Special Issue "Regulation and Exploitation of Microtubules by Viruses"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Duncan W. Wilson

Guest Editor
Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
Interests: Herpes virus assembly; cell biology; intracellular trafficking; microtubule-based trafficking within neurons

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal filaments that participate in a vast and diverse array of cellular processes including transport of cargo and organelles, maintenance of organellar morphology and function, regulation of cell shape and motility and the distribution of genetic material and organelles at cell division. It is therefore no surprise that viruses, virtuosos of cellular manipulation, have evolved strategies to control and exploit microtubule biology to serve their own transport needs and to adjust host cell functions in support of viral replication and spread. The goal of this Special Issue of Viruses is to summarize our current understanding of the molecular details and diversity of strategies used by animal and plant viruses to take control of the microtubule network. We invite primary research and review articles concerning virus/microtubule interactions with topics of interest including, but not limited to, the following:

  1. Use of microtubules during the entry of viruses and virus-containing organelles.
  2. Recruitment of molecular motors during entry, particle disassembly, and egress.
  3. Viral manipulation of the centrosome and use of alternate microtubule organizing centers.
  4. Manipulation of microtubules during the course of an infection, including stabilization or bundling.
  5. Role of microtubules in the establishment and function of cytoplasmic viral replication compartments.
  6. Microtubule-dependent changes to host cell biology, e.g., upon function and motility of intracellular organelles, cell motility and migration, and cell division and anti-viral responses.
  7. Manipulation of plant and insect microtubules by plant viruses.
  8. Viruses in the nervous system.

Dr. Duncan W. Wilson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview
Microtubule Retrograde Motors and Their Role in Retroviral Transport
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040483 - 24 Apr 2020
Abstract
Following entry into the host cell, retroviruses generate a dsDNA copy of their genomes via reverse transcription, and this viral DNA is subsequently integrated into the chromosomal DNA of the host cell. Before integration can occur, however, retroviral DNA must be transported to [...] Read more.
Following entry into the host cell, retroviruses generate a dsDNA copy of their genomes via reverse transcription, and this viral DNA is subsequently integrated into the chromosomal DNA of the host cell. Before integration can occur, however, retroviral DNA must be transported to the nucleus as part of a ‘preintegration complex’ (PIC). Transporting the PIC through the crowded environment of the cytoplasm is challenging, and retroviruses have evolved different mechanisms to accomplish this feat. Within a eukaryotic cell, microtubules act as the roads, while the microtubule-associated proteins dynein and kinesin are the vehicles that viruses exploit to achieve retrograde and anterograde trafficking. This review will examine the various mechanisms retroviruses have evolved in order to achieve retrograde trafficking, confirming that each retrovirus has its own strategy to functionally subvert microtubule associated proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation and Exploitation of Microtubules by Viruses)
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Open AccessReview
Microtubules in Polyomavirus Infection
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010121 - 18 Jan 2020
Abstract
Microtubules, part of the cytoskeleton, are indispensable for intracellular movement, cell division, and maintaining cell shape and polarity. In addition, microtubules play an important role in viral infection. In this review, we summarize the role of the microtubules’ network during polyomavirus infection. Polyomaviruses [...] Read more.
Microtubules, part of the cytoskeleton, are indispensable for intracellular movement, cell division, and maintaining cell shape and polarity. In addition, microtubules play an important role in viral infection. In this review, we summarize the role of the microtubules’ network during polyomavirus infection. Polyomaviruses usurp microtubules and their motors to travel via early and late acidic endosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum. As shown for SV40, kinesin-1 and microtubules are engaged in the release of partially disassembled virus from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol, and dynein apparently assists in the further disassembly of virions prior to their translocation to the cell nucleus—the place of their replication. Polyomavirus gene products affect the regulation of microtubule dynamics. Early T antigens destabilize microtubules and cause aberrant mitosis. The role of these activities in tumorigenesis has been documented. However, its importance for productive infection remains elusive. On the other hand, in the late phase of infection, the major capsid protein, VP1, of the mouse polyomavirus, counteracts T-antigen-induced destabilization. It physically binds microtubules and stabilizes them. The interaction results in the G2/M block of the cell cycle and prolonged S phase, which is apparently required for successful completion of the viral replication cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation and Exploitation of Microtubules by Viruses)
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Open AccessReview
Microtubules in Influenza Virus Entry and Egress
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010117 - 17 Jan 2020
Abstract
Influenza viruses are respiratory pathogens that represent a significant threat to public health, despite the large-scale implementation of vaccination programs. It is necessary to understand the detailed and complex interactions between influenza virus and its host cells in order to identify successful strategies [...] Read more.
Influenza viruses are respiratory pathogens that represent a significant threat to public health, despite the large-scale implementation of vaccination programs. It is necessary to understand the detailed and complex interactions between influenza virus and its host cells in order to identify successful strategies for therapeutic intervention. During viral entry, the cellular microenvironment presents invading pathogens with a series of obstacles that must be overcome to infect permissive cells. Influenza hijacks numerous host cell proteins and associated biological pathways during its journey into the cell, responding to environmental cues in order to successfully replicate. The cellular cytoskeleton and its constituent microtubules represent a heavily exploited network during viral infection. Cytoskeletal filaments provide a dynamic scaffold for subcellular viral trafficking, as well as virus-host interactions with cellular machineries that are essential for efficient uncoating, replication, and egress. In addition, influenza virus infection results in structural changes in the microtubule network, which itself has consequences for viral replication. Microtubules, their functional roles in normal cell biology, and their exploitation by influenza viruses will be the focus of this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation and Exploitation of Microtubules by Viruses)
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Open AccessReview
Microtubule-Dependent Trafficking of Alphaherpesviruses in the Nervous System: The Ins and Outs
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121165 - 17 Dec 2019
Abstract
The Alphaherpesvirinae include the neurotropic pathogens herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus of humans and pseudorabies virus of swine. These viruses establish lifelong latency in the nuclei of peripheral ganglia, but utilize the peripheral tissues those neurons innervate for productive replication, spread, [...] Read more.
The Alphaherpesvirinae include the neurotropic pathogens herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus of humans and pseudorabies virus of swine. These viruses establish lifelong latency in the nuclei of peripheral ganglia, but utilize the peripheral tissues those neurons innervate for productive replication, spread, and transmission. Delivery of virions from replicative pools to the sites of latency requires microtubule-directed retrograde axonal transport from the nerve terminus to the cell body of the sensory neuron. As a corollary, during reactivation newly assembled virions must travel along axonal microtubules in the anterograde direction to return to the nerve terminus and infect peripheral tissues, completing the cycle. Neurotropic alphaherpesviruses can therefore exploit neuronal microtubules and motors for long distance axonal transport, and alternate between periods of sustained plus end- and minus end-directed motion at different stages of their infectious cycle. This review summarizes our current understanding of the molecular details by which this is achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation and Exploitation of Microtubules by Viruses)
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