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Special Issue "Non-A Influenza"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Feng Li

Dept. Biology & Microbiology. Dept. Veterinary & Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: influenza D and comparative influenza biology; virus assembly and maturation; antiviral therapeutics and vaccine; veterinary virology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Influenza viruses are a group of respiratory pathogens that have been classified into four types in the family Orthomyxoviridae: A, B, C, and D. Among them, influenza A and B viruses can cause moderate to severe illness in humans, with influenza A having the potential to trigger an influenza pandemic. Influenza C virus generally causes mild reparatory disease in humans, but its infection can be severe with complications including lower respiratory infection in children, especially those under two years. The recently discovered influenza D primarily affects agricultural animals, with bovines as a reservoir. Of greater public health importance, serological evidence of influenza D virus infection in humans has been recently demonstrated. Within global influenza research, influenza A has been primarily investigated due to its pandemic potential. In contrast, other types of influenza viruses, including influenza B with humans as a primary reservoir, have received considerably less attention. This Special Issue will feature the most recent research and findings on non-A influenza viruses, including epidemiology, evolution, cross-species transmission, molecular biology, antigenic lineage, virus–host interactions, antivirals and vaccine development.

Dr. Feng Li
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • orthomyxoviruses
  • influenza B
  • influenza C
  • influenza D
  • epidemiology
  • evolution
  • transmission
  • molecular biology
  • antigenic lineage
  • reverse genetics
  • virus–host interactions
  • antivirals

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Serological Evidence of Influenza D Virus Circulation Among Cattle and Small Ruminants in France
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060516
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 1 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
PDF Full-text (457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Influenza D virus (IDV) has first been identified in 2011 in the USA and was shown to mainly circulate in cattle. While IDV is associated with mild respiratory signs, its prevalence is still unknown. In the present study we show that IDV has [...] Read more.
Influenza D virus (IDV) has first been identified in 2011 in the USA and was shown to mainly circulate in cattle. While IDV is associated with mild respiratory signs, its prevalence is still unknown. In the present study we show that IDV has been circulating throughout France in cattle and small ruminants, with 47.2% and 1.5% seropositivity, respectively. The high prevalence and moderate pathogenicity of IDV in cattle suggest that it may play an initiating role in the bovine respiratory disease complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-A Influenza)
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Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Determining the Replication Kinetics and Cellular Tropism of Influenza D Virus on Primary Well-Differentiated Human Airway Epithelial Cells
Viruses 2019, 11(4), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11040377
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
PDF Full-text (3964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Influenza viruses are notorious pathogens that frequently cross the species barrier with often severe consequences for both animal and human health. In 2011, a novel member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, Influenza D virus (IDV), was identified in the respiratory tract of swine. Epidemiological [...] Read more.
Influenza viruses are notorious pathogens that frequently cross the species barrier with often severe consequences for both animal and human health. In 2011, a novel member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, Influenza D virus (IDV), was identified in the respiratory tract of swine. Epidemiological surveys revealed that IDV is distributed worldwide among livestock and that IDV-directed antibodies are detected in humans with occupational exposure to livestock. To identify the transmission capability of IDV to humans, we determined the viral replication kinetics and cell tropism using an in vitro respiratory epithelium model of humans. The inoculation of IDV revealed efficient replication kinetics and apical progeny virus release at different body temperatures. Intriguingly, the replication characteristics of IDV revealed higher replication kinetics compared to Influenza C virus, despite sharing the cell tropism preference for ciliated cells. Collectively, these results might indicate why IDV-directed antibodies are detected among humans with occupational exposure to livestock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-A Influenza)
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Evolution and Molecular Selection of the HE Gene of Influenza C Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020167
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2954 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Influenza C virus (ICV) was first identified in humans and swine, but recently also in cattle, indicating a wider host range and potential threat to both the livestock industry and public health than was originally anticipated. The ICV hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) glycoprotein has multiple [...] Read more.
Influenza C virus (ICV) was first identified in humans and swine, but recently also in cattle, indicating a wider host range and potential threat to both the livestock industry and public health than was originally anticipated. The ICV hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) glycoprotein has multiple functions in the viral replication cycle and is the major determinant of antigenicity. Here, we developed a comparative approach integrating genetics, molecular selection analysis, and structural biology to identify the codon usage and adaptive evolution of ICV. We show that ICV can be classified into six lineages, consistent with previous studies. The HE gene has a low codon usage bias, which may facilitate ICV replication by reducing competition during evolution. Natural selection, dinucleotide composition, and mutation pressure shape the codon usage patterns of the ICV HE gene, with natural selection being the most important factor. Codon adaptation index (CAI) and relative codon deoptimization index (RCDI) analysis revealed that the greatest adaption of ICV was to humans, followed by cattle and swine. Additionally, similarity index (SiD) analysis revealed that swine exerted a stronger evolutionary pressure on ICV than humans, which is considered the primary reservoir. Furthermore, a similar tendency was also observed in the M gene. Of note, we found HE residues 176, 194, and 198 to be under positive selection, which may be the result of escape from antibody responses. Our study provides useful information on the genetic evolution of ICV from a new perspective that can help devise prevention and control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-A Influenza)
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