acquired in 2011–2016. The examined samples featured elevated chemical oxygen demand (COD), permanganate index (CODMn), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) levels, which indicated that water quality was affected by the natural environment. The concentrations of background pollutants almost exceeded the limits stipulated by regional surface water quality standards and exhibited strong spatiotemporal variability. A three-step discrimination method including single index recognition, limiting factors, and a synthetic index was proposed to distinguish the background area among these zones for determining background values, and 10 complete background areas were identified. The background values of COD, CODMn, and NH3-N for the entire area were determined based on the data acquired during background area monitoring. Finally, considering the present procedure of water quality evaluation in China (single factor exponential method), a revised method based on background values was suggested. Thus, the evaluation results objectively and accurately reflect the regional water quality situation and therefore provide a scientific basis for the development of a better water quality assessment and management system in China. View Full-Text
Keywords: China; CCME WQI; river source; ecology; rainfall; background pollution China; CCME WQI; river source; ecology; rainfall; background pollution
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Duan, M.; Du, X.; Peng, W.; Zhang, S.; Yan, L. A Revised Method of Surface Water Quality Evaluation Based on Background Values and Its Application to Samples Collected in Heilongjiang Province, China. Water 2019, 11, 1057.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top